COHERENT DETECTION OPTICAL OFDM SYSTEM

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1 342 COHERENT DETECTION OPTICAL OFDM SYSTEM Puneet Mittal, Nitesh Singh Chauhan, Anand Gaurav B.Tech student, Electronics and Communication Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India Jabeena A Faculty, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)is an attractive modulation format that recently received a lot of attention in the fiber-optic community. The main advantage of optical OFDM is that it can cope with virtually unlimited amount of inter symbol interference (ISI). In high-speed optical transmission systems, ISI is caused for instance by chromatic dispersion and it is serious issue in long-haul systems whose bit rate is higher. The primary aim of coherent communications has shiftedtoward supporting these high-speed dynamic networks by simplifying the network installation, monitoring and maintenance. Keywords: Bit error Rate, Coherent Detection, Phase Modulator, Optical OFDM. 1. INTRODUCTION There has been a drastic increase in the demand for high speed communication with mobile connectivity. High speed communication has been traditionally facilitated over wired infrastructure, particularly optical fiber, while mobile communication is supported by wireless infrastructure. But the wireless network has severe performance degradation due to interference, low data rate etc. The design of communication networks that feature high-speed and mobility is facilitated by radio over fiber networks. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been an important candidate in wireless communication since many years. Recently optical OFDM has emerged as a new trend in optical communication networks to combat the effects of dispersion in optical fiber. Optical OFDM is mainly classified into direct detection system and coherent detection system. In direct detection system a single photodiode is used,while in coherent detection the principle of optical mixing is utilized with local oscillator and optical hybrid. The superior performance of CO- OFDM in terms of its dispersion tolerance and OSNR requirements makes it a suitable candidate for long haul networks. Coherent reception requires that the polarization of local oscillator should be matched with that of the received signal.otherwise severe performance degradation results. The state of polarization of light travelling through the conventional fiber varies randomly. Hence polarization tracking device is necessary at the receiver, which is impractical in field application. Another alternative is to split the received light into two orthogonal polarizations and process in separate branches of the receiver. The performance of such a diversity receiver would be independent of the state of polarization of the received signal. When the modulation technique of OFDM combines with coherent detection, the benefits brought by these two powerful techniques are multifold : (1)High spectral efficiency; (2) Robust to chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion; (3) High receiver sensitivity; (4) Dispersion Compensation Modules (DCM)-free operation; (5) Less DSP complexity; (6) Less oversampling factor; (7) More flexibility in spectral shaping and matched filtering. The paper presents a performance analysis of a coherent optical OFDM system in terms of its BER. Also a performance comparison is done to show the significance of polarization diversity scheme in coherent architecture. A detailed description of CO- OFDM system is given below in details with the simulations. The results and discussions are given below. 2. PRINCIPLES OF CO-OFDM Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been extensively used in wireless communication since many years, due to its excellent immunity to multipath fading effects and frequency selective fading. Recently an optical equivalent for such a system has emerged, known as CO-OFDM. This combines the advantages of coherent detection as well as that of OFDM.

2 343 OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technique, where the sub carriers are mutually orthogonal to one another. The main principle of OFDM involves the conversion of a serial data stream into a set of parallel data streams of longer time duration. In CO-OFDM transmitter section, the data is first mapped into any constellation like QAM or PSK and is then passed on to an IFFT modulator, to obtain the OFDM spectrum. The easy implementation of OFDM using IFFT modulation, is an important attraction for this architecture. The data is then directly up converted to optical frequency. Thus the electrical bandwidth requirement and thus the cost of transceiver is greatly reduced in CO OFDM. The block diagram of CO- OFDM is shown in Figure. The receiver section uses two balanced receivers for photodetection. It is followed by the OFDM demodulator section. Coherent requires that the state of polarization of the incoming light wave be same as that of the LO light wave.otherwise severe performance degradation results. The SOP of the light wave changes randomly as it propagates through the conventional fiber, due to structural and temperature changes. Hence either mannual polarization tracking is needed at the receiver, or else the reception has to be made independent of the received polarization, using polarization diversity schemes. 3. SYSTEM SETUP The optical transmission link with & without equalizer compensation by using single channel CO-OFDM system is setup by using a commercial fiber optics system simulation tool, OptiSystem. It has been used by many researchers to simulate the fiber nonlinearity and dispersion effects in optical communication systems Simulation setting takes most key optical communication system/component parameters into account including fiber nonlinearity, noise, dispersion, etc. Figure: coherent optical OFDM system block diagram A generic CO-OFDM system includes five basic functional blocks: OFDM transmitter, RF to optical (RTO) upconverter, optical link, optical to RF (OTR) down converter, and OFDM receiver. The above schematic demonstrates a 10 Gbps coherent 512-subcarrier 4-QAM OFDM system; however the input data for the OFDM modulator can have different modulation formats such as BPSK, QPSK, QAM, etc. At the transmission block, both modulation and multiplexing are achieved digitally using an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The subcarrier frequencies are mathematically orthogonal over one OFDM symbol period. A CW laser and two Mach- Zehnder modulators are used to up-convert the RF data to the optical domain. The signal is then propagated through the optical link and becomes degraded due to fiber impairments. A coherent receiver with a local oscillator is used to down-convert the data to the RF domain, and finally data is demodulated and sent to the detector and decoder for BER measurements. 4. SPECIFICATION 1. Data transmission bit rate is 10 Gbps 2. A bit stream is generated using a pseudo random binary sequence generator 3. data is mapped by a 4-QAM encoder parallel data subcarriers and processed by the IFFT processor. 5. The Mach Zehnder modulator is used to convert electrical signals to optical signals 6. The laser line width is set at 0.15MHz, 7. The frequency of the carrier wave is set at 193.1THz.

