1 Hands-On-Relay School 2015 Distribution Event Analysis Randy Spacek Protection Engineer Manager
2 OVERVIEW Available Tools Fault Type Identification: line and transformer Relay Event Record: Oscillography & Digital Elements Sequence of Events Record Element Pick Up and Logic Approach Distribution Event analysis TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG 742, fuse operation FAST TRIP BLOCK (FTB) Scheme SPT 4S30 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Transformer Event Analysis 15kV OPEN PHASE Detection SIP 12F1 Transformer Differential ECL 115/13kV Lolo Autotransformer Operation Homework Transmission Event Analysis DGP Breaker A-538 Directional Elements Boulder Breaker Failure
3 Tools Records One Line Diagram Relay Manual Relay Settings Data SCADA Log Relay SER Relay Event Software Oscillography Phasor
4 Tools: Records-One Line
5 Tools: Records-Settings Trip Equation Logic Enables Elements
6 Tools: Records-Settings Logic Review:
7 Tools: Data-SCADA LOG Time, Date and sequence of the event
8 SER 2/2/2010 Tools: Data-Relay SER 50-51T/R/R-9631/ Date: 02/04/10 Time: 15:46: STJ/24KV BKR/AUTO XFMR FID=SEL-351R-2-R303-V0-Z D CID=89C9 BCBFID=R107 # DATE TIME ELEMENT STATE status with time stamp /02/10 17:52: C1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: A1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Asserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Asserted SV5 = TRIP *!3PO /02/10 17:52: SV1 Asserted SV1 = TRIP * (51P1+51G1+51Q) /02/10 17:52: TMB4A Asserted TMB4A = TRIP /02/10 17:52: SV2 Asserted SV2 =!PINBD, Trip Coil Monitor /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Deasserted Element Pick Up/Drop Out /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV2 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: A Deasserted Internal Logic Equations /02/10 17:52: PO Asserted Configured Logic
9 Tools: Data-Relay Event =>his 50-51F1/R-9200/ Date: 11/12/14 Time: 09:30: ODN/731/SUNNYSIDE # DATE TIME EVENT LOCAT CURR FREQ GRP SHOT TARGETS 1 11/12/14 06:45: BCG /12/14 05:32: ABC T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /11/14 13:13: CG /25/14 23:10: CG /12/14 23:49: ER $$$$$$$ /02/14 13:04: CG /27/14 01:13: ER $$$$$$$ /20/14 15:42: CG /14/14 09:57: CG History: Quick look at number of operations Sequence overview T/R/T/R/T/R/T-LO Phases involved Event of interest
11 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Waveforms show 1. Increased balanced current in all 3 phases 2. Corresponding all 3 of the phase voltages are depressed
12 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Phasors show 1. Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart. 2. Faulted phase voltages depressed and 120 degrees apart. Fault Type? 3PH Fault
13 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in 2 of the phases (180 out from one another). 2. Two of the phase voltages are depressed (and approximately in phase).
14 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Phasors Show 1. Fault currents 180 degrees out from one another. 2. Faulted phase voltages are depressed and 30 degrees different in phase angle from one another. Fault Type? LL Fault
15 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in only one phase. 2. Only 1 phase voltage is depressed.
16 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Phasors Show 1. Fault current seen in only one phase. 2. Faulted phase voltage is depressed. Fault Type? 1LG Fault
17 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart Fault Type? 3PH Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
18 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 A R R a B b C c Current Distribution 3PH Fault 13.8 kv IA = IB = IC = Ia = Ib = Ic = IA = Ia / 8.33 = 5158A / 8.33 IA = 619A
19 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 1 phase twice the other two and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? LL Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
20 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = IC = Ia = 0 0 Ib = Ic = IA & IC = IB 3LG 13.8kV fault = 5158A Ib = Ic= 4467 A, 4467/5158 = 86.6%= 3/2
21 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 2 phases and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? SLG Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
22 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = 0 0 IC = Ia=3I0= Ib = 0 0 Ic = 0 0 IA = 5346/(8.33* 3) = 370 amps. So the high side phase current is the 3 less as compared to the 3Ø fault.
