The Walford Electronics Ford Receiver Kit Project Construction Manual

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1 The Walford Electronics Ford Receiver Kit Project Construction Manual Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 1 of 22

2 Introduction The Ford receiver has four stages: The first stage includes a Radio Frequency amplifier that increases the signal strength and a Band Pass Filter selects the wanted radio frequency signals from all of the thousands that are present in the air. The RF amplifier uses a single Field Effect Transistor (FET). The filter uses two coils and a number of capacitors. The second stage is the Variable Frequency Oscillator or VFO. It produces an RF signal in the same band as the wanted signal and can be varied across about 200kHz. Another FET is used in the VFO. The third stage demodulates; it mixes the wanted signal and the VFO signal to turn the radio frequency signals into audio frequency signals that we can hear. Two Field Effect Transistors (FET) are used to carry out this function. The final stage amplifies the audio frequency signals so that they are strong enough for us to hear using earphones simple ear bud phones are ideal. Two more FETs are used to boost the audio output. Construction is carried out in reverse order in that the audio frequency amplifier is built first and tested. Once we know the audio frequency amplifier is working, the demodulator is added and more tests are carried out. The VFO DC parts are added next and tested, then the radio frequency amplifier stage is added and a further test is carried out. Finally, the band-specific components for the VFO and Band Pass Filter are added so the whole project can then be tested and used. These instruction assume 40m configuration. This method of building and testing in stages is commonly used to enable any errors or faulty parts to be identified in a small stage rather than trying to find a fault in a completed project. You are strongly advised to follow this path! The receiver is constructed on a Printed Circuit Board, or PCB. Component locations are not shown on the top side so you will need to refer to the Parts Layout diagram supplied with the kit. Some builders find it useful to highlight the parts in the diagram before they fit them to the PCB. All components are inserted from the top side and soldered on the underside. It is assumed that those building the project will know how to identify components and how to solder, either through schoolwork, or from an amateur radio training course. The circuit diagram and parts layout diagram are provided with the kit and should be used for reference during building and to aid understanding of the technical details. This kit is a suitable project for the Amateur Radio Intermediate training course. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 2 of 22

3 Notes to the kit builder Check and check again before you solder! It is important to get the electronic components in the right places for the circuit work properly and changing them after you have soldered them can be difficult. So, check and double check that you have the right part in the right place before you solder it in place. Once each part is soldered in place, tick off the check box in these instructions so you do not forget where you are up to. Capacitors Pay close attention when fitting the electrolytic capacitors (larger cylindrical bodies). These need to be installed the correct way around. Some electrolytic capacitors have a white stripe down one side; this is the negative side. If there are no markings on the capacitor body, the positive lead is a little longer than the negative lead and the longer lead needs to be aligned with the (+) on the Parts Layout diagram. Transistors There are six transistors in this circuit and you must install these the correct way around. The three connection leads are in a straight line but the holes in the PCB are in a kind of triangle. The correct orientation is to align the flat front of the transistor with the flat shown on the Parts Layout diagram and to bend the centre lead slightly to fit the holes in the PCB. Do not push the transistors right down against the Printed Circuit Board as they could be damaged; they should sit about 3 or 4mm above the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Diodes There are three types of diode used in this circuit and all three types need to be installed the correct way around. The 1N4007 diodes have a black body with a silver band around one end, the silver bands need to align with the black band shown on the Parts Layout diagram. The other diodes have a clear/orange body with a black band around one end, this black band needs to align with the black band shown on the Parts Layout diagram. Headphone Socket, Switch & Antenna Terminal Block Installing the headphone socket, the switch and the antenna terminal block may require some insulting tape or Blu-Tak to hold the component in place while you solder. Variable Resistor (potentiometer) The Variable Resistors do not fit flush on the circuit board. Gently push the component into position ensuring none of the pins are folding over. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 3 of 22

