55:041 Electronic Circuits

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1 55:041 Electronic Circuits MOSFETs Sections of Chapter 3 &4 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-1

2 Basic Structure of MOS Capacitor Sect. 3.1 Width = m or less Thickness = m or less ` MOS Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-2

3 Why MOS? Very small compared to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) Field effect => inherently low power In digital circuits that allows for great density and so-called VLSI circuits: microcontrollers, memory, ownside MOSFETs have lower (intrinsic gain) than BJTs The very thin oxide layer needs protection Power consumption increases with switching speed dv i C C dt V t 5 V, 1 pf, 1 ns i ma A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-3

4 MOS Capacitor Under Bias Parallel plate capacitor V E d (V/m) Very thin insulator MOS capacitor with negative gate bias Note direction of electric field Holes accumulate A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-4

5 MOS Capacitor Under Bias MOS capacitor with positive gate bias Note direction of electric field MOS capacitor with induced space-charge due (moderate positive gate bias) MOS capacitor with induced space-charge and induced electron inversion layer (larger positive gate bias) A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-5

6 MOS Capacitor: n-type Substrate p-substrate MOS capacitor One can also construct n-substrate MOS capacitors Hole inversion layer forms at large negative bias voltages A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-6

7 n-channel Enhancement Mode MOSFET Sect Oxide Gate Source rain Channel Oxide Heavily doped n + (good conductor) Heavily doped n + (good conductor) Substrate Note the symmetry. In principle, one can switch Source and rain. evice characteristics are influenced by material doping levels, t ox, W, and L. In semiconductor manufacture W, and L (specifically ratios of W/L) are easily manipulated to obtain desired characteristics. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-7

8 Basic Transistor Operation v GS < V TN, no conduction v GS > V TN, channel forms, conduction A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-8

9 Body iode Body diode side effect of manufacturing process Tie substrate to most negative point in circuit to ensure body diode is always reverse-biased. This effectively removes it from the circuit (except for 2 nd order effects) A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-9

10 n-channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET Symbols Body or substrate shown What we will use Note the polarities Also used A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-10

11 Question Name The Part n-channel MOSFET A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-11

12 rain/source/channel etc. Source of n-channel s electrons +++ e - e - I n-channel or NMOS rain of n-channel s electrons Enhancement mode, n-channel MOS Field Effect Transistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-12

13 Sect. 3.1 i Small gate voltage => thin channel, high channel resistance channel Channel Resistance Large gate voltage => thicker channel, lower channel resistance Voltage controllable resistance A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-13

14 Small v S Linear resistor (Ohmic) Larger v S i vs v S slope not constant v v S = v S (sat) Channel pinch off GS v (sat) V S TN v S (sat) v GS V TN A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-14

15 Family of i Versus v S Curves: Enhancement-Mode n-mosfet i K n [2( v GS V TN ) v S v 2 S ] i K n [ v V ] TN GS 2 K n WnC 2L ox C ox ox t ox K n = conduction parameter C ox, μ n = constant for fabrication technology K n ' k 2 n W L Process conduction parameter: k ' n C n ox Important concept: IC designers use W/L to control FET characteristics. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-15

16 p-channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET See Sections and 3.15 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-16

17 n-channel epletion-mode MOSFET Sect Manufactured so an n-channel exists without an external v GS. External v GS can increase or decrease channel A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-17

18 Family of i Versus v S Curves: epletion-mode n-mosfet Symbols Note FET is on even with no v GS A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-18

19 Cross-Section of n-mosfet and p-mosfet p-well makes a local p-substrate Both transistors are used in the fabrication of Complementary MOS (CMOS) circuitry. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-19

20 Summary of I-V Relationships NMOS PMOS Nonsaturation v S < v S (sat) v S <v S (sat) i K n [2( v GS V TN ) v Saturation v S > v S (sat) v S > v S (sat) S v 2 S ] i K p [2( v SG V TP ) v S v 2 S ] i K n[ vgs VTN 2 ] Transition Pt. v S (sat) = v GS - V TN v S (sat) = v SG + V TP Enhancement Mode V TN > 0 V V TP < 0 V epletion Mode V TN < 0 V V TP > 0 V A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-20

