# Wireless Network Pricing Chapter 2: Wireless Communications Basics

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1 Wireless Network Pricing Chapter 2: Wireless Communications Basics Jianwei Huang & Lin Gao Network Communications and Economics Lab (NCEL) Information Engineering Department The Chinese University of Hong Kong Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

2 The Book E-Book freely downloadable from NCEL website: http: //ncel.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/content/wireless-network-pricing Physical book available for purchase from Morgan & Claypool ( and Amazon ( Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

3 Chapter 2: Wireless Communications Basics Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

4 Focus of This Chapter Key Focus: Provide a brief introduction to wireless communications and networking technologies to help readers understand the applications in this book. Discussions in this chapter are based on the materials in Wireless communications: principles and practice by T. S. Rappaport et al. (1996) Wireless communications by A. Goldsmith (2005) Fundamentals of wireless communication by D. Tse and P. Viswanath (2005) Wireless Communications & Networking by V. Garg (2010.) Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

5 Section 2.1: Radio Propagation Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

6 Radio Propagation Radio propagation refers to the transmission of radio waves from one point to another. Radio propagation behaviors: Line-of-sight (LOS) Propagation: Direct propagation of radio waves between two points that are visible to each other; Reflection: Physical effect arise when a radio wave hits the interface between two dissimilar media, so that all or part of the wave returns into the medium from which it originated. Diffraction: Propagation of radio waves that bending around corners or sharp edges. Scattering: Physical effect of radio waves when hitting irregular objects (e.g., walls with rough surfaces). Others: refraction, absorption, polarization, etc. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

7 Radio Propagation Characterization It is impossible to perfectly characterize the propagation of a radio wave, due to the rapid fluctuation of radio propagation. In general, radio propagation can be roughly characterized in the large-scale and small-scale. Large-scale propagation: Characterize the mean attenuation of radio waves over large travel distances; Small-scale propagation: Characterize the fast fluctuations of radio waves over very short travel distances (e.g., a few wavelengths) or short time durations (e.g., a few milliseconds). Key features of radio propagation Distance-based Path Loss (Large-scale) Slow Log-normal Shadowing (Large-scale) Fast Multi-path Fading (Small-scale) Channel modeling characterize the features of radio propagation Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

8 Channel Modeling When radio wave propagates, its power density diminishes gradually; it is polluted by the undesired noise signal interference. Given the transmitted signal x, after propagation through a channel h, we have the following received signal y: y = h x + ɛ ɛ is the noise, usually formulated as a random variable following the normal distribution (called Gaussian Noise). The purpose of channel modeling is to accurately characterize the features of channel h, i.e., path loss, shadowing, multi-path. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

9 Channel Modeling Path Loss Path Loss is a fundamental characteristic of radio wave propagation in order to predict the average received power (Large-scale model) Path loss follows the Friis transmission formula: h = P r P t = A λ2 d 2 λ is the wavelength, d is the transmission distance, A is a constant (independent of propagation) related to antenna gains, antenna losses, filter losses, etc. Path loss (in db) purely based on distance: PL = 10 log( h ) = 20 log(d) 20 log(λ) 10 log(a) Low frequency (large wavelength λ) Low propagation loss Long range transmission; Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

10 Channel Modeling Shadowing Shadowing characterizes the deviation of the actual received power about the average received power (Large-scale model) It usually occurs when a large obstruction (such as a hill or large building) obscures the main propagation path between the transmitter and the receiver. In general, such a power deviation due to the shadowing effect can be formulated as a zero-mean normally (Gaussian) distributed random variable X σ (in db) with a standard deviation σ. Path loss (in db) with shadowing effect: PL = PL+X σ = 10 log( h ) = 20 log(d) 20 log(λ) 10 log(a)+x σ The same distance d may lead to different pass losses due to the shadowing effect. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

11 Channel Modeling Multi-Path Multi-path is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio waves reaching the receiver by multiple paths (Small-scale model) Different propagation paths may have different amplitudes and phases; Combination of signals in these paths may result in increased or decreased received power at the receiver. Even a very slight change in the propagation path may result in a significant difference in phases of the receiving signals. Thus, the multi-path propagation will lead to the fast fluctuation of receiving radio wave. Different propagation paths may have different propagation time; Thus, the multi-path propagation will introduce a delay spread into the receiving radio wave (called inter-symbol interference, ISI). Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

