3 Light Propagation in Optical Fiber E z does not couple to E r or E φ. Therefore it is possible to write the scalar wave equation for E z directly in cylindrical coordinates. Wave equation for E z : Similarly, We can we can obtain E r, E φ, H r and H φ from E z and H z.
4 Light Propagation in Fiber Core: Bessel Functions Bessel functions of the first kind
5 Light Propagation in Fiber Cladding: Bessel Functions Modified Bessel functions of the second kind
6 Graphical Determination of the Propagation constants of TE modes (ν = 0): The eigenvalue equation for TE modes: Using Bessel function relations:
7 Normalized Propagation Constant as a Function of Normalized Frequency A fiber becomes single-mode when its V number < (the first root of the J0 Bessel function). In a single-mode fiber only the HE 11 mode can propagate. This mode is often called the fundamental mode of the fiber, or LP 01 mode (weakly Usingguiding approximation).
8 Single Mode Fiber & Single Mode Condition A cutoff wavelength defines the boundary between multi-mode and single-mode operation of a fiber. The fiber is single-mode with wavelengths longer than the cutoff wavelength: Single mode condition: V number < 2.405
9 Transmission properties of Optical Fibers Attenuation (loss) Silica-based fibers have ~0.2dB/km (i.e., ~95% launched power remains after 1 km fiber transmission Bandwidth Bandwidth determines the number of bits of information transmitted in a given time period (mainly depends on dispersion).
10 Attenuation in Fiber 1. Material absorption 2. Scattering loss 3. Nonlinear loss 4. Bending loss 5. Mode coupling loss (Splice and connection)
11 Attenuation in Fiber
12 Dispersion In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity (and group velocity) of a wave depends on its frequency (wavelength). 60 kmph 59 kmph Start: 0 sec. diff After 1 km: ~1 sec. diff After 100 km: ~100 sec. diff Wiki
13 Dispersion in Waveguides Material dispersion: Different wavelengths travel at different velocities due to the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction. Modal dispersion: Different waveguide modes propagate at different velocities. This is not an issue in modern systems that use single-mode fibers Waveguide dispersion: Different wavelengths travel at different velocities due to the wavelength dependence of the propagation constant β (caused by the waveguide structure, i.e. index profile). Polarization mode dispersion: Fiber birefringence causes different polarizations to propagate at different speeds.
19 Advantages of Integration Fiber Connectors Fiber Fusion Splicing
20 Types of WDM Operation wavelength 980nm 1550nm Insertion loss 980& 1550nm Isolation Bandwidth Max power 980/1550nm <0.55dB >20dB 20nm 300mW 1550/1560 <0.4dB >16dB 5nm 300mW
21 Today s Lecture Topics Course introduction Ray optics & Optical beams Lab work Optical fibers Optical amplifiers Fundamentals: integrated optics Integrated optics devices Silicon photonics Optical communication systems Presentation & Discussion
22 Esko Kauppinen
23 Signal Attenuation & Loss of Optical Fibers Fiber loss: ~4.5% per kilometer (0.2dB per km) Distance between Otaniemi & London: ~ 1826 kilometers The total fiber loss (between Helsinki & London) =1826 km * 0.2 db/km = 365 db (corresponding to ) 0
24 One possible strategy: as the signal becomes weak Optical-to-Electrical-to-Optical (OEO) conversions Convert the weak optical signal into electronic form Amplifier the converted electronic signal Recreate the optical signal with the electronic signal Problems: Inefficient, performances limited by slow speed electronics, expensive, complicated.
25 Optical Amplifiers: Loss compensation An optical amplifier is a device which amplifies the optical signal directly without ever changing it to electricity. The light itself is amplified (typically every 20-50km).