21 Channel Length Modulation: Early Voltage Sect A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-21

22 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) Sect See page 180 of textbook A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-22

23 NMOS, PMOS, Enhancement, epletion, It is easy to get confused with all the different transistors By far the most common type of FET is the NMOS (n-channel), enhancement mode transistor A positive v GS turns it on i K [2( v n GS V TN ) v S v 2 S ] i K n [ v VTN ] GS 2 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-23

24 MOSFET dc Circuit Analysis Example 3.3 Calculate the drain current and the drain-to-source voltage for the common-source amplifier below. R 1 = 30K, R 2 = 20K, and R = 20K, K n = 0.1 ma/v 2, V TN = 1 V, and V = 5 V. There is no gate current, so finding the gate voltage and V GS are easy V GS V 5 Assume the transistor is biased in saturation region: I 2 K n[ VGS VTN ] I 0.1 [2 1] 2 0.1mA 3 rain-source voltage: V 5 I R K 3 V S Check assumption: V ( sat) V V 2 1 1V V (sat) FET is in saturation region S GS TN S V S dc equivalent A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-24

25 Load-Line, Common Source NMOS Bias resistors, help set V GS and the quiescent or Q point Load Resistor V S V I Sect. 3.2 R Input Output Source is common to input and output: common source circuit I V R V R S Load-line equation I as a function of V S and load A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-25

26 I 5 S 20 V 20 ma I V R V R S Q from quiescent A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-26

27 I V R V R S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-27

28 I V R V R S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-28

29 Load Line, cont. Slope 1 R A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-29

30 Enhancement Load evice v S v v GS S v S v GS V (sat) TN v S (sat) => Always in saturation region i K 2 n( vgs VTN ) K n( vs VTN ) 2 => Non-linear resistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-30

31 Enhancement Load evice K n = 1 ma/v 2 V TN = 1 V Non-linear resistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-31

32 Enhancement Load evice and NMOS river Active Load. View as a resistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-32

33 Voltage Transfer Characteristics: NMOS Inverter with Enhancement Load evice v I < V TN v I > V TN A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-33

34 NMOS Inverter with epletion Load evice Active Load. View as a resistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-34

35 CMOS Inverter This is a PMOS transistor With and fixed, is constant, and That is, it is a constant current source. 1 From a signal perspective, it appears as a resistor with value, which can have a value in excess of 50K. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-35

36 CMOS Inverter From a signal perspective, it appears as a large resistor with value. The steep transition with CMOS is a consequence of the large value of the PMOS transistor s A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-36

37 2-Input NMOS NOR Logic Gate Sect Truth table V 1 (V) V 2 (V) V O (V) 0 0 High 5 0 Low 0 5 Low 5 5 Low Logic NOR A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-37

38 MOS Parameter Variation 2N7000 NMOS FET ifferent devices significantly different threshold voltages: 0.8 V (min), 3 V(max) Same device, different temperatures, significantly different threshold voltages All parameters vary with temperature, between samples of the same part number, and operating point. Variation is often much larger than with passive components. K n, K p, V TN, V TP,... A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-38

39 MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Switch V CC V CC V GS = 0 V GS = 0 No channel, no conduction, no current through load V CC V CC I I V GS >> V TN V GS >> V TN R S(ON) Maximum channel, low resistance between drain and source A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-39

40 MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Switch V CC I Small signal, low-power MOSFET V GS >> V TN R S(ON) R S(ON) in range 0.2 Ohm 20 Ohm I (max) > 200 ma Power MOSFETs R S(ON) ~1 milliohm S I (max) > 400 A G A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-40

41 Current-Source Biasing I Q n-channel MOSFET biased with constant current source. V GS adjusts itself to match I Q A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-41

42 Current Mirrors Sect. 3.4 I Q1? n-channel MOSFET biased with constant current source. V GS adjusts itself to match I Q A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-42

43 Current Mirrors Sect. 3.4 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-43

44 Current Source: Compliance Voltage An ideal current source will source its current regardless of the voltage across it: - V + + V - Real current sources stop working properly below some minimum voltage (compliance voltage) across the terminals. V min A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-44

45 NMOS Amplifier Slope 1 R A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-45

46 NMOS Amplifier Sect Slope 1 R v o v i Coupling capacitor. Open circuit for dc, short for ac Large R => flat slope => high amplification A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-46

