1 Revue de Enegie Renouvelable Vol. 2 N 2 (217) Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of thee-level DTC with 24 ecto fo induction machine H. Benbouhenni 1* and R. Taleb 2 1 Depatment of Electical Engineeing, National Polytechnic School Oan, Algeia 2 Depatment of Electical Engineeing, Univeity of Chlef, Chlef, Algeia (eçu le 1 Mai accepté le 3 Juin 217) Abtact - Diect toque contol (DTC) of induction moto (IM) i impotant in many application. In thi pape peent a thee-level diect toque contol with 24 ecto i applied fo IM uing PI-flou contolle and hyteei egulato baed in atificial intelligence technique. The DTC ytem i known to offe fat decoupled contol between toque and flux via a imple contol tuctue. Nevethele, DTC ytem ha two majo dawback, with ae the vaiable invete witching fequency and high toque output ipple. The validity of the popoed contol cheme i veified by imulation tet. The tato flux, toque, and cuent ae detemined and compaed to the above technique. Réumé - Le contôle diect de couple (DTC) d'un moteu à induction (IM) et impotant pou de nombeue application. Cet aticle péente une commande diecte du couple à toi niveaux avec 24 ecteu appliquée aux IM en utiliant un contôleu PI-flou et de égulateu hyteii baé u de technique d'intelligence atificielle. Le ytème DTC et connu pou a capacité à offi un contôle découplé apide ente le couple et le flux à tave une tuctue de commande imple. Néanmoin, le ytème DTC ont deux inconvénient majeu qui ont la vaiabilité de la féquence de commutation de l'onduleu, et le ondulation de otie élevée pou le couple. La validité du chéma de contôle popoé et véifiée pa de imulation. Le flux du tato, le couple, et le couant ont déteminé et compaé aux technique pécédemment citée. Keywod: Induction moto - Diect toque contol - PI-flou - Neual hyteei - Secto - Fuzzy hyteei. 1. INTRODUCTION Induction moto (IM) ae uitable electomechanical ytem fo a lage pectum of indutial application. Thi i due to thei high eliability, elatively low cot, and modet maintenance equiement. Howeve, IM ae known a multivaiable nonlinea time-vaying ytem. Thu make thei contol o difficult, mainly in vaiable peed application . Recent advance in powe emiconducto and micopoceo technology have made poible the application of advanced contol technique to altenating cuent (AC) moto dive ytem . Thee ae two mut common AC dive contol cheme that ae being widely eeached. One of it i field oiented contol (FOC) which wa popoed by Takahahi and Noguchi. Thee ae two majo dawback of FOC compaed to the DTC which ae toque i contolled indiectly and equiement of the pule encode. In FOC method of contol the toque indiectly becaue it contol pioity i flux vecto. FOC need the pule encode in ode to obtain the peed and poition of the oto. Thi make the DTC ytem a an altenative and gained the attention of many eeache lately due to it imple tuctue by elimination of pule encode and imple algoithm with lee dependency on moto paamete (only equie value of tato * 231
2 232 A. Benbouhenni et al. eitance R and phae cuent). Ove the pat yea, the utilization of multilevel invete topology in the DTC ytem ha gained populaity fo the medium and high voltage application . Diect toque contol, a one of the high-pefomance AC dive, wa extended to the field of multi-level invete in the late 2 th centuy. DTC ha a elatively imple contol tuctue yet pefom at leat a good a the FOC technique. It i alo known that DTC dive i le enitive to paamete de-tuning (only tato eito i ued to etimate the tato flux) and povide a high dynamic pefomance than the claical vecto contol (fatet epone of toque and flux) . The multilevel invete fed electic machine ytem ae conideed a a pomiing appoach in achieving high powe/high voltage ating. Moeove, multilevel invete have the advantage of ovecoming voltage limit capability of emiconducto witche, and impoving 2 hamonic pofilent of output wavefom. The output voltage wavefom appoache a ine wave, thu having pactically no common-mode voltage and no voltage uge to the moto winding. Futhemoe, the eduction in dv dt can pevent moto winding and beaing fom failue . Many eeache have been pefomed uing the multi-level invete and, fo example, ome aticle decibed a novel DTC algoithm uited fo a thee level invete, and popoed a vey imple voltage balancing algoithm fo the DTC cheme . Thi pape i devoted to thee-level invete DTC 24 ecto with peed egulato and hyteei baed in atificial intelligence technique of an IM. The peent pape tuctue i a follow. Fitly, the model of the IM i peented in the econd ection. In the thid ection, the thee-level invete modelingi decibed. In the fouth ection, the claical DTC tategy. Next, a beif intoduction to the fuzzy and neual netwok i peented in the fifth ection. The ixth ection intoduce the thee-level DTC 24 ecto with peed egulato and hyteei baed in atificial intelligence appoach. Finally, concluion i dawn in the lat ection. with, 2. MODEL OF INDUCTION MACHINE The model of IM in the, efeence can be witten in the following fom [6, 7], X x ( t ) y( t ) A x ( t ) c x ( t ) Bu ( t ) I.I. T ; U v.v.. T L T ; R. 2 M 1 ; L.L K M. L. ; L K K w T 1 K K w L T A ; B M 1 w T T M M w T T 1 T M T.L. L 1 L ; 2 v v U (1)