23 Fault Type Identification: Examples Handout
24 Relay Event Records Short Form Relay Event 1. Event report type Compressed/ Date&Time Synchronized? 2. Relay Version 3. Event type Fault type, T-Trip, ER/ Location miles/ Shot Counter number of recloses/ Frequency measured 4. Targets front of relay LEDs 5. Currents - in primary
25 Relay Event Records - Oscillography 1. Analog quantities of interest provide system response to fault 2. Quantities are after full cycle cosine filter and sampled peak value divide by 2 3. Sample rate dependent upon relay type 1. Quantity magnitudes are sampled peak value divide by 2 then RMS value of two samples in a row 2. Provides indication of analog quantity compared to an element pick up
26 Relay Event Records - Digitals Add elements of interest Based on fault type 51P1 In trip equation 50P1 Reclosing state 79CY Breaker status Electrical - 52A Mechanical - 3PO Logic Trip Inputs IN104 Configured Logic SV1 State: 1 = Bold Line = Asserted 0 = Thin Line = Non Active
28 Relay Event Record Example 1 Settings 50G2 = 480Apri 51G1 = 480Apri Why does 51G1 assert after 50G1 (since both set at 480Apri)? Take a look at TCCC Graph
29 Relay Event Record Example 1 SEL time curves implemented to mathematically mimic EM (electromechanical) relays. Equation is: t p TD tp = Operate Time in Seconds TD = Time Dial Setting M = Multiples of Pickup (M>1) M 1 Since the equation is mathematical at what point does the time overcurrent pick up? CO-11 Time Curves 51 elements will pickup at ~ % of actual setting due to energy requirement 50 = Peak Value 51 = RMS
31 Relay Event Record Example 2 Settings 51P1 = 600Apri
32 Relay Event Record Example 3 Fault Type? LL Expected digitals... 51P, and also 51Q Modify Add Q digital. Add I2mag
33 Relay Event Record Example 3 Settings 51Q = 828Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri
34 Relay Event Record Example 4 Fault Types? LL, then 3LG Expected digitals... 51Q 51P Modify Add P & Q digitals Add IPmags & I2mag
35 Relay Event Record Example 4 Settings 51Q = 828Apri 51P1 = 600Apri IAmag & IBmag = 2350Apri ICmag = 100Apri (Load) I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri
36 Approach 1. Identify where you are going 2. What do we need to know 3. Gather electronic information from sources 4. Build a sequence of events or logical order 5. Make a list of questions 6. Use process of elimination and perform analysis 7. Draw conclusion with supporting data Start Events Logs SER Sort Order? conclude Final
37 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Sagle (SAG) 742 Direction? Verify Proper Operation What is Correct Sequence? Temporary Fault: T/R 50P/50G Permanent Fault: T/R/T/R/T-LO 50P/50G & 51P/51G
38 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG /51F 351S HISTORY DATE TIME TARGETS MILE AMPS HZ GROUP SH 12/13/08 01:44: AB T /13/08 01:44: CG /13/08 01:44: AB /13/08 01:45: BCG /13/08 01:45: AB /13/08 01:45: ABC T /13/08 06:09: BC TRIP1 by 50P1 RECLOSE1 (0.5 ) TRIP2 by 51P1T RECLOSE2 (12 ) Fault re-established TRIP3 by 51P1T & LO Restored by 201C
39 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP1 by 50P1
40 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE1 (79OI1=0.5 )
41 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault, from SER 1 after reclose TRIP2 by 51P1T occurred at end of event
42 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE2 (79OI2=12 )
43 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault 2, from SER 30 after Reclose 2
44 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP3 by 51P1T to LO,~0.7 after fault initiate
45 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence CAUSE? 1. Line patrolled and nothing found. 2. Closed line in and it held. 3. Suspect new substation s higher fault duties with long spans and narrow spacing (5ft x-arms) between phase conductors is causing Blowout and or Slapping after initial fault. 4. A project was initiated to install 9ft x-arms and increase spacing to 1.0 miles out of the the station.
46 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30
47 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 Station Layout
48 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 FAST TRIP BLOCKING 50/51F 4S21 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S23 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S30 351S OUT BT-1 AR
49 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51F - TRIP
50 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51BT
51 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51BT
52 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51F - Reclose
53 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework Handout
54 SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Handout
55 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection A a B 0.5 PU 1.0 PU 0.5 PU b D YG Transformers C c SEL Application Guide AG97-11
56 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Spokane Industrial Park 115/13.8kV 70 / 63.5 = 110% Vdiff =63.5:1 PTR
57 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Calculations: VAB sec = = VBC sec = = VCA sec = = Vnom = 197 or PP = 0.4*Vnom = 78.8 or PP = 0.72*Vnom = or149.7 Will the setting levels work?
