Hands-On-Relay School 2015 Distribution Event Analysis. Randy Spacek Protection Engineer Manager

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1 Hands-On-Relay School 2015 Distribution Event Analysis Randy Spacek Protection Engineer Manager

2 OVERVIEW Available Tools Fault Type Identification: line and transformer Relay Event Record: Oscillography & Digital Elements Sequence of Events Record Element Pick Up and Logic Approach Distribution Event analysis TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG 742, fuse operation FAST TRIP BLOCK (FTB) Scheme SPT 4S30 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Transformer Event Analysis 15kV OPEN PHASE Detection SIP 12F1 Transformer Differential ECL 115/13kV Lolo Autotransformer Operation Homework Transmission Event Analysis DGP Breaker A-538 Directional Elements Boulder Breaker Failure

3 Tools Records One Line Diagram Relay Manual Relay Settings Data SCADA Log Relay SER Relay Event Software Oscillography Phasor

4 Tools: Records-One Line

5 Tools: Records-Settings Trip Equation Logic Enables Elements

6 Tools: Records-Settings Logic Review:

7 Tools: Data-SCADA LOG Time, Date and sequence of the event

8 SER 2/2/2010 Tools: Data-Relay SER 50-51T/R/R-9631/ Date: 02/04/10 Time: 15:46: STJ/24KV BKR/AUTO XFMR FID=SEL-351R-2-R303-V0-Z D CID=89C9 BCBFID=R107 # DATE TIME ELEMENT STATE status with time stamp /02/10 17:52: C1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: A1 Asserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Asserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Asserted SV5 = TRIP *!3PO /02/10 17:52: SV1 Asserted SV1 = TRIP * (51P1+51G1+51Q) /02/10 17:52: TMB4A Asserted TMB4A = TRIP /02/10 17:52: SV2 Asserted SV2 =!PINBD, Trip Coil Monitor /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: G1T Deasserted Element Pick Up/Drop Out /02/10 17:52: G1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV1 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV2 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: SV5 Deasserted /02/10 17:52: A Deasserted Internal Logic Equations /02/10 17:52: PO Asserted Configured Logic

9 Tools: Data-Relay Event =>his 50-51F1/R-9200/ Date: 11/12/14 Time: 09:30: ODN/731/SUNNYSIDE # DATE TIME EVENT LOCAT CURR FREQ GRP SHOT TARGETS 1 11/12/14 06:45: BCG /12/14 05:32: ABC T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG T /12/14 05:32: CG /11/14 13:13: CG /25/14 23:10: CG /12/14 23:49: ER $$$$$$$ /02/14 13:04: CG /27/14 01:13: ER $$$$$$$ /20/14 15:42: CG /14/14 09:57: CG History: Quick look at number of operations Sequence overview T/R/T/R/T/R/T-LO Phases involved Event of interest

10 Tools: Software 1. SEL-5601/SEL Event Viewer 2. Wavewin 3. Free -

11 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Waveforms show 1. Increased balanced current in all 3 phases 2. Corresponding all 3 of the phase voltages are depressed

12 Fault Type Identification: Fault#1 Phasors show 1. Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart. 2. Faulted phase voltages depressed and 120 degrees apart. Fault Type? 3PH Fault

13 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in 2 of the phases (180 out from one another). 2. Two of the phase voltages are depressed (and approximately in phase).

14 Fault Type Identification: Fault#2 Phasors Show 1. Fault currents 180 degrees out from one another. 2. Faulted phase voltages are depressed and 30 degrees different in phase angle from one another. Fault Type? LL Fault

15 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Waveforms show 1. Increased current in only one phase. 2. Only 1 phase voltage is depressed.

16 Fault Type Identification: Fault#3 Phasors Show 1. Fault current seen in only one phase. 2. Faulted phase voltage is depressed. Fault Type? 1LG Fault

17 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is balanced and 120 degrees apart Fault Type? 3PH Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.

