# ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN GSM AND TETRA MOBILE SERVICES AT 915 MHz

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1 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN GSM AND TETRA MOBILE SERVICES AT 915 MHz Baden, June 2002

2 Copyright 2002 the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT)

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5 INDEX TABLE 1 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY INTERFERENCE SCENARIOS SCENARIOS PROPAGATION MODEL CALCULATION OF INTERFERENCE OBSERVATIONS MITIGATION FACTORS FREQUENCY PLANNING AND CO-ORDINATION SEPARATION DISTANCE FREQUENCY SEPARATION FILTERS SEPARATION DISTANCE AND FILTERS FILTER REQUIREMENTS VS. SEPARATION DISTANCE CONCLUSIONS...15

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8 Page Scenarios In urban areas antennas of base stations are often mounted on rooftops. This will lead to a worst case situation where the antennas of the GSM and TETRA/TAPS base stations are facing each other and have a direct line of sight. For this scenario a separation distance of 20 meters was selected to form the basis for the calculation. Another scenario is where the antennas are co-sited, for this a coupling loss between the antennas of 30 db has been introduced because this is a recognised standard value. A further coupling loss of 40 db has been added recognising that site engineering is able to provide additional coupling loss. Micro micro is a special case not covered by the figures in the mitigation section of this report. The separation distance selected was 25 meters and the calculation for this distance is provided. It was however felt that the micro micro case is very dependent on the actual installation that the propagation model used to calculate the loss would vary considerably. Actual measurements are therefore recommended for this case. 3.2 Propagation model The basis for the Path Loss Calculation was the Line of Sight process, which is defined in ITU Rec. P This is applicable for distances less than 1 kilometre. If the effective antenna height exceeds 9 metres the path loss for distances of up to 1 kilometre is considered to be less than a breakpoint. The process for distances less than this breakpoint develops a greatest and least loss. The mean loss approximates to the Free Space Loss propagation. This has provided the basis for these calculations. The rooftop rooftop and the micro micro scenarios have been calculated using the Free Space Propagation model. 3.3 Calculation of interference In the following Tables 1-7 the calculations of the interference that occur in different scenarios are provided. Calculations are provided for blocking of the GSM base station receiver combined for TETRA and TAPS. This is because the blocking occurs as a result of the being present and is not related to the type of system producing the. Also the influence of the spurious emission from TETRA/TAPS combined are calculated. The combination is possible because the requirements for spurious emission are the same for TETRA and TAPS. Further the calculations of the influence of the wide band noise in the GSM base station receiver is provided. These calculations are separated between TETRA and TAPS because of the different emission characteristics. The calculations for TAPS is further separated into three because of changing requirement and measuring method as a function of frequency separation from the carrier. The frequency range, for which the calculations are valid, is limited by the GSM base station receiver-blocking requirement, which is relaxed at frequency separations below 800 khz. The calculations are based on the GSM base station receiver operating on its highest frequency channel in uplink at MHz, the valid frequency range for TETRA/TAPS is therefore limited to MHz..

9 Page 3 By considerations of blocking, TETRA/TAPS at MHz TETRA Tx Losses Tx Ant Gain TETRA Tx EIRP - dbm No of Tx Distance Propagation loss GSM RX antenna feeders etc Interference Specified blocking Required attenuation for blocking Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Watts db dbi dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db Antennas in close proximity N/A 1.0 N/A Antennas in close proximity N/A 1.0 N/A Micro to micro By considerations of blocking, TETRA/TAPS at MHz Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings TETRA Tx Losses Tx Ant Gain TAPS Tx EIRP - dbm No of Tx Distance Propagation loss GSM RX antenna Feeders etc Interference Specified blocking Required attenuation for blocking Watts db dbi dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db Antennas in close proximity N/A 1.0 N/A Antennas in close proximity N/A 1.0 N/A Micro to micro Tables 1 & 2: Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid blocking of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TETRA/TAPS Base Station output I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TAPS) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively. III) It has been agreed that a figure of 30 db is used between two antennas in close proximity because it is considered a standard value. 40 db is also included because improved attenuation can be achieved with high antennas by site engineering.

