1 Hands-On-Relay School 2015 Distribution Event Analysis Randy Spacek Protection Engineer Manager
2 OVERVIEW Available Tools Fault Type Identification: line and transformer Relay Event Record: Oscillography & Digital Elements Sequence of Events Record Element Pick Up and Logic Approach Distribution Event analysis TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG 742, fuse operation FAST TRIP BLOCK (FTB) Scheme SPT 4S30 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Transformer Event Analysis 15kV OPEN PHASE Detection SIP 12F1 Transformer Differential ECL 115/13kV Lolo Autotransformer Operation Homework Transmission Event Analysis DGP Breaker A-538 Directional Elements Boulder Breaker Failure
3 Tools Records One Line Diagram Relay Manual Relay Settings Data SCADA Log Relay SER Relay Event Software Oscillography Phasor
4 Tools: Records-One Line
5 Tools: Records-Settings Trip Equation Logic Enables Elements
6 Tools: Records-Settings Logic Review:
7 Tools: Data-SCADA LOG Time, Date and sequence of the event
8 SER 2/2/2010 Tools: Data-Relay SER 50-51T/R/R-9631/ Date: 02/04/10 Time: 15:46: STJ/24KV BKR/AUTO XFMR FID=SEL-351R-2-R303-V0-Z D CID=89C9 BCBFID=R107 # DATE TIME ELEMENT STATE status with time stamp /02/10 17:52: C1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: A1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Asserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Asserted SV5 = TRIP *!3PO /02/10 17:52: SV1 Asserted SV1 = TRIP * (51P1+51G1+51Q) /02/10 17:52: TMB4A Asserted TMB4A = TRIP /02/10 17:52: SV2 Asserted SV2 =!PINBD, Trip Coil Monitor /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Deasserted Element Pick Up/Drop Out /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV2 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: A Deasserted Internal Logic Equations /02/10 17:52: PO Asserted Configured Logic
9 Tools: Data-Relay Event =>his 50-51F1/R-9200/ Date: 11/12/14 Time: 09:30: ODN/731/SUNNYSIDE # DATE TIME EVENT LOCAT CURR FREQ GRP SHOT TARGETS 1 11/12/14 06:45: BCG /12/14 05:32: ABC T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /11/14 13:13: CG /25/14 23:10: CG /12/14 23:49: ER $$$$$$$ /02/14 13:04: CG /27/14 01:13: ER $$$$$$$ /20/14 15:42: CG /14/14 09:57: CG History: Quick look at number of operations Sequence overview T/R/T/R/T/R/T-LO Phases involved Event of interest
11 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Waveforms show 1. Increased balanced current in all 3 phases 2. Corresponding all 3 of the phase voltages are depressed
12 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Phasors show 1. Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart. 2. Faulted phase voltages depressed and 120 degrees apart. Fault Type? 3PH Fault
13 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in 2 of the phases (180 out from one another). 2. Two of the phase voltages are depressed (and approximately in phase).
14 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Phasors Show 1. Fault currents 180 degrees out from one another. 2. Faulted phase voltages are depressed and 30 degrees different in phase angle from one another. Fault Type? LL Fault
15 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in only one phase. 2. Only 1 phase voltage is depressed.
16 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Phasors Show 1. Fault current seen in only one phase. 2. Faulted phase voltage is depressed. Fault Type? 1LG Fault
17 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart Fault Type? 3PH Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
18 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 A R R a B b C c Current Distribution 3PH Fault 13.8 kv IA = IB = IC = Ia = Ib = Ic = IA = Ia / 8.33 = 5158A / 8.33 IA = 619A
19 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 1 phase twice the other two and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? LL Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
20 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = IC = Ia = 0 0 Ib = Ic = IA & IC = IB 3LG 13.8kV fault = 5158A Ib = Ic= 4467 A, 4467/5158 = 86.6%= 3/2
21 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 2 phases and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? SLG Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
22 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = 0 0 IC = Ia=3I0= Ib = 0 0 Ic = 0 0 IA = 5346/(8.33* 3) = 370 amps. So the high side phase current is the 3 less as compared to the 3Ø fault.