18 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #1 A R R a B b C c Current Distribution 3PH Fault 13.8 kv IA = IB = IC = Ia = Ib = Ic = IA = Ia / 8.33 = 5158A / 8.33 IA = 619A

19 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 1 phase twice the other two and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? LL Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.

20 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #2 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = IC = Ia = 0 0 Ib = Ic = IA & IC = IB 3LG 13.8kV fault = 5158A Ib = Ic= 4467 A, 4467/5158 = 86.6%= 3/2

21 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 Phasors Show 1.Fault current is 2 phases and 180 degrees out from one another Fault Type? SLG Fault Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.

22 Fault Type Identification: Delta-Wye XFMR #3 A R R a B b C Current Distribution LL Fault 13.8 kv c IA = IB = 0 0 IC = Ia=3I0= Ib = 0 0 Ic = 0 0 IA = 5346/(8.33* 3) = 370 amps. So the high side phase current is the 3 less as compared to the 3Ø fault.

23 Fault Type Identification: Examples Handout

24 Relay Event Records Short Form Relay Event 1. Event report type Compressed/ Date&Time Synchronized? 2. Relay Version 3. Event type Fault type, T-Trip, ER/ Location miles/ Shot Counter number of recloses/ Frequency measured 4. Targets front of relay LEDs 5. Currents - in primary

25 Relay Event Records - Oscillography 1. Analog quantities of interest provide system response to fault 2. Quantities are after full cycle cosine filter and sampled peak value divide by 2 3. Sample rate dependent upon relay type 1. Quantity magnitudes are sampled peak value divide by 2 then RMS value of two samples in a row 2. Provides indication of analog quantity compared to an element pick up

26 Relay Event Records - Digitals Add elements of interest Based on fault type 51P1 In trip equation 50P1 Reclosing state 79CY Breaker status Electrical - 52A Mechanical - 3PO Logic Trip Inputs IN104 Configured Logic SV1 State: 1 = Bold Line = Asserted 0 = Thin Line = Non Active

27 Relay Event Record Example 1 Fault Type? 1LG Expected digitals... 51P 51G 51Q 50P 50G Modify Add Ground digitals Add IGmag

28 Relay Event Record Example 1 Settings 50G2 = 480Apri 51G1 = 480Apri Why does 51G1 assert after 50G1 (since both set at 480Apri)? Take a look at TCCC Graph

29 Relay Event Record Example 1 SEL time curves implemented to mathematically mimic EM (electromechanical) relays. Equation is: t p TD tp = Operate Time in Seconds TD = Time Dial Setting M = Multiples of Pickup (M>1) M 1 Since the equation is mathematical at what point does the time overcurrent pick up? CO-11 Time Curves 51 elements will pickup at ~ % of actual setting due to energy requirement 50 = Peak Value 51 = RMS

30 Relay Event Record Example 2 Fault Type? 3LG Expected digitals... 51P 50P Modify Add phase digitals Add IAmag, IBmag, & ICmag.

31 Relay Event Record Example 2 Settings 51P1 = 600Apri

32 Relay Event Record Example 3 Fault Type? LL Expected digitals... 51P, and also 51Q Modify Add Q digital. Add I2mag

33 Relay Event Record Example 3 Settings 51Q = 828Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri

34 Relay Event Record Example 4 Fault Types? LL, then 3LG Expected digitals... 51Q 51P Modify Add P & Q digitals Add IPmags & I2mag

35 Relay Event Record Example 4 Settings 51Q = 828Apri 51P1 = 600Apri IAmag & IBmag = 2350Apri ICmag = 100Apri (Load) I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri I2mag = 1360Apri, so 3I2mag = 4080Apri

36 Approach 1. Identify where you are going 2. What do we need to know 3. Gather electronic information from sources 4. Build a sequence of events or logical order 5. Make a list of questions 6. Use process of elimination and perform analysis 7. Draw conclusion with supporting data Start Events Logs SER Sort Order? conclude Final

