Michael Brandstein Darren Ward (Eds.) Microphone Arrays. Signal Processing Techniques and Applications. With 149 Figures. Springer

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1 Michael Brandstein Darren Ward (Eds.) Microphone Arrays Signal Processing Techniques and Applications With 149 Figures Springer

2 Contents Part I. Speech Enhancement 1 Constant Directivity Beamforming Darren B. Ward, Rodney A. Kennedy, Robert C. Williamson Introduction Problem Formulation Theoretical Solution Continuous sensor Beam-shaping function Practical Implementation Dimension-reducing parameterization Reference beam-shaping filter Sensor placement Summary of implementation Examples : Conclusions 16 References 16 2 Superdirective Microphone Arrays Joerg Bitzer, K. Uwe Simmer Introduction Evaluation of Beamfor-mers Array-Gain Beampattern Directivity Front-to-Back Ratio White Noise Gain Design of Superdirective Beamformers Delay-and-Sum Beamformer Design for spherical isotropic noise Design for Cylindrical Isotropic Noise Design for an Optimal Front-to-Back Ratio Design for Measured Noise Fields Extensions and Details Alternative Form 33

3 X Contents Comparison with Gradient Microphones Conclusion 36 References 37 3 Post-Filtering Techniques K. Uwe Simmer, Joerg Bitzer, Claude Marro Introduction Multi-channel Wiener Filtering in Subbands Derivation of the Optimum Solution Factorization of the Wiener Solution Interpretation Algorithms for Post-Filter Estimation Analysis of Post-Filter Algorithms Properties of Post-Filter Algorithms A New Post-Filter Algorithm Performance Evaluation Simulation System Objective Measures Simulation Results Conclusion 57 4 Spatial Coherence Functions for Differential Microphones in Isotropic Noise Fields Gary W. Elko Introduction Adaptive Noise Cancellation Spherically Isotropic Coherence Cylindrically Isotropic Fields Conclusions 77 References 84 5 Robust Adaptive Beamforming Osamu Hoshuyama, Akihiko Sugiyama Introduction Adaptive Beamformers Robustness Problem in the GJBF Robust Adaptive Microphone Arrays Solutions to Steering- Vector Errors LAF-LAF Structure CCAF-LAF Structure CCAF-NCAF Structure CCAF-NCAF Structure with an AMC Software Evaluation of a Robust Adaptive Microphone Array Simulated Anechoic Environment Reverberant Environment 101

4 Contents 5.6 Hardware Evaluation of a Robust Adaptive Microphone Array Implementation Evaluation in a Real Environment Conclusion 106 References GSVD-Based Optimal Filtering for Multi-Microphone Speech Enhancement Simon Dodo, Marc Moonen Ill 6.1 Introduction Ill 6.2 GSVD-Based Optimal Filtering Technique Optimal Filter Theory General Class of Estimators Symmetry Properties for Time-Series Filtering Performance of GSVD-Based Optimal Filtering Simulation Environment Spatial Directivity Pattern Noise Reduction Performance Robustness Issues Complexity Reduction Linear Algebra Techniques for Computing GSVD Recursive and Approximate GSVD-Updating Algorithms Downsampling Techniques Simulations Computational Complexity Combination with ANC Postprocessing Stage Creation of Speech and Noise References Noise Reduction Performance of ANC Postprocessing Stage Comparison with Standard Beamforming Techniques Conclusion 129 References Explicit Speech Modeling for Microphone Array Speech Acquisition Michael Brandstein, Scott Griebel Introduction Model-Based Strategies Example 1: A Frequency-Domain Model-Based Algorithm Example 2: A Time-Domain Model-Based Algorithm Conclusion 148 References 151 XI Part II. Source Localization

5 XII Contents 8 Robust Localization in Reverberant Rooms Joseph H. DiBiase, Harvey F. Silverman, Michael S. Brandstein Introduction Source Localization Strategies Steered-Beamformer-Based Locators High-Resolution Spectral-Estimation-Based Locators TDOA-Based Locators A Robust Localization Algorithm The Impulse Response Model The GCC and PHAT Weighting Function ML TDOA-Based Source Localization SRP-Based Source Localization The SRP-PHAT Algorithm Experimental Comparison 172 References Multi-Source Localization Strategies Elio D. Di Claudio, Raffaele Parisi Introduction Background Array Signal Model Incoherent Approach Coherent Signal Subspace Method (CSSM) Wideband Weighted Subspace Fitting (WB-WSF) The Issue of Coherent Multipath in Array Processing Implementation Issues Linear Prediction-ROOT-MUSIC TDOA Estimation Signal Pre-Whitening An Approximate Model for Multiple Sources in Reverberant Environments Robust TDOA Estimation via ROOT-MUSIC Estimation of the Number of Relevant Reflections Source Clustering : Experimental Results 196 References Joint Audio-Video Signal Processing for Object Localization and Tracking Norbert Strobel, Sascha Spors, Rudolf Rabenstein Introduction Recursive State Estimation Linear Kalman Filter Extended Kalman Filter due to a Measurement Nonlinearity Decentralized Kalman Filter Implementation 218