23 Fault Type Identification: Examples Handout
24 Relay Event Records Short Form Relay Event 1. Event report type Compressed/ Date&Time Synchronized? 2. Relay Version 3. Event type Fault type, T-Trip, ER/ Location miles/ Shot Counter number of recloses/ Frequency measured 4. Targets front of relay LEDs 5. Currents - in primary
25 Relay Event Records - Oscillography 1. Analog quantities of interest provide system response to fault 2. Quantities are after full cycle cosine filter and sampled peak value divide by 2 3. Sample rate dependent upon relay type 1. Quantity magnitudes are sampled peak value divide by 2 then RMS value of two samples in a row 2. Provides indication of analog quantity compared to an element pick up
26 Relay Event Records - Digitals Add elements of interest Based on fault type 51P1 In trip equation 50P1 Reclosing state 79CY Breaker status Electrical - 52A Mechanical - 3PO Logic Trip Inputs IN104 Configured Logic SV1 State: 1 = Bold Line = Asserted 0 = Thin Line = Non Active
28 Relay Event Record Example 1 Settings 50G2 = 480Apri 51G1 = 480Apri Why does 51G1 assert after 50G1 (since both set at 480Apri)? Take a look at TCCC Graph
29 Relay Event Record Example 1 SEL time curves implemented to mathematically mimic EM (electromechanical) relays. Equation is: t p TD tp = Operate Time in Seconds TD = Time Dial Setting M = Multiples of Pickup (M>1) M 1 Since the equation is mathematical at what point does the time overcurrent pick up? CO-11 Time Curves 51 elements will pickup at ~ % of actual setting due to energy requirement 50 = Peak Value 51 = RMS
31 Relay Event Record Example 2 Settings 51P1 = 600Apri
32 Relay Event Record Example 3 Fault Type? LL Expected digitals... 51P, and also 51Q Modify Add Q digital. Add I2mag
33 Relay Event Record Example 3 Settings 51Q = 828Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri
34 Relay Event Record Example 4 Fault Types? LL, then 3LG Expected digitals... 51Q 51P Modify Add P & Q digitals Add IPmags & I2mag
35 Relay Event Record Example 4 Settings 51Q = 828Apri 51P1 = 600Apri IAmag & IBmag = 2350Apri ICmag = 100Apri (Load) I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri
36 Approach 1. Identify where you are going 2. What do we need to know 3. Gather electronic information from sources 4. Build a sequence of events or logical order 5. Make a list of questions 6. Use process of elimination and perform analysis 7. Draw conclusion with supporting data Start Events Logs SER Sort Order? conclude Final
37 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Sagle (SAG) 742 Direction? Verify Proper Operation What is Correct Sequence? Temporary Fault: T/R 50P/50G Permanent Fault: T/R/T/R/T-LO 50P/50G & 51P/51G
38 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG /51F 351S HISTORY DATE TIME TARGETS MILE AMPS HZ GROUP SH 12/13/08 01:44: AB T /13/08 01:44: CG /13/08 01:44: AB /13/08 01:45: BCG /13/08 01:45: AB /13/08 01:45: ABC T /13/08 06:09: BC TRIP1 by 50P1 RECLOSE1 (0.5 ) TRIP2 by 51P1T RECLOSE2 (12 ) Fault re-established TRIP3 by 51P1T & LO Restored by 201C
39 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP1 by 50P1
40 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE1 (79OI1=0.5 )
41 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault, from SER 1 after reclose TRIP2 by 51P1T occurred at end of event
42 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE2 (79OI2=12 )
43 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault 2, from SER 30 after Reclose 2
44 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP3 by 51P1T to LO,~0.7 after fault initiate
45 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence CAUSE? 1. Line patrolled and nothing found. 2. Closed line in and it held. 3. Suspect new substation s higher fault duties with long spans and narrow spacing (5ft x-arms) between phase conductors is causing Blowout and or Slapping after initial fault. 4. A project was initiated to install 9ft x-arms and increase spacing to 1.0 miles out of the the station.
46 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30
47 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 Station Layout
48 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 FAST TRIP BLOCKING 50/51F 4S21 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S23 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S30 351S OUT BT-1 AR
49 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51F - TRIP
50 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51BT
51 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51BT
52 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51F - Reclose
53 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework Handout
54 SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Handout
55 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection A a B 0.5 PU 1.0 PU 0.5 PU b D YG Transformers C c SEL Application Guide AG97-11
56 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Spokane Industrial Park 115/13.8kV 70 / 63.5 = 110% Vdiff =63.5:1 PTR
57 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Calculations: VAB sec = = VBC sec = = VCA sec = = Vnom = 197 or PP = 0.4*Vnom = 78.8 or PP = 0.72*Vnom = or149.7 Will the setting levels work?
63 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph. 2. Plot shows we re operating in Restraint region. So, what s going on? Let s look at Phasors
64 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 332 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. But, what s wrong with this picture? Phasors show that polarity is backwards on the 587 s Winding 2 inputs thus creating a differential for through-flow current. Let s plot on Differential Characteristic Graph with backwards polarity.
65 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph, but with Winding 2 as negative (since polarity is backwards). 2. Plot now shows we re crossing just into the Operate region. So, what do phasors show when polarity is wired correctly?
66 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/587 Phasors shown after having polarity inputs corrected. 1. IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 153 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. W1 & W2 currents now cancel each other, taking into account 30 degree phase shift of D-YG transformer.
67 Lolo Autotransformer Operation Handout
68 DGP A-538 Directional Element At my Desk in the morning Identify where you are going
69 DGP A-538 Directional Element What do we need to know?
70 DGP A-538 Directional Element Protection System Scheme SEL-121G Settings
71 DGP A-538 Directional Element DGP SEL-121G Event Fault Type?
72 DGP A-538 Directional Element LF SEL-121G Event Fault Type?
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