63 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph. 2. Plot shows we re operating in Restraint region. So, what s going on? Let s look at Phasors
64 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 332 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. But, what s wrong with this picture? Phasors show that polarity is backwards on the 587 s Winding 2 inputs thus creating a differential for through-flow current. Let s plot on Differential Characteristic Graph with backwards polarity.
65 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph, but with Winding 2 as negative (since polarity is backwards). 2. Plot now shows we re crossing just into the Operate region. So, what do phasors show when polarity is wired correctly?
66 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/587 Phasors shown after having polarity inputs corrected. 1. IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 153 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. W1 & W2 currents now cancel each other, taking into account 30 degree phase shift of D-YG transformer.
67 Lolo Autotransformer Operation Handout
68 DGP A-538 Directional Element At my Desk in the morning Identify where you are going
69 DGP A-538 Directional Element What do we need to know?
70 DGP A-538 Directional Element Protection System Scheme SEL-121G Settings
71 DGP A-538 Directional Element DGP SEL-121G Event Fault Type?
72 DGP A-538 Directional Element LF SEL-121G Event Fault Type?
DISTRIBUTION DEVICE COORDINATION Kevin Damron & Calvin Howard Avista Utilities Presented March th, 08 At the 5 th Annual Hands-On Relay School Washington State University Pullman, Washington TABLE OF CONTENTS
Using a Multiple Analog Input Distance Relay as a DFR Dennis Denison Senior Transmission Specialist Entergy Rich Hunt, M.S., P.E. Senior Field Application Engineer NxtPhase T&D Corporation Presented at
Forward to the Basics: Selected Topics in Distribution Protection Lee Underwood and David Costello Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Presented at the IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference Orlando,
SEL-251 Distribution Relay Phase Overcurrent Relay with Voltage Control Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Relay * Ground Overcurrent Relay Multiple Shot Reclosing Relay Selectable Setting Groups Circuit Breaker
Exercise Objectives Hands-On Relay Testing Session Overcurrent Elements After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following: Identify overcurrent element settings. Determine effective
1 Distance Relay Response to Transformer Energization: Problems and Solutions Joe Mooney, P.E. and Satish Samineni, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Abstract Modern distance relays use various filtering
Verifying Transformer Differential Compensation Settings Edsel Atienza and Marion Cooper Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Presented at the 6th International Conference on Large Power Transformers
Reducing the Effects of Short Circuit Faults on Sensitive Loads in Distribution Systems Alexander Apostolov AREVA T&D Automation I. INTRODUCTION The electric utilities industry is going through significant
2014 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition Impacts of the Distribution System Renewable Energy Resources on the Power System Protection Babak Enayati National Grid Thursday, April
1 Substation Testing and Commissioning: Power Transformer Through Fault Test M. Talebi, Member, IEEE, Power Grid Engineering Y. Unludag Electric Power System Abstract This paper reviews the advantage of
Fault Coverage of Memory Polarized Mho Elements with Time Delays Hulme, Jason Abstract This paper analyzes the effect of time delays on the fault resistance coverage of memory polarized distance elements.
EE 5223 - Lecture 14 Wed Feb 8, 2017 Ongoing List of Topics: URL: http://www.ece.mtu.edu/faculty/bamork/ee5223/index.htm Labs - EE5224 Lab 3 - begins on Tues Feb 14th Term Project - details posted. Limit
1.0 Introduction Protection 2 There are five basic classes of protective relays: Magnitude relays Directional relays Ratio (impedance) relays Differential relays Pilot relays We will study each of these.
