# AE53/AC53/AT53/AE103 ELECT. DEVICES & CIRCUITS DEC 2015

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1 Q.2 a. By using Norton s theorem, find the current in the load resistor R L for the circuit shown in Fig.1. (8) Fig.1 IETE 1

2 b. Explain Z parameters and also draw an equivalent circuit of the Z parameter model of the two port network. (8) Q.3 a. An AC supply of 230V is applied to a half-wave rectifier circuit through transformer of turns ratio 5:1. Assume the diode is an ideal one. The load resistance is 300Ω. Find (a) dc output voltage (b) PIV (c) maximum value of power delivered to the load (d) average value of power delivered to the load. (8) IETE 2

3 b. Define drift and diffusion current in PN junction diode. (4) Drift current: When an electric field is applied across the semiconductor, the holes move towards the negative terminal of the battery and electron move towards the positive terminal of the battery. This drift movement of charge carriers will result in a current termed as drift current. Diffusion current: A concentration gradient exists, if the number of either electrons or holes is greater in one region of a semiconductor as compared to the rest of the region. The holes and electron tend to move from region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. This process in called diffusion and the current produced due this movement is diffusion current. c. For PN diode, the reverse saturation current at a bias of 20V is 20nA. It is 5µA at 75 volts. Calculate DC resistances at these points. (4) IETE 3

4 Q.4 a. Compare common emitter, common base and common collector configurations of amplifier. (6) b. Explain the construction of Enhancement MOSFET with neat diagrams and also draw the output or drain characteristics. (10) Enhancement Mode MOSFET The Metal Oxide Silicon FET (MOSFET) or Metal Oxide Silicon Transistor (M.O.S.T.) has an even higher input resistance (typically 1012 to 1015 ohms) than that of the JFET. In this device the gate is completely insulated from the rest of the transistor by a very thin layer of metal oxide (Silicon dioxide SiO2). Hence the general name applied to any device of this type, the IGFET or Insulated Gate FET. Construction The layers are laid down one by one, by diffusing various semiconductor materials with suitable doping levels and layers of insulation into the IETE 4

5 surface of the device under carefully controlled conditions at high temperatures. Parts of a layer may be removed by etching using photographic masks to make the required pattern of the electrodes etc. before the next layer is added. The insulating layers are made by laying down very thin layers of silicon dioxide; conductors are created by evaporating a metal such as aluminum on to the surface. The transistors produced in this way have a much higher quality than is possible using other methods, and many transistors can be produced at one time on a single slice of silicon, before the silicon slice is cut up into individual transistors or integrated circuits. Output characteristics of E-MOSFET Q.5 a. Explain collector to base bias or collector feedback biasing method in detail and discuss the stability of the circuit. (8) IETE 5

6 b. Draw the h parameters model of common emitter and derive the expression for current gain. (8) IETE 6

7 Current gain: For the transistor amplifier stage, Ai is defined as the ratio of output to input currents. Input Impedence: The impedence looking into the amplifier input terminals ( 1,1' ) is the input impedence Zi Q.6 a. Draw & explain the Frequency response of amplifier and define 3 db bandwidth. (8) Frequency response of amplifiers IETE 7

8 Midband: The frequency range of interest for amplifiers Large capacitors can be treated as short circuit. small capacitors can be treated as open circuit Gain is constant and can be obtained by small-signal analysis Low-frequency band: Gain drops at frequencies lower than f L Large capacitors can no longer be treated as short circuit The gain roll-off is mainly due to coupling and by-pass capacitors High-frequency band: Gain drops at frequencies higher than f H Small capacitors can no longer treated as open circuit The gain roll-off is mainly due to parasitic capacitances of the BJTs b. Derive the expression to calculate the higher cut-off frequency of the emitter follower amplifier. (8) IETE 8

9 Q.7 a. The permissible range of a power transistor is defined P ( max) = 10W, I ( max ) = 1A, V ( max) = 100V, V ( min) = V c CE C 2 (i) Select an approximate operating point for operation in the circuit of Fig.2. Note that R E has been considered to be negligible. (ii) Specify R L for maximum power output. (iii) Calculate total dc power in, maximum signal power out, and overall efficiency. (8) IETE 9

10 b. Show that the maximum efficiency of series fed class A power amplifier is 25%. (8) IETE 10

11 Q.8 a. The voltage gain of an amplifier without feedback is Calculate the voltage gain of the amplifier if negative voltage feedback is introduced in the circuit. Given that feedback fraction = (4) b. Define negative feedback in amplifiers. (4) IETE 11

12 When the feedback energy (voltage or current) is out of phase with the input signal and thus opposes it, it is called negative feedback. This is illustrated in Fig. As you can see, the amplifier introduces a phase shift of 180 into the circuit while the feedback network is so designed that it introduces no phase shift (i.e., 0 phase shift). The result is that the feedback voltage Vf is 180 out of phase with the input signal Vin. c. Draw and explain Unijunction oscillator. (8) Ans: Unijunction transistor( UJT) can be used in a single stage oscillator circuit to provide a pulse signal suitable for digital circuit applications. The UJT can be used in relaxation oscillator. The operation of the circuit is as follows: C1 charges through R1 until the voltage across it reaches the peak point. The emitter current then rises rapidly, discharging C1 through the base 1 region and R3. The sudden rise of current through R3 produces the voltage pulse. When the current falls to IV the UJT switches off and the cycle is repeated. Oscillator operating frequency fo = 1/{RTCTln[1/(1-η)]} where, η is intrinsic standoff ratio, typically the value of it is between 0.4 and 0.6. Using η = 0.5, fo = 1.5 / RTCT Capacitor is charged through resistor RT toward supply voltage VBB. As long as the capacitor voltage VE is below a stand off voltage (VP) set by the voltage across B1-B2 and the transistor stand off ratio η. VP = ηvb1vb2 VD. IETE 12

13 When the capacitor voltage exceeds this value, the UJT turns ON, discharging the capacitor. When the capacitor discharges, a voltage rise is developed across R3. The signal at the emitter of UJT / across the capacitor is saw tooth, at the base 1 are positive going pulses and at the base 2 are negative going pulses. Q.9 a. What do you mean by epitaxial growth in IC fabrication? Explain the steps involved in epitaxial growth. (8) Epitaxy is used to deposit N on N+ silicon, which is impossible to accomplish by diffusion. It is also used in isolation between bipolar transistors wherein N- is deposited on P. the sequence of operation involved in the process: 1. Heat wafer to 1200 C. 2. Turn on H2 to reduce the SiO2 on the wafer surface. 3. Turn on anhydrous HCl to vapor-etch the surface of the wafer. This removes a small amount of silicon and other contaminants. 4. Turn off HCl. 5. Drop temperature to 1100 C. 6. Turn on silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4). 7. Introduce dopant. b. Explain the various steps involved in planar technology for device fabrication. (8) IETE 13

14 TEXT BOOK I. Electronic Devices and Circuits, 2009, I. J. Nagrath, PHI IETE 14

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