# Output Voltage Correction of an Induction Motor Drive Using a Disturbance Observer with Speed Sensor-less Vector Control Method

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3 v q ω φ ω i m 2 d L σ d i d v d ACR - v dcomp i d v d v d - Inverter st f ω σ v d - L i q Motor R R 2 sl σ st f R cr 2c sl σ c st f ω σ L i q i d i q v q ACR - v qcomp i q v q - Inverter st f - v q Motor R R 2 sl σ st f R cr 2c sl σ c st f ω φ m 2 d - ω L σ i d i q (a) d-axis (b) q-axis Figure 4. An error voltage correction method using a disturbance observer. disturbances. So the system is instable because correction voltage is exceeded in actual disturbance voltage v shown in figure 4. These terms should be calculated, measured or estimated. Additionally, it is desirable that the disturbance observers responses faster than the current regulator. If the disturbance voltage was corrected by the disturbance observer, output of the current regulator is considered to be an actual output voltage of inverter. Then the output-voltage- and speed-sensor-less vector control will be achieved. So, this method is able to use in V/f or vector control method. In latter section, results and notes of these control method are shown. C. Using disturbance observers for V/f control method This subsection describes the way to use the correction method to V/f control method. It is difficult to separate primary current into field and torque components because V/f control method does not estimate secondary-side flux. Instead of flux estimation, a current controller was used to determine the flux component of the motor current. On the other hand, V/f control and the correction method were used in orthogonal axis. It should be noted that the axis using current controller and disturbance observer is called d- and q- axis, respectively. Fig. 5 shows a block diagram for the proposed compensation method using V/f control. The feedback filter using the T f (fast response disturbance observer) estimates the back EMF in addition to the disturbance voltage. To estimate only the voltage error from dead-time in the middle- or high-speed range, the feedback filter of the T s (slow response disturbance observer) is used to cancel the back EMF. On the other hand, the ACR on the d-axis corrects the dead-time voltage error on d-axis and maintains the rated excitation current of the motor. III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT A. Error voltage correction for sensor-less vector control Fig. 6(a) shows a block diagram of an experimental system. The experimental system is composed of a general induction motor and an inverter. The motor is controlled using Inverter Motor V m 2d L I d V q V q V q R C sl C Vˆ Fast disturbance observer R C sl C st f st f 0 disable st s enable VˆEMF R C sl C st s Slow disturbance observer Figure 5. Block diagram of error voltage correction system for V/f control. speed-sensor-less vector control to keep at constant speed. The sensor-less vector control shown in figure 6(a) is based on reference (0). This method obtains zero-volt for d-axis induced voltage. Fig. 7 shows the waveforms of motor speed, d-axis, q-axis and u-phase current under conditions where the motor speed is 300r/min with the rated load torque (.0pu). It should be noted that result shown in figure 7(a) is not using error voltage corrections and 7(b) is using the disturbance observer based on the error voltage correction method, respectively. In Fig. 7(a), the current distortion occurs on the zero crossing point of the u-phase current because the error voltage is changing significantly at this point. In contrast, the distortion is almost corrected in Fig. 7(b) by the fast response disturbance observer. And the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current shown in Fig.7(b) is.20%, with a /3 reduction from the result as shown in Fig. 7(a). I q

4 (a) sensor-less vector control type (b) vector control type vˆ s (c) V/f control type Figure 6. Evaluation systems of correction performance.

5 r r r, r : 0.05pu/div i q iq, i d : 0.4pu/div i d i u i u : 2A/div THD=3.9% (50ms/div.) (a)no correction method (b)correction method based on disturbance observer Figure 7. A Comparison of Correction performance for a disturbance observer on sensor-less vector control method. i q i q :0.2pu/div i q i q :0.2pu/div i d i d :0.2pu/div i d i d :0.2pu/div 0 (i d ) 0 (i q ) 0 (i u ) i u i u :5A /div THD:.% 0 (i d ) 0 (i q ) 0 (i u ) i u i u :5A /div THD:0.35% 5ms/div (a)no correction method 5ms/div (b)correction method based on disturbance observer Figure 8. A Comparison of Correction performance for a disturbance observer on vector control method. THD:8.9% (a)no correction method THD:0.98% (b)correction method based on disturbance observer Figure 9. A Comparison of Correction performance for a disturbance observer on V/f control method. Table. summary of current THD on each control method Control method A: No correction B: Correction method based on disturbance observer B compared with A Sensor-less vector 3.9%.20% /3 Vector.% 0.35% /3 V/f 8.9% 0.98% /9

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