The Electrical Power Engineers Qual-Tech Engineers, Inc. 201 Johnson Road Building #1 Suite 203 Houston, PA 15342-1300 Phone 724-873-9275 Fax 724-873-8910 www.qualtecheng.com ARC FLASH PPE GUIDELINES FOR
Russell W. Patterson Tennessee Valley Authority Presented to the 9th Annual Fault and Disturbance Analysis Conference May 1-2, 26 Abstract This paper discusses the saturation of a 5kV neutral CT upon energization
Solutions to Common Distribution Protection Challenges Jeremy Blair, Greg Hataway, and Trevor Mattson Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Copyright SEL 2016 Common Distribution Protection Problems
Al-Balqa Applied University Power systems Protection course Department of Electrical Energy Engineering 1 Part 5 Relays 2 3 Relay Is a device which receive a signal from the power system thought CT and
269 188.8.131.52 Time-current Coordination Time that is controlled by current magnitude permits discriminating faults at one location from another. There are three variables available to discriminate faults,
BUS2000 Busbar Differential Protection System Differential overcurrent system with percentage restraint protection 1 Typical Busbar Arrangements Single Busbar Double Busbar with Coupler Breaker and a Half
MODBUS/BECO2200-M3425A Communication Data Base for M-3425A Integrated Protection System Device I.D. = 150 Specifications presented herein are thought to be accurate at the time of publication but are subject
Breaker Pole Scatter and Its Effect on Quadrilateral Ground Distance Protection James Ryan Florida Power & Light Company Arun Shrestha and Thanh-Xuan Nguyen Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. 25
Hands On Relay School Open Lecture Transformer Differential Protection Scott Cooper Transformer Differential Protection ntroduction: Transformer differential protection schemes are ubiquitous to almost
Defining and Measuring the Performance of Line Protective Relays Edmund O. Schweitzer, III, Bogdan Kasztenny, Mangapathirao V. Mynam, Armando Guzmán, Normann Fischer, and Veselin Skendzic Schweitzer Engineering
PROTECTION SIGNALLING 1 Directional Comparison Distance Protection Schemes The importance of transmission system integrity necessitates high-speed fault clearing times and highspeed auto reclosing to avoid
Transmission Line Protection Objective General knowledge and familiarity with transmission protection schemes Transmission Line Protection Topics Primary/backup protection Coordination Communication-based
Setting Generic Distance Relay UTP-100#WPSC1 in the Computer-Aided Protection Engineering System (CAPE) Prepared for CAPE Users' Group August 6, 1998 Revised August 24, 1998 Electrocon International, Inc.
PQ Data Applications in Con Edison John Foglio July 29th, 2014 Power Quality Monitoring System 69 PQ monitors currently installed in our secondary networks 2 Power Quality Monitoring System 135 PQ monitors
Application and Commissioning Manual for Numerical Over Current Protection Relays Type MIT 121/131 CONTENTS PAGE APPLICATION 2-4 INSTALLATION 5-11 COMMISSIONING 12-16 DRAWINGS 17-18 1 1. INTRODUCTION APPLICATION
New Information Technical Data Effective: May 1999 Page 1 Applications Provides reliable 3-phase and ground overcurrent protection for all voltage levels. Primary feeder circuit protection Primary transformer
PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS M-3311A TEST PLAN Chuck Mozina -- is a Consultant, Protection and Protection Systems for Beckwith Electric and resides in Palm Harbor (near Tampa), Florida.. He is a Life Fellow
Microgrid Protection Student Laboratory Ian Hellman-Wylie and Joey Navarro Senior Project California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo 2017 Abstract To better prepare students for careers in
Gunnar Stranne Transformer protection IED RET 670 Santiago Septiembre 5, 2006 1 Transformer protection IED RET670 2 Introduction features and applications Differential protection functions Restricted Earth
Application Note Assigning and Reducing the DNP V3.0 s List on the ABB PCD Timothy S. Fahey, PE Introduction This document defines a subset of the full points list given in the DNP 3.0 Implementation Details
Analog Simulator Tests Qualify Distance Relay Designs to Today s Stringent Protection Requirements Zexin Zhou and Xiaofan Shen EPRI China Daqing Hou and Shaojun Chen Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories,
Back to the Basics Current Transformer (CT) Testing As test equipment becomes more sophisticated with better features and accuracy, we risk turning our field personnel into test set operators instead of
Digital Protective Relay Dr Murari Mohan Saha ABB AB KTH/EH2740 Lecture 3 Introduction to Modern Power System Protection A digital protective relay is an industrial microprocessor system operating in real
Power Plant and Transmission System Protection Coordination GSU Phase Overcurrent (51T), GSU Ground Overcurrent (51TG), and Breaker Failure (50BF) Protection NERC Protection Coordination Webinar Series
SEL-35 Protection System A proven distribution feeder solution with integrated protection, monitoring, and control Achieve sensitive and secure fault detection using comprehensive protection functions.
