Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearities in WDM Fiber Optic Transmission System by Varying Different Parameters

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2 Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearities in WDM Fiber Optic Transmission System by Varying Different Parameters When the electric field is imposed on a dielectric material there is induced polarization which is given by the susceptibility of the medium and for approximation we consider the first order susceptibility which gives the dielectric constant of the medium. However, if the intensity of light is large then the first order term is not adequate and we also have to consider higher order terms into the polarization of the material. In general, the induced polarization in the material is given below: P= ε 0 {χ (1) +χ (2) +χ (3) +...} In the above equation, the first term is dominant and contributes to the dielectric constant. The second term shows that the dielectric constant has an effect of electric field itself. The third term which is the third order susceptibility says that the refractive index is proportional to square of the electric field and this term contributes to the nonlinear effects. In the presence of nonlinearities, according to the Kerr effect the refractive index is given as, (ω, 2 (ω + 2 E 2 The first term is the linear term and second term is the nonlinear term, n 2 is the material dependent nonlinearity coefficient. This coefficient is related to the third order susceptibility of the medium. When light enters the optical medium it keeps interacting with optical fiber therefore we have a cumulative effect of nonlinearities at the output. In fiber optic technology the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is given as[1]: A/ Z -j (β 2 /2 ( 2 A/ T 2 +(α/2 A -jγ A 2 A The optical fiber is governed by the above equation. It gives the evolution of the pulse[4]. The second term of the above equation gives the dispersion. Here, β 2 2 β/ ω 2 This change in group velocity as a function of frequency shows dispersion. The right hand side of the equation gives nonlinearity. The nonlinearity operator ( ) is solved in time domain. =-jγ A 2 The nonlinear length is given by: L N 1/γP The dispersion length is given by: L D = T 2 o / β 2 Considering physical length of fiber different combinations are possible. When L<<L D, L<<L NL, fiber is just a medium to transfer light. When L>>L D, L<<L NL, pulse broadening phenomenon takes place by dispersion. When L<<L D, L>>L NL, the nonlinear effects such as SPM, XPM, FWM and SRS are visible. At this point pulse will encounter different refractive indices at different locations. phenomenons is Cross Phase Modulation (XPM). Whenever there is sufficient power in each channel then the phase of signal changes with respect to another signal resulting in XPM. When n channels are transmitting then they will affect the power of (n-1) channels.nonlinear change of phase due to variations of power in adjacent channels can strongly affect system performances. A noisy perturbation due to XPM will limit capacity and distance. The interactions between 3 wavelengths produce a 4 th wavelength in WDM system, resulting in FWM[2]. FWM is caused by the dependence of refractive index on the intensity of the optical power. If three signal waves with frequencies ω i,ω j,ω k are incident at the input of the fiber the nonlinear susceptibility of the fiber generates new waves at the frequencies ω i ±ω j ±ω k [9] where ω i,ω j a d ω k need not necessarily be distinct. The most troublesome one is the signal corresponding to ω ijk ω i +ω j -ω k.this is because depending on the individual frequencies this beat signal may lie on or very close to one of the individual channels resulting in significant crosstalk to that channel. When two laser beams with different frequencies propagates together through an optical fiber, the longer wavelength beam experiences optical amplification at the expense of the shorter wavelength beam[10]. Due to difference in the frequencies, lattice vibrations are produced which leads to rise in temperature. When these vibrations are associated with optical phonons, the effect is called Raman Scattering. It is detrimental for intense pulses in optical fiber devices. It can transfer most of the signal energy into the wavelength range where laser amplification does not occur. This limits the maximum signal power. III. SIMULATION SETUP A. Self Phase Modulation First block in this section is a pseudo random signal generator, next is the electrical driver used to convert binary sequence i to electrical pulses Bessel or Maximally flat delay filters are implemented as shown in figure 2. Booster is a fixed output power optical amplifier which stimulates an EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier). Optical spectrum analyzer estimates the input spectrum by partitioning the total data sequence into various sections. The channel consists of optical fiber and in line amplifier. Receiver section starts with a fixed EDFA as preamplifier followed by raised cosine optical filter. Optical spectrum analyzer is used to access the non-linear output optical spectrum. Next component simulates a PIN photodiode. The visualization tool known as scope collects data on various diagrams such as eye diagrams, amplitude and power spectrum. Within the pulse the frequency will travel with different velocities which create phase function. The change in phase is created by the pulse itself hence the phenomenon is known as SPM. It does not change the envelope of the pulse but each frequency undergoes phase change which is nonlinear as a function of time. So, this modifies the spectrum of the pulse. In particular for WDM system, one of the most impacting Figure 2: Self Phase Modulation 46

4 Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearities in WDM Fiber Optic Transmission System by Varying Different Parameters Table I Table V When the preamplifier power is varied, Q factor is found to increase slightly and the eye closure happens to decrease. It is worth noting here that if the input power is increased, the preamplifier power is found to decrease (as shown in table IV).Output spectrum analysis for preamplifier powers of 10mW and 15mW is shown in figure 9. Increasing dispersion value drastically degrades the Q factor value as shown in table V. Increasing input power up to some extent causes some degradation which increases considerably if the input power is further increased (as shown in table VI). Table VI Figure 9: Spectral Analysis for Pre-Amplifier Powers 10mW and 15 mw. Table II B. Cross Phase Modulation Eye diagrams and Q-factor for the different values of optical dispersion is shown below. As the values of dispersion vary, nonlinearities also vary in the optical fiber, which gives result to Cross Phase Modulation (XPM).Input and output spectrum is shown in figure 10 and figure 11. Figure 8: Spectral Broadening Figure 10: Input Spectrum Table III Table IV Figure 11: Output Spectrum 48