26 Why Do We Need Optical Amplifiers? Typical fiber loss at 1.5um is ~0.2dB/km (20dB for 100km) The signal needs to be amplified or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of detected signals is too low and bit error rate (BER) becomes too high (typically want BER<10-9 ) Optical-to-electrical-to-optical conversions requires costly high-speed electronics (>10GHz) Best way to amplify is optically, and best optical method is fiber amplifier (lowest loss, most efficient, most stable).
27 Types of Optical Amplifiers a) A booster (or power) amplifier - just after the transmitter to increase the output power from the laser diode. b) An in-line amplifier -to eliminate the need for Optical-to-Electrical-to-Optical (OEO) conversions along the transmission link (the most important application). c) A preamplifier - to improve the receiver s sensitivity.
28 Key Characteristics of Optical Amplifiers There are several performance parameters for optical amplifiers. The importance of each parameter depends on the application. For example, a booster amplifier should have a high saturation output power, whereas low noise is important in preamplifiers. In-line amplifiers need to have broad (and flat) gain bandwidth. The most important characteristics are: 1) Small signal gain - Small signal gain describes the amplifier gain, G 0, at very low input power levels (when the output power is much less than the saturation output power). 2) Saturation output power - Each amplifier has a saturation output power. With increasing input power levels, the gain starts to saturate. The saturation output power is defined as the output power for which the amplifier gain has reduced by a factor of 2 (or 3 db). 3) Gain bandwidth - In DWDM systems the amplifiers need to amplify wavelengths within a very broad range, thus the gain bandwidth is very important. The wavelength dependence of gain should also be as flat as possible. Typically gain flattening filters are used to improve the flatness. 4) Noise properties - All amplifiers decrease the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio because of spontaneous emission that adds noise to the signal during its amplification. The degradation of S/N is quantified through a parameter called noise figure NF, defined as:
29 Different Types of Optical Amplifiers Various techniques have been investigated and are increasingly developed for optical amplifiers for optical communications. At present, the three most important types of amplifiers are following: 1) Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) 2) Raman amplifiers 3) Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs)
30 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: Process
31 Design of SOA Semiconductor chip
32 Characteristics of SOAs Only a small semiconductor chip with electrical and fiber connections (i.e., compact) Directly electronically pumping The gain bandwidth is smaller, but devices operating in different wavelength regions can be made with bandgap engineering The upper-state lifetime and thus the stored energy are much smaller, so the gain reacts too changes in pump power or signal power within nanoseconds Changes in gain also cause phase changes, leading to linewidth enhancement factor SOAs exhibit much stronger nonlinear distortion (self-phase modulation and four-wave-mixing The noise figure is typically higher The amplification is normally polarization-sensitive.
33 SOA Vs Semiconductor lasers Both are very similar in principle and construction Essentially Fabry-perot cavities, with amplification achieved by external pumping The key in SOA is preventing selfoscillations generating laser output This is accomplished by blocking cavity reflections using both an antireflection (AR) coating and the technique of angle cleaving the chip facets
34 Stimulated Raman Scattering C. V. Raman ( )
35 Raman Amplifiers Topologically simpler to design no special doping is required, as it uses intrinsic optical nonlinearity of fiber (no need of special fiber). High energy pump Raman pumping is usually done backwards, Gain is higher at the end of the fiber. Raman gain depends on the pump power and frequency offset between pump and signal.
36 Raman Gain in Fiber Depends mainly on the optical frequencies; but also on the pump frequency and polarization There is a maximum Raman gain for a frequency offset of 13.2THz. pump =1066nm, Peak-signal =1116nm; pump =1456nm, Peak-signal =1550nm. The peaks in the Raman spectrum correspond to certain vibration modes of the silica structure. The usable gain bandwidth is ~48nm
37 Raman Amplifier: Advantages Vs Disadvantages Advantages: Variable wavelength amplification possible Compatible with installed SM fiber Can result in a lower average power over a span, good for lower crosstalk Very broadband operation may be possible Disadvantages: High pump power requirement Sophisticated gain control needed Noise is also an issue
38 Optical Amplifiers Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) Commercially available since the early 1990 s Works best in the range 1530 to 1565 nm Gain up to 60 db (10 6 photons out per photon in!)