Voltage Sag Mitigation by Neutral Grounding Resistance Application in Distribution System of Provincial Electricity Authority S. Songsiri * and S. Sirisumrannukul Abstract This paper presents an application
Power Plant and Transmission System Protection Coordination Reverse Power (32), Negative Sequence Current (46), Inadvertent Energizing (50/27), Stator Ground Fault (59GN/27TH), Generator Differential (87G),
1 Power System Protection Where Are We Today? Meliha B. Selak Power System Protection & Control IEEE PES Distinguished Lecturer Program Preceding IEEE PES Vice President for Chapters firstname.lastname@example.org PES
Feature Using Event Recordings to Verify Protective Relay Operations Part II by Tony Giuliante, Donald M. MacGregor, Amir and Maria Makki, and Tony Napikoski Fault Location The accuracy of fault location
How Transformer DC Winding Resistance Testing Can Cause Generator Relays to Operate Ritwik Chowdhury, Mircea Rusicior, Jakov Vico, and Jason Young Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. 216 IEEE. Personal
Considerations and Experiences in Implementing Ground Differential Protection for Transformer Protection at TVA Meyer Kao - Consultant, Gary Kobet - Tennessee Valley Authority George Pitts -Tennessee Valley
SEL-3C TRANSMISSION PROTECTION SYSTEM ADVANCED TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION, AUTOMATION, AND CONTROL Bus ANSI NUMBERS/ACRONYMS AND FUNCTIONS 52 3 3 2 P G 8 O U 27 68 50BF 67 P G Q 50 P G Q 59 P G Q 5 P
Working Group D-3, Line Protection Subcommittee IEEE PES Power System Relaying Committee Considerations in Choosing Directional Polarizing Methods for Ground Overcurrent Elements in Line Protection Applications
Multi function system for testing substation equipment such as: current, voltage and power transformers, all type of protection relays, energy meters and transducers Primary injection testing capabilities
This webinar brought to you by The Relion Product Family Next Generation Protection and Control IEDs from ABB Relion. Thinking beyond the box. Designed to seamlessly consolidate functions, Relion relays
Power Plant and Transmission System Protection Coordination Phase Distance (21) and Voltage-Controlled or Voltage-Restrained Overcurrent Protection (51V) NERC Protection Coordination Webinar Series June
Power Quality Monitoring and Analytics for Transmission and Distribution Systems Doug Dorr Electric Power Research Institute Manager Advanced Monitoring Applications Group PQSynergy 2012 Evolving Smarter
Obtaining a Reliable Polarizing Source for Ground Directional Elements in Multisource, Isolated-Neutral Distribution Systems Jeff Roberts, Normann Fischer, Bill Fleming, and Robin Jenkins Schweitzer Engineering
BE1-67N GROUND DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY The BE1-67N Ground Directional Overcurrent Relay provides ground fault protection for transmission and distribution lines by sensing the direction and magnitude
Notes 1: Introduction to Distribution Systems 1.0 Introduction Power systems are comprised of 3 basic electrical subsystems. Generation subsystem Transmission subsystem Distribution subsystem The subtransmission
1 Paralleling CTs for Line Current Differential Applications: Problems and Solutions David Costello, Jason Young, and Jonas Traphoner, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. 235 NE Hopkins Court, Pullman,
2015 Relay School Bus Protection Mike Kockott March, 2015 History of Bus Protection Circulating current differential (1900s) High impedance differential (1940s) Percentage restrained differential (1960s)
R10 Set No. 1 Code No: R41023 1. a) Explain how arc is initiated and sustained in a circuit breaker when the CB controls separates. b) The following data refers to a 3-phase, 50 Hz generator: emf between
Delayed Current Zero Crossing Phenomena during Switching of Shunt-Compensated Lines David K Olson Xcel Energy Minneapolis, MN Paul Nyombi Xcel Energy Minneapolis, MN Pratap G Mysore Pratap Consulting Services,
AVO INTERNATIONAL BRINGING RELIABILITY TO AMPS VOLTS OHMS MULTI-AMP Model SR-98 Digital Signal Processor Based technology High Current/High Power output New CA mode captures high speed trip on MCCB 0 to
1rcJll Cutler-Hammer New nformation Applications Provides reliable 3-phase and ground overcurrent protection for all voltage levels. Primary feeder circuit protection Primary transformer protection Backup
MULTILIN GER-2681B GE Power Management Phase Comparison Relaying PHASE COMPARISON RELAYING INTRODUCTION Phase comparison relaying is a kind of differential relaying that compares the phase angles of the
DESIGN OF A DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION SCHEME FOR A 345 KV TRANSMISSION LINE USING SEL 311L RELAYS by TARANGINI KAROOR SUBRAHMANYAM B.E., OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, 2011 A REPORT submitted in partial fulfillment
Innovative Solutions Improve Transmission Line Protection Daqing Hou, Armando Guzmán, and Jeff Roberts Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Presented at the 1998 Southern African Conference on Power
Feature Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays Steve Turner Beckwith Electric Co., nc. ntroduction Numerical transformer differential relays require careful consideration as to how to test properly.