12 Channel Modeling Illustration of Pass Loss, Shadowing, and Multi-Path Gray dot-dashed: distance-based path loss (without shadowing); Red dashed: path loss with log-normal shadowing; Blue solid: real channel response with the path loss, shadowing, and multi-path propagation. Path Loss (Distance) Channel Response - h Pass Loss + Shadowing Channel Response Distance - log(d) Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

13 Section 2.2: Wireless Multiple Access Technologies Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

14 Multiple Access Technology Multiple access technology allows multiple users to share the limited wireless communication resources. Multiple access technologies are usually based on the multiplexing: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple access (OFDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Random Access Technologies E.g., Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

15 FDMA and OFDMA The frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is based on the frequency division multiplex technology, which provides separated frequency bands to different mobile users. That is, it allows several users to transmit at the same time by using separated frequency bands. Typical FDMA systems include the second-generation (2G) cellular communication systems such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), where each phone call is assigned to a specific uplink channel and a specific downlink channel. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

16 FDMA and OFDMA The orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is an advanced form of FDMA, where different frequency bands are not fully separated but partially overlapped. The spectrum efficiency can be greatly improved by allowing the partially overlapping of frequency bands; Although different frequency bands are partially overlapped, they are logically orthogonal. OFDMA has been used in the fourth-generation (4G) cellular communication systems and wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the latest versions of standards. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

17 TDMA The time division multiple access (TDMA) channel access scheme is based on the time division multiplex technology, which provides different time slots to different mobile users in a cyclically repetitive frame structure. That is, the whole time period is divided into multiple time slots, each for a particular mobile user. TDMA has been used in the the second-generation (2G) cellular communication systems such as GSM. More precisely, GSM cellular systems are based on the combination of TDMA and FDMA. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

18 CDMA The code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme is based on the spread spectrum technology, which allows several mobile users to send information simultaneously over a single frequency channel using different spreading codes. That is, each information bit (of a mobile user) is spread to a long code sequence of several pulses (called chips). Such a code sequence is usually referred to as the spreading code. The separation of the signals of multiple users is made by correlating the received signal with the locally generated spreading code of the desired user. CDMA has been used in the third-generation (3G) cellular communication systems. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

19 Random Access Scheme In the previous channel access schemes, each mobile user accesses the transmission medium under the full control of a controller. For example, in CDMA, each user spreads its data by using the spread code assigned by the controller; in TDMA or FDMA, each user occupies the time slot or frequency band assigned by the controller. In the random access scheme, however, each user has the right to access the medium without being controlled by any controller. If more than one user tries to access the same medium at the same time, there is an access conflict (called a collision), and the signals will be either destroyed or polluted. To avoid collision Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Follow the principle sense before transmit or listen before talk. That is, mobile userschecks the existence of other users signal before transmitting on a shared transmission medium. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

20 Section 2.3: Wireless Networks Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

21 Wireless Network Classifications Classification based on transmission range or coverage area: Wireless personal area network (e.g., IEEE Bluetooth) Wireless local area network (e.g., IEEE WiFi) Wireless metropolitan area network (e.g., IEEE WiMAX) Wireless wide area network (e.g., IEEE MobileFi, and 3GPP) Wireless regional area network (e.g., IEEE ) Classification based on access and networking technologies: Wireless cellular network Wireless ad-hoc network Wireless sensor network Wireless mesh network Cognitive radio network Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

22 Wireless Cellular Network In a wireless cellular network, a wide area is divided into regular shaped zones called cells, and each cell is associated with a fixed transceiver called base station located in the center of the cell. Mobile users communicate with each other via connecting to base stations. Each cell serves those mobile cellular users within its coverage area via the corresponding base station. Since mobile cellular users can move between cells, thus handoff and mobility management are very important in a cellular network. To avoid the interference from signals from other cells, the adjacent neighboring cells are usually operated on different frequency bands, whereas the far apart cells can operate on the same frequency band (called frequency reuse). Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