39 Origin of EDFA (Who, When and Where) Prof. David Payne and the team Published the research paper in the year 1987 At the University of Southampton, UK
40 Simplified Physics of an EDFA 1550nm 980nm
41 Detailed process of an EDFA µm
42 Detailed process of an EDFA Erbium-doped fiber is usually pumped by semiconductor lasers at 980nm or 1480nm. A three-level model can be used for 980nm pump, while a two-level model usually suffices for 1480nm pump. Complete inversion can be achieved with 980-nm pumping but not with 1480-nm pump The spontaneous lifetime of the metastable energy level ( 4 I 13/2 ) is about 10 ms, which is much slower than the signal bit rates of practical interest. A stimulated emission dominates over spontaneous, amplification is more efficient. µm
43 Pump wavelength of EDFA Higher the population inversion lower the amplifier noise. 980nm pump is preferred for low noise amplification. More powerful 1480nm diodes are available At 1480nm, silica fibers have low loss, therefore residual pump can co-propagate with the signal. 1480nm pump may even be placed remotely.
44 Operation Wavelength of EDFA Typically operating in the C-band ( nm). EDF, has a relatively long tail to the gain shape extending well beyond this range to ~1605nm (i.e., L-band from nm)
45 Gain Flatness of EDFA Population levels vary at different bands, leading to the gain variation Serious affects WDM systems
46 Gain Flatting in EDFA
47 Erbium Doped Fiber: Profile
48 Power level Operation Setup of an EDFA Power level Input 980 nm signal Isolator 1550 nm data signal WDM Power interchange between pump and data signals 980 nm signal Isolator 1550 nm data signal Output 980 nm Pump Laser Erbium Doped Fiber
49 Interior of an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) WDM Fibre coupler Pump laser Erbium doped fibre loop Fibre input/output
50 EDFA: Advantages Vs Disadvantages Advantages: EDFAs have high pump power utilization (>50%). Directly and simultaneously amplify a wide wavelength band Flatness can be improved by gain-flattening optical filters Gain in excess of 50 db Low noise figure suitable for long haul applications Disadvantages: EDFAs are not small Cannot be integrated with other semiconductor devices
51 Other doped fiber amplifiers 1.55um S. D. Jackson, Nat. Photonics 6, 423 (2012).
52 Optical Amplifier Comparison
53 Considerations Power booster: Placed immediately after transmitter. Help increase the power of the signal, noise may not be the major issue: SOA In-line amplifier: Compensate for the signal attenuation as it propagates. Needed in long-haul networks. Noise plays a considerable role as the signal weakens: Combination of EDFA, Filters and Raman Amplifiers Pre-amplifier: A weak optical signal is usually amplified before it enters the receiver. Noise is a crucial factor
54 Hand-on Practice in Making EDFA A Check list of components 1. Isolators (two) 2. Laser Diode (one) 3. WDM (one) 4. Erbium doped fiber ( 0.3 meter) 5. Coupler 6. Manuals of the components
55 Hand-on Practice in Making EDFA Fiber splicing Lab practice Good! Bad!
56 Hand-on Practice in Making EDFA EDFA Setup: List of components needed 1. Isolators (two) 2. Pump laser diode (one) 3. WDM (one) 4. Erbium doped fiber ( 0.3 meter) 5. Manuals of the components Input Isolator WDM Isolator Output 980 nm Pump Laser Erbium Doped Fiber
57 How to build a fiber laser? Amplifier VS Laser (Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) Gain >2 Optical Amplifier Partially Reflective Mirror (R=50%; T=50%) High Reflectivity Mirror (R=100%)
58 Let us make a EDF baser Laser (EDFL)! EDFL Setup: List of components needed 1. Isolators (two) 2. Pump laser diode (one) 3. WDM (one) 4. Erbium doped fiber ( 0.3 meter) 5. Coupler
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