Automation Rising Q U A R T E R LY First Quarter 2013 The Digital Magazine of Automation & Information Technology for Electric, Gas and Water Utilities Utility Automation & Information Technology... PLAN...
Online Assessment of Capacitor Banks Using Circuit Health Monitoring Technology Jeffrey Wischkaemper (Presenter) B. Don Russell Carl L. Benner Karthick Muthu Manivannan Texas A&M University College Station,
Transmission Line Applications of Directional Ground Overcurrent Relays Working Group D24 Report to the Line Protection Subcommittee January 2014 Working Group Members: Don Lukach (Chairman), Rick Taylor
1 STRAY FLUX AND ITS INFLUENCE ON PROTECTION RELAYS Z. GAJIĆ S. HOLST D. BONMANN D. BAARS ABB AB, SA Products ABB AB, SA Products ABB AG, Transformers ELEQ bv Sweden Sweden Germany Netherlands email@example.com
Ferroresonance on Transformer 13-k Ungrounded Tertiary at Arab Gary L. Kobet, P.E. Tennessee alley Authority In October 1997, at TA s Arab AL 161k Substation, a distributor built a 13k switchyard to load
PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATION FOR A 230 KV TRANSMISSION LINE USING A PILOT OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIPPING (POTT) SCHEME By LAZARO SAMUEL ESCALANTE DE LEON B.S., Institute of Technology of San Luis Potosi,
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF AUTOMATED FAULT ANALYSIS M. Kezunovic Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA Abstract: This paper describes a new concept of automated fault analysis where fault
Power System Fundamentals Relay Applications PJM State & Member Training Dept. Objectives At the end of this presentation the Student will be able to: Describe the purpose of protective relays Identify
NERC Requirements for Setting Load-Dependent Power Plant Protection: PRC-025-1 Charles J. Mozina, Consultant Beckwith Electric Co., Inc. www.beckwithelectric.com I. Introduction During the 2003 blackout,
Reliability Guideline Transmission System Phase Backup Protection NERC System Protection and Control Subcommittee Draft for Planning Committee Approval June 2011 Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Need
PG&E 500 kv Series-Compensated Transmission Line Relay Replacement: Design Requirements and RTDS Testing Davis Erwin, Monica Anderson, and Rafael Pineda Pacific Gas and Electric Company Demetrios A. Tziouvaras
Application of Low-Impedance 7SS601 Busbar Differential Protection 1. Introduction Utilities have to supply power to their customers with highest reliability and minimum down time. System disturbances,
PROTECTION Generator Protection M 3425 Integrated Protection System for Generators of All Sizes Unit shown with optional M 3925 Target Module and M 3931 HMI (Human Machine Interface) Module Provides all
Scheme G Sample Question Paper Course Name : Electrical Engineering Group Course Code : EE/EP Semester : Third Subject Title : Electrical Circuit and Network 17323 Marks : 100 Time: 3 hrs Instructions:
APPLICATION OF A SINGLE POLE PROTECTION SCHEME TO A DOUBLE-CIRCUIT 230 KV TRANSMISSION LINE By Barry W. Jackson Duke Energy Martin Best Duke Engineering & Services Ronald H. Bergen RFL Electronics Presented
MULTILIN GER-2622A GE Power Management Synchronism Check Equipment SYNCHRONISM CHECK EQUIPMENT K. Winick INTRODUCTION Synchronism check equipment is that kind of equipment that is used to check whether
PJM Manual 07:: PJM Protection Standards Revision: 2 Effective Date: July 1, 2016 Prepared by System Planning Division Transmission Planning Department PJM 2016 Table of Contents Table of Contents Approval...6
Distribution Feeder Principles Distribution Feeder Principles Introduction Electrical distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The distribution system s network carries
Bus Protection Fundamentals Terrence Smith GE Grid Solutions 2017 Texas A&M Protective Relay Conference Bus Protection Requirements High bus fault currents due to large number of circuits connected: CT