37 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Sagle (SAG) 742 Direction? Verify Proper Operation What is Correct Sequence? Temporary Fault: T/R 50P/50G Permanent Fault: T/R/T/R/T-LO 50P/50G & 51P/51G

38 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence SAG /51F 351S HISTORY DATE TIME TARGETS MILE AMPS HZ GROUP SH 12/13/08 01:44: AB T /13/08 01:44: CG /13/08 01:44: AB /13/08 01:45: BCG /13/08 01:45: AB /13/08 01:45: ABC T /13/08 06:09: BC TRIP1 by 50P1 RECLOSE1 (0.5 ) TRIP2 by 51P1T RECLOSE2 (12 ) Fault re-established TRIP3 by 51P1T & LO Restored by 201C

39 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP1 by 50P1

40 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE1 (79OI1=0.5 )

41 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault, from SER 1 after reclose TRIP2 by 51P1T occurred at end of event

42 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence RECLOSE2 (79OI2=12 )

43 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence Evolving Fault 2, from SER 30 after Reclose 2

44 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence TRIP3 by 51P1T to LO,~0.7 after fault initiate

45 Feeder SAG 742 TRIP to Lockout Sequence CAUSE? 1. Line patrolled and nothing found. 2. Closed line in and it held. 3. Suspect new substation s higher fault duties with long spans and narrow spacing (5ft x-arms) between phase conductors is causing Blowout and or Slapping after initial fault. 4. A project was initiated to install 9ft x-arms and increase spacing to 1.0 miles out of the the station.

46 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30

47 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 Station Layout

48 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 FAST TRIP BLOCKING 50/51F 4S21 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S23 351S OUT104 50/51F 4S30 351S OUT BT-1 AR

49 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51F - TRIP

50 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51BT

51 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30? 50/51BT

52 Fast Trip Block Sandpoint Feeder 4S30 50/51F - Reclose

53 SPU Feeder 121 Operation Homework Handout

54 SAG 741 Failure Analysis Homework Handout

55 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection A a B 0.5 PU 1.0 PU 0.5 PU b D YG Transformers C c SEL Application Guide AG97-11

56 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Spokane Industrial Park 115/13.8kV 70 / 63.5 = 110% Vdiff =63.5:1 PTR

57 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection Calculations: VAB sec = = VBC sec = = VCA sec = = Vnom = 197 or PP = 0.4*Vnom = 78.8 or PP = 0.72*Vnom = or149.7 Will the setting levels work?

58 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection

59 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection SIP cycles

60 High-Side OPEN Phase Protection SIP cycles

61 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ /5A MR CONN

62 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/587 87T relay issued TRIP by 87R (restrained differential). Why? MTU1 =50P1H + 51P1T + 50Q1T + 51Q1T + 50N1H + 51N1T + 51P2T + 51Q2T + 51N2T + 87U + 87R OUT1 =TRP1 OUT2 =TRP1 Let s look at Differential Characteristic Graph.

63 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph. 2. Plot shows we re operating in Restraint region. So, what s going on? Let s look at Phasors

64 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 332 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. But, what s wrong with this picture? Phasors show that polarity is backwards on the 587 s Winding 2 inputs thus creating a differential for through-flow current. Let s plot on Differential Characteristic Graph with backwards polarity.

65 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/ Show IAW1 & IAW2 on Differential Characteristic Graph, but with Winding 2 as negative (since polarity is backwards). 2. Plot now shows we re crossing just into the Operate region. So, what do phasors show when polarity is wired correctly?

66 Transformer Differential - ECL 87T/587 Phasors shown after having polarity inputs corrected. 1. IAW1 = 0 degrees. 2. IAW2 = 153 degrees. 3. Confirms HLL connection. W1 & W2 currents now cancel each other, taking into account 30 degree phase shift of D-YG transformer.