23 Wireless LAN Network A wireless local area network (WLAN), usually based on IEEE standard (WiFi), is used to provide high-speed radio service in a local small area (e.g., 200m). The most common architecture of WLAN is based on an infrastructure-based controller called access point. Mobile users communicate with each other or access the wider Internet via connecting to access points. Another common architecture of WLAN is the so-called ad-hoc mode, where mobile users transmit data to other user directly. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

24 Wireless Ad-hoc Network A wireless ad-hoc network is a type of decentralized wireless network, usually based on the IEEE standard. It does not rely on the pre-existing infrastructures such as base stations and access points, but enables the direct connections and communications among different mobile users. Due to the limited transmission range, a source user may need to communicate to a destination user in a multi-hop fashion. Due to the fast changing of network topology, mobile devices need to self-organize to establish network connectivity. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

25 Wireless Sensor Network A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a set of spatially distributed autonomous sensors. Sensors are usually designed to monitor or detect physical or environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, sound, and pressure); Sensors may also need to cooperatively deliver their measured data to a sink node. An important feature of wireless sensor networks is the energy constraint, due to the limited capacity of energy storage (e.g., battery) on the sensors. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

26 Wireless Mesh Network A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a communications network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It often consists of two kinds of different nodes: mesh clients and mesh routers. Mesh clients are often laptops, cell phones and other wireless devices, who transmit/receive data to/from other clients or the wider Internet; Mesh routers are often stationary nodes such as base stations or access points, who forward a mesh client s traffic to/from other clients or the gateways which connect to the Internet. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

27 Cognitive Radio Network Cognitive radio network is a novel network architecture based on advanced wireless technologies such as cognitive radio and dynamic spectrum access. Cognitive radio is an adaptive, intelligent radio technology that can intelligently detect available frequency bands in a wide frequency range. Dynamic spectrum access allows unlicensed devices to access to the frequency bands (licensed to other licensees) in an opportunistic manner, whenever such a secondary access does not generate harmful interference to the licensees. A real example: TV white space network Unlicensed devices detect and access idle (licensed) TV frequency bands via querying a certified geo-location database. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

28 Section 2.4: Radio Resource Management Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

29 Radio Resource Management Radio resource management (RRM) is a fundamental issue of wireless network management, and provides the system level control of interference and efficiency. RRM usually involves strategies and algorithms for controlling transmit power channel allocation data rates handover criteria modulation scheme error coding scheme etc. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

30 Power Control Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power so as to achieve a good system performance (e.g., low mutual interference, high network capacity, and wide geographic coverage area). Power control is very important for reducing the mutual interference among users in a CDMA system, where multiple users send information simultaneously over a single frequency channel (hence interfere with each other). Power control is also important for reducing the mutual interference among base stations in a FDMA-based cellular system, where non-adjacent base stations may use the same frequency band due to frequency reuse. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

31 Channel Allocation Channel allocation refers to the intelligent allocation of frequency bands or channels to base stations, access points, and mobile devices, so as to achieve high spectrum efficiency and low co-channel interference. Fixed channel allocation (FCA) in cellular networks: Each cell is given a pre-determined set of channels. Dynamic channel allocation (DCA) in cellular networks: Cells request channels dynamically based on their real-time traffic loads. Subcarrier allocation in OFDMA systems: Assign different subcarriers to different users to achieve high efficiency (multiuser diversity). Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

32 Admission Control Admission control is important for reducing transmission collisions in wireless communication systems with limited resources but many potential users. Admission control can also be used to differentiate QoS requirements of different mobile users. For example, voice traffic (with a strict QoS requirement) may be admitted with a higher priority than data traffic (with a loose QoS requirement) when the network is congested. Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

33 Section 2.5: Chapter Summary Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

34 Key Concepts Radio Propagation Wireless Multiple Access Technologies Wireless Networks Radio Resource Management Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

35 References T. S. Rappaport et al., Wireless communications: principles and practice. Prentice Hall, 1996, vol. 2. A. Goldsmith, Wireless communications. Cambridge university press, D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of wireless communication. Cambridge university press, V. Garg, Wireless Communications & Networking. Morgan Kaufmann, Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

36 Extended Reading Huang & Gao ( c NCEL) Wireless Network Pricing: Chapter 2 December 2, / 36

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