10 Page 4 By consideration of TETRA/TAPS spurious emission Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Spurious requirement TETRA and TAPS losses Tx side ant Radiated spurious dbmi No of spurious Distance Propagation loss GSM RX antenna Feeders etc Interference in 200 khz Protected sensitivity; C/I (9 db) below neg 101 dbm Required attenuation for spurious emission dbm db db dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db Antennas in close proximity N/A Antennas in close proximity N/A Micro to micro Table 3: Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid desensitisation of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TETRA/TAPS Base Station Transmitter spurious emission I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) For antenna separation distances below 20m a fixed coupling of 30 and 40 db has been used. III) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TAPS) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively. IV) The value of -110 dbm for protection of GSM has been selected because it provides the same protection as required for blocking. V) The valid frequency range is limited to MHz by the GSM base station receiver-blocking requirement. Note: Because of the statistical nature of spurious emission and the low probability for a spurious to occur at its limit and at the frequency of the adjacent GSM base station receiver this should be considered a special case. The attenuation required for suppression of wide band noise will with a high probability also remove any spurious products. In the unlikely event where spurious emission proves to be the predominant source of interference additional attenuation must be provided.

11 Page 5 By consideration of TETRA wide band noise MHz Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Antennas in close proximity Antennas in close proximity TETRA Tx Losses Tx Ant Gain TETRA spec par table 6 Bandwidth (200 khz /18*kHz) Radiated noise dbmi in 200 khz No Distance Propagation loss GSM RX antenna Feeders etc Interference Protected sensitivity; C/I (9 db) below neg101dbm Required attenuation for wide band noise Watts db dbi dbc db dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db N/A N/A Micro to micro Table 4: Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid desensitisation of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TETRA Base Station Transmitter wide band noise I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) For antenna separation distances below 20m a fixed coupling of 30 and 40 db has been used. III) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TETRA) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively IV) Bandwidth adjustment is required as TETRA is measured in an 18 khz bandwidth and GSM is a 200 khz carrier. V) The value of -110 dbm for protection of GSM has been selected because it provides the same protection as required for blocking. VI) The valid frequency range is limited to MHz by the GSM base station receiver-blocking requirement. * TETRA bandwidth is specified in EN Section 2, Modulation.

12 Page 6 By consideration of wide band noise TAPS at MHz TAPS Tx losses Tx Ant Gain TAPS WBN Bandwidth (ref. 30 khz. Measuring bw. 30 khz) Radiated noise dbmi in 200 khz No Distance Propagation loss GSM RX antenna feeders etc Interference Protected sensitivity; C/I (9 db) below neg101dbm Required attenuation for wide band noise Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Antennas in close proximity Antennas in close proximity Watts db dbi dbc db dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db N/A N/A Micro to micro Table 5: Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid desensitisation of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TAPS Base Station Transmitter wide band noise These results are based on the following assumptions: I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) For antenna separation distances below 20m a fixed coupling of 30 and 40 db has been used. III) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TAPS) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively. IV) No bandwidth adjustment is required because both TAPS and GSM are 200 khz carriers. VI) The value of -110 dbm for protection of GSM has been selected because it provides the same protection as required for blocking. VII) The valid frequency range is limited at the lower end to MHz by the GSM base station receiver-blocking requirement.

13 Page 7 By consideration of wide band noise TAPS at MHz TAPS Tx Losses Tx Ant Gain TAPS WBN Bandwidth (ref. 30 khz. Measuring bw. 30 khz) Radiated noise dbmi in 200 khz No Distance Propagation loss GSM Rx antenna feeders, etc. Interference Protected sensitivity; C/I (9 db) below neg101dbm Required attenuation for wide band noise Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Antennas in close proximity Antennas in close proximity Watts db dbi dbc db dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db N/A N/A Micro to micro Table 6: Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid desensitisation of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TAPS Base Station Transmitter wide band noise These results are based on the following assumptions: I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) For antenna separation distances below 20m a fixed coupling of 30 and 40 db has been used. III) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TAPS) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively. IV) No bandwidth adjustment is required because both TAPS and GSM are 200 khz carriers. V) The value of -110 dbm for protection of GSM has been selected because it provides the same protection as required for blocking.

14 Page 8 By consideration of wide band noise TAPS at MHz TAPS Tx Losses Tx Ant Gain TAPS WBN Bandwidth (ref. 30 khz. Measuring bw. 100 khz) Radiated noise dbmi in 200 khz No Distance Propagation loss GSM Rx antenna feeders, etc. Interference Protected sensitivity; C/I (9 db) below neg101dbm Required attenuation for wide band noise Shared site antennas facing or antennas on adjacent buildings Antennas in close proximity Antennas in close proximity Watts db dbi dbc db dbmi m db db db dbm dbm db N/A N/A Micro to micro Table 7. Calculation of the required attenuation to avoid desensitisation of a GSM Base Station Receiver from TAPS Base Station Transmitter wide band noise These results are based on the following assumptions: I) Propagation model used is free space loss for antenna distances of 20m and over. II) For antenna separation distances below 20m a fixed coupling of 30 and 40 db has been used. III) The antenna and cable loss of both the victim (GSM) and interferer (TAPS) base station is assumed to be 15 dbi and 3 db respectively. IV) No bandwidth adjustment is required because both TAPS and GSM are 200 khz carriers. V) For frequency separation above 1.8 MHz, 5.2 db has been compensated because of the change of measuring bandwidth in the TAPS specification. VI) The value of -110 dbm for protection of GSM has been selected because it provides the same protection as required for blocking.