67 Lolo Autotransformer Operation Handout

68 DGP A-538 Directional Element At my Desk in the morning Identify where you are going

69 DGP A-538 Directional Element What do we need to know?

70 DGP A-538 Directional Element Protection System Scheme SEL-121G Settings

71 DGP A-538 Directional Element DGP SEL-121G Event Fault Type?

72 DGP A-538 Directional Element LF SEL-121G Event Fault Type?

73 DGP A-538 Directional Element DGP SEL-2100 (85) SER LF SEL-2100 (85) SER =>SER 50 85/R-11299/ Date: 10/29/2014 Time: 07:23: DGP/A-538/POTT FID=SEL-2100-R105-V0-Z D CID=70B3 # DATE TIME ELEMENT STATE 42 10/28/ :37: R1P1 Asserted 41 10/28/ :37: SV3 Asserted 40 10/28/ :37: OUT101 Asserted 39 10/28/ :37: SV3T Asserted 38 10/28/ :37: SV6T Asserted 37 10/28/ :37: SV6 Asserted 36 10/28/ :37: T1P1 Asserted 35 10/28/ :37: SV6 Deasserted 34 10/28/ :37: R2P1 Asserted 33 10/28/ :37: OUT102 Asserted 32 10/28/ :37: IN103 Asserted 31 10/28/ :37: SV6T Deasserted 30 10/28/ :37: T1P1 Deasserted =>SER 10/29 85/R-11298/ Date: 10/29/2014 Time: 18:58: LF/A-495/POTT FID=SEL-2100-R105-V0-Z D CID=70B3 # DATE TIME ELEMENT STATE 44 10/29/ :37: IN101 Asserted 43 10/29/ :37: SV2T Asserted 42 10/29/ :37: SV2 Asserted 41 10/29/ :37: T1P1 Asserted 40 10/29/ :37: R1P1 Asserted 39 10/29/ :37: OUT101 Asserted 38 10/29/ :37: IN103 Asserted 37 10/29/ :37: T2P1 Asserted 36 10/29/ :37: IN101 Deasserted 35 10/29/ :37: SV2 Deasserted 34 10/29/ :37: T1P1 Deasserted 33 10/29/ :37: R2P1 Asserted 32 10/29/ :37: OUT102 Asserted 31 10/29/ :37: IN104 Asserted 30 10/29/ :37: SV4 Asserted

74 DGP A-538 Directional Element

75 DGP A-538 Directional Element Build a sequence! Ask Questions Time Device Event Action Comment Fault Inception LF SEL-121G 67N2 Pickup LF Sees Fault LF SEL-121G OUT A1 Assert Relay PT Send LF SEL-2100 IN101 Assert PT input SV2T Assert Block Echo Key T1P1 Assert Xmit Key DGP SEL-2100 R1P1 Assert RCV Key SV3 Assert Initiate Echo Key OUT101 Assert Key to Relay DGP SEL-121G IN PT Assert PTR DGP SEL-2100 SV6T Assert Echo Key T1P1 Assert Xmit Key LF SEL-2100 R1P1 Assert Rcv Key OUT101 Assert Key to Relay LF SEL-121G INPT Assert PTR OUTA3 Assert Relay DT Send OUTTP Assert Trip Breaker LF SEL-2100 IN103 Assert DT Input T2P1 Assert Xmit DT DGP SEL-2100 R2P1 Assert Rcv DT OUT102 Assert DT to Relay DGP SEL-121G IN DT Assert DTR OUT TP Assert Trip Breaker

76 DGP A-538 Directional Element DGP A-538 SEL-121G Reverse Element? Perform an analysis: 1. IB is ~ 180 from VB - Reverse 2. 67N3 = 100 A from Event IR = 120 A Polarizing? 1. 32QE Enabled 2. Sensitivity at maximum torque angle (V2)(I2) > (0.29)(51NP) 3.4kV*0.8 > 0.29* > T = V2 * I2 *[COS( -V2 ( I2+MTA))] T = 3.4*0.8*(COS( -123 ( 52+75) T = 2560*COS -250 T = 2560*(-.337) T = -862 Negative Torque! Negative sequence flow towards LF