3 Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of MODELING OF THE THREE-LEVEL INVERTER The thee-level NPC invete conit of twelve pai of tanito-diode and ix clamping diode (figue 1). The imple voltage of each phae i entiely defined by the tate of the fou tanito contituting each am. The median diode of each am pemit to have the zeo level of the invete output voltage. Only thee equence of opeation ae etained and done in wok. Each am of the invete i modeled by a pefect witch with thee poition (, 1, and 2) . Fig. 1: Schematic diagam of a thee-level invete The pace vecto diagam of a thee-level invete i hown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2: Space vecto diagam of thee-level invete 4. DTC CONTROL The baic of DTC induction moto cheme i hown in figue 3. At each ample time, the two tato cuent I a and Ib and the DC bu voltage Vdcae ampled. Uing the invete voltage vecto, the, component of the tato voltage pace vecto in the tationay efeence fame ae calculated a follow . The component of tato flux can be etimated by,
4 234 A. Benbouhenni et al. t t ( v ( v R.i R.i ) dt ) dt The tato flux amplitude i given by, (2) 2 2 (3) The tato flux angle i calculated by, Fig. 3: Block diagam of DTC actg (4) Electomagnetic toque equation i given by, C em 3 p.i. i (5) 2 The eo between the efeence flux and it etimated value, epectively * and, i ued fo input to a compaato with hyteei two-level figue (figue 4a). Similaly, the eo * em Cem between the toque efeence and it etimated value, epectively C et C em, i ued fo input to a compaato with two-band uppe and lowe band contained two (figue 4b). The output of each compaato, epeented by vaiable ign Cfl x (o Ccp l ) indicate diectly if the amplitude of the flux(o toque) mut be inceaed o deceaed to maintain thee two vaiable within the hyteei band deied, Cem,. Thee-level toque and two-level flux hyteei contolle ae ued accoding to the output of the toque contolle and the ecto infomation, appopiate voltage vecto fo both the invete ae elected fom a witching table a it i hown in Table 1.
5 Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of Fig. 4: Hyteei block Table 1: Thee-level DTC witching table with 24 ecto Since none of the invete witching vecto i able to geneated the exact tato voltage equied to poduce the deied change in toque and flux, toque and flux ipple compoe a eal poblem in DTC induction moto dive . 5. DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL BASED ON INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELS STRATEGY S The pinciple of atificial intelligence technique diect toque contol i imila to taditional thee-level DTC. Howeve, the hyteei contolle of toque and flux ae eplaced by the fuzzy contolle and neual netwok. The PI contolle of peed i eplaced by the fuzzy contolle. The geneal tuctue of the IM with thee-level DTC 24 ecto with atificial intelligence technique i epeented by figue Hyteei contolle of flux baed on neual netwok Neual netwok have elf- adapting compatibilitie which make them well uited to handle non-linaite, uncetainne and paamete vaiation. A multilaye feed fowad neual netwok contuct a global appoximation to non- linea input-output mapping. Neual netwok ae capable of genealization in egion of the input pace,
6 236 A. Benbouhenni et al. whee little o no taining data ae available . The tuctue of the popoed neual netwok ued in thi pape, i hown in figue 6. Fig. 5: Thee-level DTC with 24 ecto baed on atificial intelligence technic of an induction machine Fig. 6: Stuctue of popoed atificial neual netwok Fig. 7:Stuctue of laye 1 Fig. 8: Stuctue of laye 2 The popoed neual netwok have thee laye, i.e. input laye, hidden laye and the output laye. Input laye ha 1 neuon, output laye ha only one neuon and hidden laye ha 3 neuon. 5.2 Hyteei contolle of couple and PI contolle baed on fuzzy Fuzzy logic i ecently getting inceaing emphai in dive contol application. Recent yea, fuzzy logic contol ha found many application in the pat two decade. Thi i o lagely inceaing becaue fuzzy logic contol ha the capability to contol
7 Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of nonlinea uncetain ytem even in the cae whee no mathematical model i available fo the contol ytem . The main pefeence of the fuzzy logic i that i eay to implement contol that it ha the ability of genealization . The block diagam fo fuzzy logic baed peed egulato and toque hyteei i hown in figue 9. The fuzzy logic ule ae witten by abobing the pefomance of the PI contolle and toque hyteei. a- Fuzzy hyteei of toque b- Fuzzy logic contol of peed egulation Fig. 9: Fuzzy contol of peed and hyteei egulation The membehip function definition fo the input vaiable 'Eo in peed and Eo in toque hyteei' i hown in figue 1a, 'Change in Eo of peed and toque hyteei' i hown in figue 1b, 'Contol' i hown in figue 1c . Fig. 1: Membehip function fo eo, change in eo and contol of peed and hyteei flou contolle The fuzzy logic ule fo the popoed ytem ae given in Table 2. Table 2: Fuzzy logic ule of PI contolle and toque hyteei e e NL NM NP EZ PS PM PL NL NL NL NL NL NM NP EZ E NL NL NL NM NP EZ PS NP NL NL NM NP EZ PS PM EZ NL NM NP EZ PS PM PL PS NM NP EZ PS PM PL PL PM NP EZ PS PM PL PL PL PL EZ PS PM PL PL PL PL
8 238 A. Benbouhenni et al. 6. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The diect toque contol with 24 ecto of an IM i implemented with imulation tool of Matlab. The peed egulato i ued a claical PI, PI-flou epaately. The hyteei contolle ae ued a neual hyteei and fuzzy hyteei. The pefomance analyi i done with peed, toque, flux, and cuent. The dynamic pefomance of the thee-level DTC with 24 ecto of an induction moto i hown in figue 11. The dynamic pefomance of the thee-level DTC with 24 ecto baed on atificial intelligence technique fo the induction moto i hown in figue 12.