5 International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: , Volume-3, Issue-1, March 2014 Results show that the Quality Factor becomes nonlinear due to Cross Phase Modulation (XPM). We can reduce the Cross Phase Modulation up to some extent but at higher bit rates we are still not able to remove the Cross Phase Modulation completely, which is a challenge for various scientists in the optical fiber field. The effect of XPM is expected to be smaller in systems operating at higher dispersion coefficients. We have shown that the XPM effect is highly dependent on dispersion coefficient of the fiber. C. Four Wave Mixing The effect of FWM on WDM system is investigated in terms of eye diagram, BER, Q-factor etc by varying the dispersion coefficient. The channels are separated by 25 GHz and modulated at 10 Gbps data rate. The distance between the in-line optical EDFA fibre amplifiers is 100 km (span length). The fibre dispersion value is varied from 0 ps/nm-km to 8 ps/nm-km. The frequency range from THz to THz is provided to eight channels. They have uniform spacing of 0.05 THz. The signal is examined to investigate the effect of FWM using optical power meter with a centre frequency THz. Eye diagrams show the effect of FWM at 0 ps/nm-km and 8 ps/nm-km for equal channel spacing. The fibers which have higher value of dispersion are good enough than the zero dispersion fibre for a WDM fibre-optic transmission system..the eye diagrams at dispersion coefficient 0ps/nm-km and 8ps/nm-km are shown in figure 17 and figure 18. Figure 12: Eye Diagram at 0ps/nm/km Figure 13: Eye Diagram at -1ps/nm/km Figure 14: Eye Diagram at -3ps/nm/km Figure 17: Dispersion at 0ps/nm/km Figure 15: Eye Diagram at 3ps/nm/km Figure 18: Dispersion at 8ps/nm/km Figure 16: Eye Diagram at 1ps/nm/km 49

6 Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearities in WDM Fiber Optic Transmission System by Varying Different Parameters At bit rate of 10 Gbps, the effect of dispersion coefficient on FWM in 8 channel WDM system is shown. It is observed that FWM effect can be suppressed by increasing dispersion in the fiber. The effect of FWM cross generation is maximum at zero dispersion. Energy transfers from main component to new component as FWM component increases. High level of interferences and performance degradation is caused because of direct overlapping of these components with original signal. D. Stimulated Raman Scattering For a 16-channel WDM system the output power spectrum at an input power of 10mW with Raman crosstalk is shown in figure 19.The value of power tilt is found to be 24.1dB.When the input power is increased to 15mW the power tilt increases to dB as shown in figure 4.2.The analysis of power tilt at various input powers for a 4-channel and 16-channel WDM system is shown in table VII. V. CONCLUSION The In this paper we have demonstrated the effects of dispersion coefficient, length of fiber, input power, bit rate, center emission frequency, and booster power on FWM, SPM, XPM and SRS in WDM system. While analyzing it is found that the effect of FWM is suppressed by increasing the value of dispersion coefficient. It is found that at zero dispersion, the effect of FWM is maximum and the effect decreases as we increase the value of dispersion. A detailed analysis of SPM shows that Q factor decreases with increase in length of fiber, bit rate, dispersion value, increase in input power and Q factor increases with slight increase in pre-amplifier power. It is observed that with an increment in pre-amplifier power input power decreases. XPM effect is analyzed in a 2-channel WDM system. XPM limits the system capacity and input power. The effect of XPM is maximum at high bit rate and low dispersion coefficient.srs effect occurs when high intensity input power is allowed in single mode fiber. By decreasing input power the SRS can be minimized. A decrease in input power will decrease the power tilt. The effects of XPM, SPM,FWM and SRS on WDM system can be optimized by choosing appropriate values of different parameters in optical fiber communication systems. REFERENCES Figure 19: Power tilt at 10mW Figure 20: Power tilt at 15mW [1] G P Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Commu icatio Systems, 3rd edition(2002), pp 64-67, [2] Si gh,s P,Kar,S,Jai,V K Performa ce of All-optical WDM network in presence of Four-Wave Mixing,Optical Amplifier Noise,and Wavelength Co verter oise Volume 26,Issue 2,2007 pages [3] Ji g Lia g,stude t Member a d Katsushi Iwashita, FWM compensation in DPSK transmission by reducing detectors with digital cohere t detectio usi g backward propagatio, I ter atio al Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, July [4] asri Sulta a a d M S Islam A alysis of XPM ffect with SPM a d GVD i WDM Fiber Optic Tra smissio System, ICCC 2012, 3-5 July 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. [5] Kyo I oue, Four-Wave Mixing in an Optical Fiber in the Zero-Dispersio Wavele gth Regio, Jour al of lightwave technology, Vol. 10, No. 11, November [6] Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, O Mitomi, 320 Gbit/s (8 40 Gbit/s WDM tra smission over 367 km with 120 km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero format, lectro Lett, vol 35, pp , [7] S P Majumder, A Azhari a d F M Abbou, Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the ber performance of an optical cdma IM/DD tra smissio system I Photo Tech ol Lett, vol 17, pp , [8] Zhe g,x, Liu,F,a d Jeppese,P Receiver optimizatio for 4Gb/s optical duobi ary sig al,i Photo ics Tech ol Lett, 2001, 13,(7) [9] Prabhpreet Kaur, Kulwi der Si gh, A alysis of Four Wave Mixi g Effect at Different Channel Spacing in Multichannel Optical Commu icatio System, IJ IT Volume 3, Issue 5, ovember 2013 [10] T Sabapathi, S Su daravadivelu a d Prabha G, A alysis a d Reduction of Stimulated Raman Scattering in DWDM Fiber Optic Commu icatio System, I t Co fere ce i Cape I stitute of Technology, May Table VII 50

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