77 Boulder Breaker Failure North Bus MCOV South Bus Auto 1 Auto 2 Benewah Boulder 230 kv Bus Arrangement

78 Boulder Breaker Failure North 87- BN2 87- BN1 550 CT Protection Systems: 87L 21 POTT VT 87- BS BS2 South

79 Boulder Breaker Failure System Log

80 Boulder Breaker Failure /09/ :44: INST+SEQOC ASSERTED /09/ :44: BK1GROUNDBFOC ASSERTED /09/ :44: ZONE2PHASE ASSERTED /09/ :44: ZONE1PHASE ASSERTED 3-PH Fault /09/ :44: THREEPOLETRIP ASSERTED /09/ :44: PERMTRIPSEND ASSERTED /09/ :44: POLEBFINITIATE ASSERTED /09/ :44: BK1RETRIP ASSERTED /09/ :44: OUT101BK1TC#1 ASSERTED /09/ :44: OUT102BK1TC#2 ASSERTED /09/ :44: OUT205BK2TC#1 ASSERTED /09/ :44: OUT206BK2TC#2 ASSERTED /09/ :44: BK1OPEN ASSERTED /09/ :44: BK2OPEN ASSERTED 94 08/09/ :44: BK2GROUNDBFOC ASSERTED 93 08/09/ :44: INST+SEQOC ASSERTED 92 08/09/ :44: BK2RETRIP ASSERTED 91 08/09/ :44: PHASEINSTOC2 ASSERTED 90 08/09/ :44: PHASEINSTOC1 ASSERTED 89 08/09/ :44: BK2PHASECBFOC ASSERTED 88 08/09/ :44: FORWARDNEGSEQ ASSERTED 87 08/09/ :44: FORWARDDIRGROUND ASSERTED 86 08/09/ :44: PHASEDIRINSTOC2 ASSERTED 85 08/09/ :44: PHASEDIRINSTOC1 ASSERTED 84 08/09/ :44: GROUNDINSTOC2 ASSERTED 83 08/09/ :44: GROUNDINSTOC1 ASSERTED 82 08/09/ :44: PERMTRIPSEND ASSERTED 81 08/09/ :44: TMB1ASENDPERMTRIP ASSERTED 64 08/09/ :44: BK2BKRFLRTRIPTO86 ASSERTED 63 08/09/ :44: OUT20786B1BUS2 ASSERTED 62 08/09/ :44: OUT20886B2BUS2 ASSERTED Trip Bkr1 and 2 Bkr1 and 2 Open C-G Fault Flashover Bkr2 Failure Operation

81 Boulder Breaker Failure ,020 A 11,600 A

82 Boulder Breaker Failure Time Event Comment 23:44: Ø Fault Fault inception 23:44: Boulder R-450:R-550 Trip Relay initiates trip by M1P 23:44: Benewah R-468:R-568 Trip Relay initiates trip by POTT 23:44: Boulder R-450:R-550 Open 3 Cycle operate 23:44: Benewah R-468:R-568 Open 3 Cycle operate 23:44: Boulder R-554, R-548, R-552 Boulder North bus clears Open 23:44: CG Fault Relay Attempts Trip Bkr2 23:44: BS1:86BS2 lockout Trip Breaker Failure Trip 23:44: Boulder R-545, R-456, R-452 Open Boulder South bus clears

83 Boulder Breaker Failure Initial Fault 3Ø A 3.5 Cycles 2.32 mi. R-450:R-550 Open Flashover 0.5 Cycles CG 11600A 10.5 Cycles Relay Targets R-450 BF 86BS1 86BS2 87-BN1 86BN1

84 Boulder Breaker Failure North 87- BN2 87- BN1 550 CT Overlapping zones indicate problem within R L 21 POTT VT 87- BS BS2 South

85 Questions?

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