17 Page 11 Additional attenuation required (db) EIRP = 58 dbmi EIRP = 55 dbmi EIRP = 52 dbmi EIRP = 49 dbmi EIRP = 46 dbmi Separation Distance (m) For dual carrier operation add according to formula in the following text. For operation at or above MHz deduct 3 db Figure 2: Filter requirement for blocking improvement of GSM Reference is made to tables 1&2 Required attenuation for blocking for the antennas facing on adjacent buildings (20 m) scenario covering the frequency range MHz at an EIRP of 58 dbmi. The additional output ranges and separation distances have been derived by extrapolation. To assess impact in the frequency range a deduction of 3 db the depicted values must be made. It should be noted that the impact of blocking is both frequency and transmitter output dependent. The filter must be located at the GSM base station receiver input terminal. Required attenuation for two carriers = 10*LOG10(10^(attenuation 1st carrier/10)+10^(attenuation 2nd carrier /10)).

18 Page spurious Additional attenuation required (db) Separation Distance (m) For dual carrier operation add according to formula in the text below. Figure 3: Filter requirement for TETRA/TAPS spurious emission Reference is made to table 3 Required attenuation for spurious for the antennas facing on adjacent buildings (20 m) at an EIRP of 58 dbmi. The additional separation distances have been derived by extrapolation. It should be noted that the impact of spurious emission is frequency and transmitter output independent. Required attenuation for two carriers = 10*LOG10(10^(attenuation 1st carrier/10)+10^(attenuation 2nd carrier /10)). The requirement to the attenuation of wide band noise will also effectively suppress any spurious emission except in the micro to micro case. Any filter must be located at the transmitter's output terminal of a TETRA/TAPS base station. Note: Because of the statistical nature of spurious emission and the low probability for a spurious to occur at its limit and at the frequency of the adjacent GSM base station receiver this should be considered a special case. The attenuation required for suppression of wide band noise will with a high probability also remove any spurious products. In the unlikely event where spurious emission proves to be the predominant source of interference additional attenuation must be provided according to the values above.

19 Page 13 Additional attenuation required (db) EIRP = 58 dbmi EIRP = 55 dbmi EIRP = 52 dbmi EIRP = 49 dbmi EIRP = 46 dbmi Separation Distance (m) For dual carrier operation add according to formula in the text below. Figure 4. Filter requirement for TETRA Wide Band Noise Reference is made to table 4 Required attenuation for TETRA wide band noise for the antennas facing on adjacent buildings (20 m) scenario covering the frequency range MHz at an EIRP of 58 dbmi. The additional separation distances have been derived by extrapolation. It should be noted that for TETRA the impact of Wide Band Noise is output dependent but is independent of the TETRA transmitter frequency. The filter must be located at the transmitter's output terminal of a TETRA base station. Required attenuation for two carriers = 10*LOG10(10^(attenuation 1st carrier/10)+10^(attenuation 2nd carrier /10)).

20 Page 14 Additional attenuation required (db) MHz MHz MHz Separation Distance (m) For dual carrier operation add according to formula in the text below. Figure 5. Filter Requirement for TAPS Wide Band Noise Reference is made to tables 5, 6 and 7 Required attenuation for TAPS wide band noise for the antennas facing on adjacent buildings (20 m) scenario covering the frequency range MHz at an EIRP of 58 dbmi. The additional separation distances have been derived by extrapolation. It should be noted that for TAPS the impact of Wide Band Noise is frequency dependent but is independent of the TAPS transmitter output. The filter must be located at the transmitter's output terminal of a TAPS base station. Required attenuation for two carriers = 10*LOG10(10^(attenuation 1st carrier/10)+10^(attenuation 2nd carrier /10)).

21 Page 15 7 CONCLUSIONS From the above calculations, concerning the protection of the existing GSM base station receivers ast interference from TETRA or TAPS, the technical requirements for the utilisation of the band 915 to 921 MHz can be found. Mitigation in the form of filters will be required in some cases. To allow the filters to operate, a guard band is considered as necessary. The requirements on the TETRA or TAPS operator are such that it encourages the use of physical separation distance whenever possible. It is clear that the utilisation requires co-ordination between the GSM operator at the frequency just below 915 MHz and the new TETRA or TAPS operator.

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