# Implementation of MIMO-OFDM System Based on MATLAB

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2 III.OFDM Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies, which are orthogonal to each other. In multipath channel, most conventional modulation techniques are sensitive to inter symbol interference. Fading is also another major problem that is encountered in multipath communication. OFDM is the solution to both these problems. OFDM is significantly less sensitive to inter symbol interference and it also helps reduce signal fading by a significant margin. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a method of digital signal modulation in which a single data stream is split across several separate narrowband channels at different frequencies to reduce inter symbol interference and crosstalk. The original data stream that in a conventional single-channel modulation scheme would be sent serially are transmitted in parallel but at lower speed in each sub stream relative to the original signal. This means that the symbols that are sent in sub stream are longer and spaced further apart. Cyclic prefixing refers to the prefixing of a symbol, with a repetition of the end. OFDM makes use of cyclic prefixes to combat multipath by making channel estimation less complex. The cyclic prefix is created so that each OFDM symbol is preceded by a copy of the end part of that same symbol. The addition of the cyclic prefix adds robustness to the OFDM signal. The guard interval introduced by the addition of cyclic prefix to the system enables the effects of inter-symbol interference to be reduced. The cyclic prefix turns the linear convolution with the channel into a circular convolution. This enables us to use the single-tap equalization OFDM is so famous for. Figure 2.Block Diagram of OFDM IV. MIMO MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a antenna technology in wireless communication. In this technology, various antennas are placed at the transmitter as well as on the receiver side. Signal from each antenna from the transmitter side reaches each antenna on the receiver side as shown in the below figure. Let us consider an example of 2x2 MIMO, n(1)= m(1)*h11 + m(2)*h21 n(2)= m(1)*h12 + m(2)*h22 Figure 3. Block Diagram of MIMO Volume 10 Issue 2 May ISSN:

3 Here n is Rx term, m is Tx. term and h is channel coefficient. MIMO technology involves two concepts, they are spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity. The performance of a communication system is improved by using the above two concepts and reducing the multipath effect. (1) Spatial Multiplexing is a concept which involves transmission of multiple data streams over multiple antennas. It is similar to frequency division multiplexing and time division multiplexing where data is transmitted over different spatial channels rather than different frequency or time slots. (2) Spatial Diversity: The concept of diversity has already been introduced. Spatial diversity is a concept which involves transmission of the same data stream over different paths over the channel. V. MIMO-OFDM USING STBC Before understanding STBC (Space Time Block Coding), let us understand what is alamouti coding. This coding technique was one of the first to be introduced. One main advantage of this coding technique is that it requires only channel state information(csi) at Rx end whereas other coding techniques involve CSI at both Rx and Tx. But it had certain limitations such as it worked only for cases where there are only two Tx antennas involved. Hence there was the introduction of Space time block coding. Let us consider a space-time encoded communication system. In the below block diagram, the k information bits are undergone error coding and introducing redundancy which results in n symbols (n>k). These codewords which are modulated are mapped onto different antennas using the space time encoder. Here, Nt corresponds to space dimension and p corresponds to symbol period over time dimension. Figure 4. STBC Block Diagram Multiple Input Multiple output(mimo)-orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) combination is part of advanced wireless communication technologies for 4G and 5G standards used in LANs (Local Area Networks) and mobile devices. It has various advantages because of the combination of MIMO and OFDM. It multiplies the capacity as MIMO technology is used in which multiple signals are transmitted over the channel and delivers high data rates as OFDM technology divides the channel into sub channels which are orthogonal to each other. It has high spectral efficiency even when there is no channel state information (CSI) employed. Latest improvements in MIMO-OFDM are Multi-user MIMO, Massive MIMO which are employed in 5G technology. Figure 5. MIMO-OFDM Block Diagram Serial Data is given to the OFDM Modulator and then the signal is transmitted over each antenna using the MIMO encoder with STBC coding. Rayleigh channel with AWGN is set up through which signal travels. At the receiver Volume 10 Issue 2 May ISSN:

4 side, MIMO decoders are used at each receiving antenna and one transmitted signal is taken to demodulate using the OFDM demodulator and the original data is obtained. VI. SIMULATION RESULTS Figure 6. Rayleigh Channel for SNR=1 Figure 7.BER vs SNR for MIMO Figure 8.BER vs SNR for MIMO-OFDM Volume 10 Issue 2 May ISSN:

5 VI. CONCLUSION Based on summing up the work of our predecessors, we brings forward a simple MIMO-OFDM wireless communication system. The system structure is very simple and it is simulated by matlab. The experiment results show that the system has good performance when there are more antennas especially the number of the receiver antennas is greater than that of the transmitter antennas and the other conditions are the same. But, the increase of the carrier number can decrease the system performance because of the interference between each sub-carrier. Future scope of MIMO-OFDM is multi-user MIMO, Massive MIMO. Also, 2x2 or 4x4 MIMO can be extended to NxN MIMO. VII. REFERENCES [1] Caiping Xuan, "Research and Simulation on MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation", Master Thesis of Shanghai University, Jan (in Chinese). [2] Zhaoxin Zhang, "Wireless Mobile Communications based on OFDM", Journal of Modern Electronic Techniques, No.1, 2005 [3] Rong Li, "MIMO techniques in wireless communications", Journal of Digital Communications of China, Feb [4] Gordon L. StUber, John R. Barry, Steve W.Mc-Laughlin, Ye (Geoffrey) Li, etal., "Broadband MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications", Proceedings Of The IEEE, Vol. 92, No.2, Feb [5] Xuejian Tong and Tao Luo, "Principles and applications on OFDM Mobile Communication Techniques", Renmin Youdian Publications, June 2003 [6] Li Zhang and Yunkuan Wang, "The Future New Standards on Wireless Communication: IEEE ", Journal of Zhongxin Communication Techniques, No.2, 2002 Volume 10 Issue 2 May ISSN:

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