47 Moving On to Chapter 4 Material A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-47

48 NMOS Common-Source Circuit Slope 1 R Sect 4.1 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-48

49 NMOS Common-Source Circuit Slope 1 R Sect 4.1 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-49

50 Small Signal Concept FETs, BJTs are inherently non-linear devices NMOS FET, saturation region i K n v V 2 GS TN slope g m v lim GS 0 i v GS i v GS A/V g m = 1/(inremental resistance) i V GSQ VTN K ni Q gm 2K n 2 vgs g m is a function of the quiescent current. Circuit designer controls g m with I Q A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-50

51 Small Signal Concept, cont. Slope changes with i r r o o i v S K V V I 1 n GSQ TN Q Early voltage A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-51

52 NMOS Small-Signal Model Sect g m 2K n ( V GSQ V TN ) 2 K n I Q r o [ I Q ] 1 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-52

53 Common-Source Configuration Question: input signal changes with amplitude result in what changes at the output? Sect 4.3 Step 2: AC analysis: Coupling capacitor is assumed to be a short. C voltage supply is set to zero volts. Step 3: Small Signal analysis: Replace active components with small-signal (linear approximation) model. Step 1. C analysis: Coupling capacitor is assumed to be open. Find circuit Q-point values. Numerical value of will determine small-signal model parameters. Step 4: Analyze small signal (linear approximation) circuit with standard methods. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-53

54 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit G S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-54

55 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-55 Small-Signal Voltage Gain Si i i o m i o v R R R R r g V V A ) ( ( ) o gs m o R r V V g i Si i i gs V R R R V i Si i i o m o V R R R R r g V ) ( 0 ) ( o o gs m R r V V g KCL at KCL at Voltage division at G Voltage division at G

56 C Load Line Page 218 Q-point near the middle of the saturation region for maximum symmetrical output voltage swing,. Small AC input signal for output response to be linear. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-56

57 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor Sect Circuit Small Signal Model For now, ignore r o A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-57

58 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor What is the main purpose of this resistor? Source resistor minimizes stabilizes Q-point against transistor parameter variation A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-58

59 Parameter Variation: 2N7000 NMOS FET Same device, different temperatures, significantly different threshold voltages ifferent devices significantly different threshold voltages: 0.8 V (min), 3 V(max) A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-59

60 Effect of Source Resistor V TN = 1 V, V O = 2.83 V V TN = 0.9 V, V O = 2.43 V 10% Change in V TN resulted in about 14% change in V OQ A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-60

61 Effect of Source Resistor V TN = 1V, V O = 3.77 V V TN = 0.9 V, V O = 3.6 V 10% Change in V TN resulted in about 4% change in V OQ A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-61

62 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor Sect For now, ignore r o A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-62

63 Effect of Source Resistor V o g m V gs R Write KVL equation for gate-source loop: V i V gs g V R 0 m gs s V i gs g V R V g R V 1 m gs s gs m s Rewrite: V gs V 1 g i m R s A v V V o i gmr 1 g R m S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-63

64 Effect of Source Resistor A v gmr 1 g R m S Less sensitive to device variations, but small-signal gain is lower A g v m R More sensitive to device variations, but higher gain A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-64

65 Common-Source Amplifier with Bypass Capacitor Sect Small-signal equivalent circuit A g v m R Constant current source sets Q- point and dramatically improves Q-point stability Capacitor connect source to ground at signal frequencies, and provides maximum gain. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-65

66 NMOS Source-Follower or Common rain Amplifier Sect 4.4 High resistances Medium/low resistance Source voltage follows the input => source follower A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-66

67 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for Source Follower G S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-67

68 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for Source Follower Ohm s Law V o g V R r m gs s o KVL V gs V in V o Voltage ivision V in V i R 1 RSi R 2 R Si High-school algebra A v V V o i RS ro 1 RS g m r o R i Ri R Si Always< 1 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-68

69 etermining Output Impedance NMOS Source Follower Sect G S V i + - Procedure: set all independent small-signal voltage sources to zero, then apply a test voltage V x at the output terminal, and then determine the current I x that flows. KVL V gs V x KCL I x g m V gs V R x S V r x o 0 Combine I x V x g m 1 R S 1 r o High-school algebra V x RO 1 I g x m R S r o A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-69