4 Part 1: Hardware & Large Unambiguous Parts Component Task Done Wire Fit the four wire links LK1, LK2, LK3 and LK4. Fit Battery Connector Cut a piece of wire about 6cm long and strip off the insulation. Feed a stripped wire strap around the bottom end of the battery box and through the holes provided in the PCB. This is just to hold the battery box steady. Solder one end of the strap, pull it tight and solder the other end. C61/C62 Fit PolyVaricon Variable Tuning Capacitor Set trimmers on back for least capacitance (least overlap of plates). Fit shaft extension with long bolt from semiconductor bag - tighten by holding shaft with pliers while doing up bolt with a screwdriver. Mount on its back, only central tag through PCB solder this underside. Fit a wire strap over its body pull it tight and solder both ends underside. If necessary put a kink in the wire over the body to tighten it. Leave the other tags unconnected for now. Do NOT fit knob yet. R5 Fit 1kΩ Preset Resistor Push fit the knob onto the spindle; it is quite stiff! Push fit the plastic spindle into the Preset Resistor. Fit the knob, spindle, pre-set assembly to the PCB. R12 Fit 1kΩ Preset Resistor Push fit the knob onto the spindle; it is quite stiff! Push fit the plastic spindle into the Preset Resistor. Fit the knob, spindle, pre-set assembly to the PCB. S1 Fit 2-Way switch. You may need to hold this in place with a strip of insulating tape whilst you solder it in place. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 4 of 22

5 Component Task Done Fit 3.5mm Stereo Headphone Socket. You may need to hold this in place with a strip of insulating tape whilst you solder it in place. Fit Antenna Connector with the access holes facing out from the PCB. You may need to hold this in place with a strip of insulating tape whilst you solder it in place. Fit the two 3334 TOKO Coils, L1,& L2 these each have 5 connection pins and two earth tabs. Take care to align all connections in their correct holes before pushing home; note there are one set of three pins and one set of two. Fit Rubber Feet There are four of these on a square backing sheet. Peel off the backing film and stick on the underside of the PCB. Your circuit should now look like this. Move onto Part 2 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 5 of 22

6 Part 2: Power Supply Parts Component Task Complete R9 Fit 330Ω Resistor (Coloured bands: Orange, Orange, Brown, Gold). C11 Fit 10nF Capacitor. Marked 103 C14 Fit 100µF Capacitor (Orientation!). Marked 25V 100µF. Long lead goes in (+) hole. D3 Fit 5.1V diode (Orientation!). Marked 5V1. This diode has its leads bent together in the supplied bag. Check black band orientation; it must match the black band on the Parts Layout Diagram. D4 Fit 1N4007 diode (Orientation!). Marked 1N Check silver band orientation; it must match the black band on the Parts Layout Diagram. Your circuit should now look like this. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 6 of 22

7 Part 2: Power Supply Parts Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 5 Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Test Point 5 (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). You should measure about 5 Volts. OK? If you get 0 volts, check that the battery is not flat, check that the switch is putting some volts onto the top lead of D4 and that D4 is in the right way round. If you get something between 0 and 1 volt, check that D3 is the right way round. 6 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 3 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 7 of 22

8 Part 3: Audio Amplifier Component Task Complete R13 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). R14 Fit 330Ω Resistor (Coloured bands: Orange, Orange, Brown, Gold). R15 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). R16 Fit 330Ω Resistor (Coloured bands: Orange, Orange, Brown, Gold). Wire C12 Fit 470nF Capacitor. Marked.47K C13 Fit 1nF Capacitor. Marked 1n C15 Fit 100µF Capacitor. Marked 25V 100µF. (See Notes to the builder). Long lead goes in (+) hole. TR5 Fit Transistor BS170. Marked BS170. Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg backwards to fit the holes. TR6 Fit Transistor BS170. Marked BS170. Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg forward to fit the holes. Fit a short piece of wire to form a test point in the hole marked C. A scrap piece of diode or resistor lead is ideal. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 8 of 22

9 Your circuit should now look like this. Part 3: The Audio Amp Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 6 Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Test Point C (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). You should measure about 2 Volts. OK? If you get less than 1 volts, or more than 3, check that TR5 is the right way round. Listen in the stereo headphones and touch a metal screwdriver 7 blade onto any of the pins on the AFG control R5. You should hear a hum as you touch the screwdriver onto the test point (this can be quite quiet listen carefully for a click or low hum). 8 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 4 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 9 of 22

10 Part 4: The Detector Component Task Done R4 Fit 330Ω Resistor (Coloured bands: Orange, Orange, Brown, Gold). R6 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). R7 Fit 1kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Red, Gold). Wire Wire C3 Fit 100µF Capacitor. Marked 25V 100µF. (See Notes to the builder). Long lead goes in (+) hole. C4 Fit 47nF Capacitor. Marked 47n C5 Fit 470nF Capacitor. Marked.47 C6 Fit 10nF Capacitor. Marked 103 TR2 Fit Transistor 2N5459. Marked 2N5459. Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg forwards to fit the holes. TR3 Fit Transistor 2N5459. Marked 2N5459. Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg backwards to fit the holes. Fit a short piece of wire to form a test point in the hole marked B. A scrap piece of diode or resistor lead is ideal. Fit a short piece of wire to form a test point in the hole marked Z. A scrap piece of diode or resistor lead is ideal. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 10 of 22