6 Contents System description Results Discussion and Conclusions 221 References 222 XIII Part III. Applications 11 Microphone-Array Hearing Aids Julie E. Greenberg, Patrick M. Zurek Introduction Implications for Design and Evaluation Assumptions Regarding Sound Sources Implementation Issues Assessing Performance Hearing Aids with Directional Microphones : Fixed-Beamforming Hearing Aids Adaptive-Beamforming Hearing Aids Generalized Sidelobe Canceler with Modifications Scaled Projection Algorithm Direction of Arrival Estimation Other Adaptive Approaches and Devices Physiologically-Motivated Algorithms Beamformers with Binaural Outputs Discussion 246 References Small Microphone Arrays with Postfilters for Noise and Acoustic Echo Reduction Rainer Martin Introduction Coherence of Speech and Noise The Magnitude Squared Coherence The Reverberation Distance Coherence of Noise and Speech in Reverberant Enclosures Analysis of the Wiener Filter with Symmetric Input Signals No Near End Speech High Signal to Noise Ratio A Noise Reduction Application An Implementation Based on the NLMS Algorithm Processing in the Hz Band Processing in the Hz Band Evaluation Alternative Implementations of the Coherence Based Postfilter Combined Noise and Acoustic Echo Reduction 271

7 XIV Contents Experimental Results Conclusions 275 References Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Beamforming Microphone Arrays Walter L. Kellermann Introduction Acoustic Echo Cancellation Adaptation algorithms AEC for multi-channel sound reproduction AEC for multi-channel acquisition Beamforming General structure Time-invariant beamforming Time-varying beamforming Computational complexity Generic structures for combining AEC with beamforming Motivation Basic options 'AEC first' 'Beamforming first' Integration of AEC into time-varying beamforming Cascading time-invariant and time-varying beamforming AEC with GSC-type beamforming structures Combined AEC and beamforming for multi-channel recording and multi-channel reproduction Conclusions 303 References Optimal and Adaptive Microphone Arrays for Speech Input in Automobiles Sven Nordholm, Ingvar Claesson, Nedelko Grbic Introduction: Hands-Free Telephony in Cars Optimum and Adaptive Beamforming Common Signal Modeling,; Constrained Minimum Variance Beamforming and the Generalized Sidelobe Canceler In Situ Calibrated Microphone Array (ICMA) Time-Domain Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Solution Frequency-Domain Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Solution Optimal Near-Field Signal-to-Noise plus Interference Beamformer Subband Implementation of the Microphone Array Description of LS-Subband Beamforming 318

8 Contents 14.4 Multi-Resolution Time-Frequency Adaptive Beamforming Memory Saving and Improvements Evaluation and Examples Car Environment Microphone Configurations Performance Measures Spectral Performance Measures Evaluation on car data Evaluation Results Summary and Conclusions 324 References Speech Recognition with Microphone Arrays Maurizio Omologo, Marco Matassoni, Piergiorgio Svaizer Introduction, State of the Art Automatic Speech Recognition Robustness in ASR Microphone Arrays and Related Processing for ASR Distant-Talker Speech Recognition A Microphone Array-Based ASR System System Description Speech Corpora and Task Experiments and Results Discussion and Future Trends 348 References Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Scott C. Douglas Introduction The Cocktail Party Effect Chapter Overview Blind Signal Separation of Convolutive Mixtures Problem Structure Goal of Convolutive BSS.' Relationship to Other Problems Criteria for Blind Signal Separation Overview of BSS Criteria Density Modeling Criteria Contrast Functions Correlation-Based Criteria Structures and Algorithms for Blind Signal Separation Filter Structures Density Matching BSS Using Natural Gradient Adaptation Contrast-Based BSS Under Prewhitening Constraints 370 XV

9 XVI Contents Temporal Decorrelation BSS for Nonstationary Sources Numerical Evaluations Conclusions and Open Issues 375 References 378 Part IV. Open Problems and Future Directions 17 Future Directions for Microphone Arrays Gary W. Elko Introduction Hands-Free Communication The "Future" of Microphone Array Processing Conclusions V Future Directions in Microphone Array Processing Dirk Van Compernolle Lessons From the Past A Future Focused on Applications Automotive Desktop Hearing Aids Teleconferencing Very Large Arrays The Signal Subspace Approach - An Alternative to Spatial Filtering? Final Remarks 394 Index 395

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