70 Common-Gate Circuit Sect S G Open circuit for AC Ground for AC Ground for AC A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-70

71 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-71 Common-Gate Circuit Si m L m i o v R g R R g V V A 1 ) ( ) 1 )( ( Si m Si m L i O i R g R g R R R I I A G S

72 Comparison of 3 Basic FET Amplifiers Sect 4.6 Voltage Gain Current Gain Input Resistance Output Resistance Common Source A v > 1 R TH Moderate to high Source Follower A v 1 R TH Low Common Gate A v > 1 A i 1 Low Moderate to high A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-72

73 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load evice FET strapped such as this => always in saturation region, behaves as non-linear resistor A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-73

74 FET strapped such as this => always in saturation region, behaves as non-linear resistor NMOS Amplifier with epletion Load evice Sect Steeper transition than with enhancement mode device => higher gain A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-74

75 CMOS Common-Source Amplifier Current mirror Output resistance of the current mirror (very high) Sect g m 2 K I 2 K I n Q n Bias A g v m R A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-75

76 Output Resistance of Current Mirror v SG = Constant r o =? r o = r op r op 1 I p Q 1 I p Bias Can be made very high A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-76

77 CMOS Common Source R ( r rop ) on A g v mn ( r rop ) on Small-signal model A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-77

78 Cascade Circuit Sect A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-78

79 Cascade Circuit Sect Voltage Gain > 1, high input impedance Voltage Gain < 1, low output impedance A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-79

80 Cascade Circuit Source-follower Common-source g m1? g m2? Perform C analysis g 2 m K n I Q A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-80

81 Cascode Circuit Sect g m1? g m2? Perform C analysis g 2 m K n I Q A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-81

82 CMOS Common Gate Page 257 Common source Common gate Why is this called a CMOS common gate amplifier? Common gate. Note where the input is now applied A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-82

83 CMOS Common Gate r o2 G S A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-83

84 CMOS Common Gate Output Resistance R O =? Procedure: set all independent, small-signal voltage sources to zero, then apply a test voltage V x at the output terminal, and then determine the current I x that flows. See Example 4.15 in textbook A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-84

85 A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-85

86 Simulation Tips for Micro-Cap SPICE Use $GENERIC_N part in Micro- Cap SPICE. The double-click to display properties menu. Substrate, connect to source, or better yet, to most negative part of circuit. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-86

87 After double-clicking, there is a form where one can change the MOSFETs properties. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-87

88 Change the properties to match the particular MOSFET. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-88

89 AC versus Transient Analysis c and dynamic dc analysis gives the quiescent currents and voltages. Transient analysis shown how the circuit response in time. Output is a plot of some circuit variable versus time similar to an oscilloscope. AC analysis provides the frequency response. ouble-click to set frequency, amplitude for AC- and transient analysis. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-89

90 Source Properties ouble-clicking on a voltage/current source brings up a dialog box where one can change its properties. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-90

91 Source Properties Amplitude used in AC analysis (Bode-type plots) and in many cases it makes sense to set this to 1. dc offset Amplitude used in transient (oscilloscope-type plots) and one would normally set this to match the actual input signal s amplitude. Frequency (in Hz) of the source, transient analysis. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-91

92 etermining Gain and Bandwidth Set AC magnitude of equal to one, run AC analysis, and plot A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-92

93 etermining Gain and Bandwidth Output from AC analysis. The gain (far away from the pole) is The pole is where the amplitude drops by 3 db ( 70.7%) or Use cursor to find this point and the pole as0.526 Hz. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-93

94 etermining Add current source with AC magnitude set to 1. Keep in circuit (so the effect of its zero internal resistance is accounted for) but set its AC magnitude to 0. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-94

95 etermining Run AC analysis, plotting. The magnitude is equal to. In this instance it is 1.15K. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-95

96 etermining Add current source with AC magnitude set to 1. Keep in the circuit because it determines the frequency response. However, there is then no dc path for the current source. Fix this by adding a very large resistor in parallel. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-96

97 etermining Run AC analysis, plotting. The magnitude is equal to. In this instance it is K. A. Kruger MOSFETs, Page-97

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