11 Your circuit should now look like this. Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 11 of 22

12 Part 4: The Detector Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 6 Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Test Point B (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). You should measure about 1.5 to 2 Volts. If you get less than 1.5 volts, or more than 3, check that TR2 and TR3 are the right way round. Check that there are about 7.5 volts between the left hand leg of the OK? AF Gain control (R5) and the antenna E terminal. Check that there are about 5.5 volts between the right hand leg of the AF Gain control (R5) and the antenna E terminal. If the voltages are not correct it suggests there is a problem with the components you have just soldered. Recheck all the joints. Listen in the stereo headphones and touch a metal screwdriver blade onto Test Point Z. You should hear a hum as you touch the test point. 7 You should hear a louder hum than you heard in the previous test stage and you should be able to control the hum by rotating the AF Gain pot R5. 8 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 5 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 12 of 22

13 Part 5: The VFO DC Parts Component Task Done R8 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). R10 Fit 1kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Red, Gold). R11 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). D1 Fit 1N4148 diode (Orientation!). Marked 1N Check black band orientation; it must match the black band on the Parts Layout Diagram. D2 Fit 1N4007 diode (Orientation!). Marked 1N Check silver band orientation; it must match the black band on the PCB. C7 Fit 22pF Capacitor. Marked 22. C9 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. C10 Fit 10nF Capacitor. Marked 103. TR4 Fit Transistor 2N5459 Marked 2N5459 Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg forwards to fit the holes. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 13 of 22

14 Your circuit should now look like this. Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 14 of 22

15 Part 5: The VFO DC Parts Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 6 Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Test Point Z (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). You should measure about 1.5 to 2 Volts. If you get less than 1.5 volts, or more than 3, check that TR4 is the OK? right way round. Check that there are still 5 volts between Test point 5 and the antenna E terminal. If the voltages are not correct it suggests there is a problem with the components you have just soldered. Recheck all the joints. Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Junction of C10, R11 (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). 8 Tip - the right hand resistor lead of R11, just above the Fine Tune control R12, is easiest place to put your meter (red) probe. You should measure between 0 and 5 Volts and you should be able to control the voltage by rotating the Fine Tune control R12. OK? If the voltages are not correct it suggests there is a problem with the components you have just soldered. Recheck all the joints. 9 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 6 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 15 of 22

16 Part 6: The RF Amplifier Component Task Complete R1 Fit 100kΩ Resistor (Coloured bands: Brown, Black, Yellow, Gold). R3 Fit 330Ω Resistor (Coloured bands: Orange, Orange, Brown, Gold). C1 Fit 10nF Capacitor. Marked 103. Wire C2 Fit 470nF Capacitor. Marked.47 TR1 Fit Transistor 2N5459 Marked 2N5459 Check flat face of transistor body lines up with outline on Parts Layout diagram and bend the centre leg backwards to fit the holes. Fit a short piece of wire to form a test point in the hole marked D. A scrap piece of diode or resistor lead is ideal. Your circuit should now look like this. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 16 of 22

17 Part 6: RF Amp Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 6 Using a multi-meter set to measure 10 or 20 Volts DC, measure between Test Point D (meter red lead) and the E antenna terminal (meter black lead). You should measure about 1.5 to 2 Volts. If you get less than 1.5 volts, or more than 3, check that TR1 is the OK? right way round. If the voltages are not correct it suggests there is a problem with the components you have just soldered. Recheck all the joints. 7 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 7 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 17 of 22

18 Part 7: VFO Band Specific Parts Component Task Done L3 Fit the 3334 TOKO Coil this has 5 connection pins and two earth tabs. These can be a little tight so take care to align all connections in their correct holes before pushing home; note one set of three pins and one set of two. C58 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J.!!! Wire C59 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. C60 Not fitted in 40m version. C63 Fit 10nF Capacitor. Marked 103. Wire Link Fit a short piece of wire between the tag on C61/62 above point M and point Z for 40m version. A scrap piece of diode or resistor lead is ideal. Large Knob to shaft on variable capacitor C61/C62. If possible fit so pointer ranges from 3 o clock to 9 o clock. Your circuit should now look like this. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 18 of 22