3 The optical channel consists of 2 spans of 50 km single mode fiber (SMF), with attenuation =0.2dB/km, dispersion = 16 ps/nm/km. 9. The local oscillator (LO) laser is assumed to be perfectly aligned with power set at -2dBm and line width equals to 0.15 MHz. 10. The I/Q components of the OFDM signal is recovered by a 90 degree optical hybrid and two pairs of photo-detectors 11. The converted OFDM RF signal is demodulated using FFT processor 12. The obtained signals are fed into a 4- QAM decoder. 13. Transmission bits are collected and bit error ratio (BER) is calculated and compared at the end of the receiver. 5. COHERENT OPTICAL OFDM SYSTEM DESIGN In OOFDM system, the transmitter model is consisted of Optical OFDM based on coherent detection is depicts in Figure 1 two parts, the first part is the radio frequency (RF) transmitter and the second one is optical transmitter. The role of the optical transmitter is to convert the electrical signal into optical signal, and send the resulting optical signal into the optical fiber cable/medium and also can called RF to optical up converter (RTO). The optical transmitter consists of the following components, optical source, electrical pulse generator and optical modulator as shown in Figure 1 The transmission link as shown in Figure 1 one span is consisted of optical fiber with length of 50 km and attenuation 0.2 db/km, which work as transmission media, optical amplifier to amplify the weak signals and optical signal with the same window of laser, this transmission link is repeated twice. In the receiver model of system of this OOFDM system is consist of two parts, the first is optical receiver, and the second one is RF receiver as shown in figure 1. The optical receiver is consisted of two blocks and also called optical to RF down converter (OTR). When the optical signal sent from laser to receiver by optical fiber the first block is received the signal is photodetector. After the optical signal converted to electrical signal by using coherent technique and all noise is eliminated, the signal will be demodulated at the same RF frequency which was modulated, then the signal will demodulated with OFDM demodulator to extract the symbols and then decoded to get the original bits. Later BER has been calculated and analys the system behaviour. Optisystem circuit diagram is given below

4 345 Fig 1 Coherent detection Optical OFDM system Fig 2 :- subsystem Fig 3 :- coherent detection of optical OFDM

5 SIMULATION DESIGN Using Optisystem software Ver.13.0 for simulation, this setup has been chosen to build a 10 Gb/s transmitted signal. The schematic diagram for the system of a 100 km transmission link described in Figure 1. Optical Amplifier system is used for one-span 50 km transmission fiber. Furthermore, bit-error-rate is also calculated. To know the limitation of 10 Gb/s system by increasing number of spans means that transmission length would be increased for each situation. Constellation diagrams are also investigated for each situation From those constellation diagrams, significant improvement would be seen from transmitted system especially when the fiber length is increased. 7. RESULTS The system is analyzed and simulated in optisystem software. We have seen that while we are increasing the propogation distance we are getting more distorted signal at the receiver side. The performance of system is Checked at 10 Gbps by seeing constellation diagram for 4 QAM decoder output, frequency domain OFDM signal, the signal after MZM modulator and the optical signal frequency domain in fiber link media for different distance (eg. 100km,400km,500km). Distortion in received signal increase as propagation distance increase. Fig 4:- 4 QAM Encoder Constellation Diagram The RF spectrum for the in-phase component and the generated optical OFDM spectrum after I/Q modulation is shown below.

6 347 Fig 5 :- Modulated OFDM Signal in Frequency Domain Fig 7 :- 4QAM Decoder constellation diagram (100km) After propagating signal through 400 km over fiber, the recovered signal constellation diagram at the RF OFDM receiver is shown below. Fig 6 :- Coherent Optical OFDM Signal After propagating signal through 100 km over fiber, the recovered signal constellation diagram at the RF OFDM receiver is shown below. Fig 8:- 4QAM Decoder constellation diagram (400km) After propagating signal through 500 km over fiber, the recovered signal constellation diagram at the RF OFDM receiver is shown below.

7 Interfaces with popular design tools 3. New BER Test Set enables the simulation of millions of bits for direct error counting. 4. High spectral efficiency. 5. Robust to chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion 5. Dispersion Compensation Modules (DCM)-free operation. 6 Less oversampling factor. 7 More flexibility in spectral shaping and matched filtering. Fig 9:- 4QAM Decoder constellation diagram (500km) REFERENCES [1] Shieh, W., and Athaudage, C.: Coherent optical orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing, Electron. Lett., 2006, 42, pp [2] G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Second Edition",Academic Press, San Diego, USA, (1995) Chap. 10. [3] E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, Coherent detection in optical fiber systems, Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp ,Jan [4]W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design, Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp , Jan [5] K. Kikuchi, Coherent detection of phase-shift keying signals using digital carrier-phase estimation, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2006), Paper OTuI4. [6] A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc and Y.-K. Chen, Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Anaheim, 2007), Paper OThK4. [7] K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems, (Springer, New York, 2005). Fig 10 :- BER performance 8. BENEFITS 1. Multi-parameter scanning enables system designers to study trade-offs with respect to parameters of interest and to choose an optimal design for deployments.

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