9 Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of Fig. 11: Dynamic epone of thee-level DTC fo an induction moto
10 24 A. Benbouhenni et al. Fig. 12: Dynamic epone of thee-level DTC with contolle of peed and egulato hyteei baed in atificial intelligence technique fo an induction moto The peed eache it efeence without oveun at empty tat fo all tategie. And the toque flow the load toque. The dynamic of the component of the tato flux ae not affected by the application of thee load guideline. Toque and tato flux epone compaing cuve ae hown in figue 13. Fig. 13: Zoom of toque and flux: a) thee-level DTC with 24 ecto, b) thee-level DTC with 24 ecto baed on atificial intelligence technique Figue 13 how the zoom eult fo moto toque and flux epone fo thee-level DTC with and without atificial intelligence technique fo a efeence peed of 1 pm. The moto i allowed to un without load toque. A obeved, the tanient and teady tate ipple ae high fo thee-level DTC without atificial intelligence technique. In Table 3, we ummaize the imulation eult obtained by conventional theelevel DTC and the popoed contol of thee-level DTC with 24 ecto. Contol Table 3: Compaion between popoed contol Thee-level DTC with 24 ecto Thee-level DTC with 24 ecto baed on atificial intelligence technique Ia THD (%) Dynamic epone of flux (m) 4 3.7
11 Speed egulato and hyteei baed on atificial intelligence technique of It can be een that thee-level DTC with 24 ecto baed on atificial intelligence technique THD% i low a compae to conventional thee-level DTC. 7. CONCLUSION The peent pape ha peented a eno le peed thee-level DTC dive 24 ecto with atificial intelligence technique applied to an IM i peented, fuzzy logic and neual netwok. Thi technique deteminate the deied amplitude of toque, flux hyteei band and peed contolle. It i hown that the flux and toque epone unde teady tate condition. The main advantage i the impovement of toque and flux ipple chaacteitic at low peed egion, thi povide an oppotunity fo moto opeation unde minimum witching lo and noie. APPENDIX The paamete of 3 phae induction machine employed fo imulation pupoe i given below: Table 4: Implementation paamete Paamete Value Nominal powe 1 MW Line to line voltage 791 V Fequency 6 Hz Stato eitance.228 Stato inductance.84 H Roto eitance.332 Roto inductance.82 H Mutual inductance.78 H Inetia 2 kg.m 2 Fiction.8 Nm Numbe of pole 3 REFERENCES  F. Beneek, W. Boubia and B. Benake, 'Flatne Baed non Linea Senole Contol of Induction Moto Sytem', Intenational Jounal of Powe Electonic and Dive Sytem, 'IJPEDS', Vol. 7, N 1, pp , 216.  C. El Mehdi, M. Ahmed, M. Abdelkade and G. Abdeahmane, 'Senole Diect Toque Contol of Induction Machine with MRAS Speed Etimato', Compute Science and Engineeing, Vol. 3, N 1, pp. 8-13, 213.  S. a/i Ramahlingam, A. Bin Jidi, T. Sutikno and L.L. Raj, 'Impovie 3-Level DTC of Induction Machine uing Contant Switching Fequency Method by Utilizing Multiband Caie', Intenational Jounal of Powe Electonic and Dive Sytem, 'IJPEDS', Vol. 7, N 3, pp , 216.  B. Naa, L. Nezli, B. Naa, M.O. Mahmoudi and M. Elba, 'Diect Toque Contol Baed Thee Level Invete-Feed Double Sta Pemanent Magnet Synchonou Machine', Enegy Pocedia, Vol. 18, pp , 212.  E. Benyouef, A. Meoufel and S. Bakat, 'Thee-Level DTC Baed on Fuzzy Logic and Neual Netwok of Senole DSSM Uing ExtendeKalmanFilte', Intenational Jounal of Powe Electonic and Dive Sytem, 'IJPEDS', Vol. 5, N 4, pp , 215.
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