19 Part 7: VFO Band Specific Parts Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 6 Set the main tuning knob fully clockwise and the FINE tune control to the centre of its range. 7 8 OK? 9 10 Either listen on another calibrated receiver set to 7.300MHz, or connect a frequency counter between test point Z and ground. Using an appropriate NON-METALLIC screwdriver, or a tool made from a slice of old credit card, screw in the core of L3 until the VFO signal is heard on 7.300MHz or shows 7.300MHz on the frequency counter (this can be a bit fiddly!). If you cannot confirm the VFO is oscillating it suggests there is a problem with the components you have just soldered. Recheck all the joints. Either listen on another calibrated receiver set to 7.000MHz, or connect a frequency counter between test point Z and ground. Set the FINE tune control to the centre of its range and rotate the main tuning knob anti-clockwise and check that the VFO signal can be heard on 7.00MHz or shows 7.000MHz on the frequency counter. OK? If the frequency coverage does not cover the specified range, repeat steps 7 to 9 but using 7.200MHz as the upper limit. 11 If all is well, switch off and remove the battery. DO NOT CONTINUE UNLESS YOUR CIRCUIT PASSES THESE TESTS IF YOU GET ANY OTHER RESULTS, STOP AND ASK FOR HELP Move onto Part 8 Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 19 of 22

20 Part 8: Band Pass Filter Band Specific Parts Component Task Done!!! C50 Not fitted in 40m version. C51 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. Wire!!! C52 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. C53 Fit 6.8pF Capacitor. Marked 6p8. C54 Replaced with a wire link in 40m version. (wire is on underside of board in photo below). C55 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. C56 Fit 150pF Capacitor. Marked 151 J. C57 Not fitted in 40m version. Your circuit should now look like this. Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 20 of 22

21 Part 8: Completed Receiver Testing Complete the following tests before moving onto the next stage. Test Done 1 Check over your soldering. Make sure all wires are trimmed, and no short circuits are present. 2 Check that the Switch S1 is off towards the left hand side. 3 Insert a 9V battery into the battery box check you have it the right way round before pushing it home. 4 Connect stereo headphones to Headphone Socket. 5 Switch on by moving S1 towards the right hand side. 5 Connect an aerial wire to the Ant Terminal and tighten the screw to hold it in place you should hear an increase in the background noise as you connect the antenna. 7 Set the tuning control to the middle of its travel. Adjust the cores of L1 & L2 using an appropriate NON-METALLIC screwdriver, or a tool made from a slice of old credit card whilst listening to the band noise. Adjust one and then the other until you get maximum output. 8 Turn RF gain control fully clockwise and see if you can hear any stations by rotating the Main Tuning knob on C61/C62 Variable Capacitor. You may need to adjust the setting of the RF Gain control and the FINE control to get best reception. 9 Once you can hear a good steady signal, re-adjust the band pass filter cores L1 & L2 to get best signal reception. 10 Disconnect the battery. Congratulations your Ford Receiver is now complete! Tips on use Tuning is best done using the Main Tuning control to find a signal and then use the Fine Tune control to resolve it properly. With a Direct Conversion Receiver all signals appear twice. For CW that can be a good way to get away from interference, but with SSB you must tune to the correct sideband, or Donald Duck prevails. If a signal is very strong and distorted, back off the RF Gain control. Having a longer aerial wire may help pull in more signals. Adding a second wire to the Gnd terminal can also help improve reception. Clipping the Gnd wire to a copper water or central heating pipe can also help. Using a resonant antenna (e.g. a dipole or vertical) is even better! Enjoy your listening! Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 21 of 22

22 Acknowledgements and Further Information These illustrated instructions were compiled by Steve Hartley G0FUW using a template created by Dan Tudgian, M0TGN. If you find any errors or have suggestions for improvement, G0FUW contact details are on The Ford project was conceived and developed by Tim Walford of Walford Electronics. The circuit and PCB layout copyright remains the property of Tim Walford, G3PCJ. There are many more radio kits on the Walford Electronics website: You can find out more about home brew radio construction from the pages of the free newsletter Hot Iron compiled by Peter Thornton G6NGR: Membership of the GQRP Club is also a great way to build your knowledge and enjoy more kitchen table technology. Many say it is the best 6 you will spend in any year!: Walford Electronics Ford Receiver construction manual V1.5 Page 22 of 22

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