252 Calibration of Dipole Antennas


 James Edwards
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1 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology Clibrtion of Dipole Antenns Iwo NISHIYAMA, Kojiro SAKAI, Tsutomu SUGIYAMA, Kouichi SBATA, nd Ktsumi FUJII This pper describes clibrtion method of the hlfwve tuned dipole ntenn for the frequency bnd from 3 to 1 MHz. NICT performs the clibrtion of hlfwve tuned ntenns by the Stndrd Antenn Method with the specil designed hlfwve tuned dipole ntenn which is clled stndrd ntenn, even though there re some clibrtion methods s known well. We introduce the Stndrd Antenn Method nd show the experimentl clibrtion results of hlfwve tuned dipole ntenns. In ddition, we describe the detil of the clibrtion uncertinties. 1 Introduction With regrd to the issues of electromgnetic interference (MI) emitted from electric / electronic equipment its mjor instnce being computers nd interfering with brodcsting or business rdios, the estblishment of technologies to secure electromgnetic environments such s MI mesurement technologies for mking correct mesurements of interfering wves, or MI countermesure technologies for preventing interfering wve emission hve been discussed s the key technologies. In recent yers, the criticlity of such technologies hs grown becuse vriety of types of pprtuses hve builtin computers, nd lso mobile phone terminls re being used ll round us. Therefore, MI mesurement / prevention technologies re criticlly needed, prticulrly for the frequency rnge of 3 to 1, MHz; this frequency rnge hs been used s well s for rdio / TV brodcsting, for vrious types of communictions for vrious purposes including mobile phones / terminls; the frequency rnge is lso used for communictions in trnsport opertions such s ir, se, rilrod nd txi; moreover, the frequency rnge is used for emergency communictions for police, firefighting, rescue, or disster prevention. Interntionlly, s for the MI mesurement methods in tht frequency rnge, the Interntionl Specil Commission of Rdio Interference (CISPR), which is subcommission of the Interntionl lectrotechnicl Commission (IC), hs encted CISPR Stndrds [1]. Loclly in Jpn, the VCCI Council hs specified mesurement methods in their stndrds [2]. The stndrds specify the MI mesurement scheme s shown in Fig. 1, for n equipment emitting MI, where equipment under test (hereinfter, referred to s n UT) will be put on lrge metl ground (hereinfter, referred to s ground plne), nd mesurements will be executed on the electric field using receiver t specified distnces, such s 3 or 1 m, nd t different heights from the ground plne. In such mesurements, different types of widebnd ntenns re widely used; for the 3 to 3 MHz frequency rnge, biconicl ntenns; for the 3 to 1, MHz rnge, log Antenn UT (Interference Source) Receiver Metl ground plne 1 MI mesurement (3 to 1, MHz) 83
2 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology rithm periodic dipole rry ntenns, clled log periodic ntenns or LPDA, (hereinfter, referred to s LPDA). For ccomplishing correct mesurements, correctly clibrted ntenns must be used. Therefore, NICT hs been conducting clibrtion opertions on hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenn, nd hs relesed the clibrtion results the ntenn is used s reference in the clibrtions of vrious widebnd ntenns. In this pper, we will describe ntenn clibrtion methods; in Section 2, describing the ntenn fctor the key chrcteristics in MI mesurements; in Section 3, showing how to clibrte ntenns, prticulrly concerning the stndrd ntenn method, where NICT hs been using stndrd ntenn s clibrtion reference nd conducting clibrtions of hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns; in Section 4, introducing ctul exmples of clibrtions; nd in Section 5, describing the uncertinty in the results of clibrtion. 2 Antenn fctor fctor is known to vry due to the influence of the ground plne [3]. If considering the configurtion s tht shown in Fig. 3 () where dipole ntenn is plced t the height of h bove ground plne, when the elements of the ntenn re set horizontl to the ground plne nd the circuit ttched to the element such s buln is expressed by Sprmeters, we cn express the equivlent circuit of the ntenn fctor s shown in Fig. 3 (b), nd t the sme time cn express qution (1) s shown in qution (4)[4]. F ( h) 1 Z ( h) Z 1 S11 ( h) [1/m] (4) l e ZZ S 21 where the Sprmeters re defined s power wve of which mplitude is equl to the squre root of its power. Plne wve Antenn Receiver F V The ntenn fctor is the key prmeter in MI mesurement. As shown in Fig. 2, when the plnr electric field of strength is received by n ntenn plced in free spce nd excites the receiver connected to the ntenn to generte the output voltge of V, the ntenn fctor is defined s the rtio of to the voltge V, s shown in qution (1), F [1/m] (1) V where its unit is [1/m]. If we use n ntenn of which the fctor is lredy known by mesurement, we cn determine the strength of the electric field by mesuring V. Becuse these kinds of vlues re usully expressed in, we tke the vlue of the common logrithm of qution (1) nd multiply by 2 s shown by qution (2). 2log1 F 2log1 [ (1/m)] (2) V Then we cn determine the electric field strength by simple dditions s shown in qution (3). However, in the ctul mesurements, we hve to tke into ccount the loss in the cble connecting the ntenn to the receiver, or the impcts of stnding wves generted in the cble. [( V/m)] F [(1/m)] V [ ] (3) On the other hnd, while the CISPR Stndrds nd others require tht MI mesurements be executed on perfectly conducting ground plne, the vlue of the ntenn lement Plne wve V l e Z (h) 2 Definition of ntenn fctor Z h h Attchment circuit () S S (b) I I Receiver V Metl ground plne S S Z 3 quivlent circuit representtion of dipole ntenn () Dipole ntenn bove ground plne (b) quivlent circuit V 84 Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
3 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs l e ffective length of dipole element Z ( h) Input impednce of dipole element t the height of h Z Chrcteristic impednce of Port 1 Z Chrcteristic impednce of Port 2(5 Ω) And ( h), the reflection coefficient of the dipole element, is relted to the impednces s shown below, where the receiver input impednce Z mtches the mesurement system impednce. Z ( h) Z ( h) Z ( h) Z For lrger ntenn height, the ground plne hs smller influence. Therefore, we cn express the reltion of the ntenn fctor t the height of h, F (h), to the ntenn fctor when the ntenn is in free spce, F, s shown in qution (5). of dipole ntenn by height, where the ntenn fctor depends on the height. We obtined those plots by clcultions using n electromgnetic field numericl simultion progrm, Numericl lectromgnetic Codec (NC2)[5], where we ssumed tht the ttchment circuit is not inserted, insted, the ntenn element is directly loded with Z of 5 Ω. In other words, we clculted ntenn fctors using qution (4), by plugging the vlues of Z nd l e obtined from NC2 into the eqution, nd letting Z = Z = 5 Ω, S 11 =, nd S 21 = 1. The horizontl xis is h/, the height normlized by λ; the verticl xis is the difference between the ntenn fctor t the height of h nd the ntenn fctor in free spce, which shows the influence of the ground plne. Figure 4 clerly indictes tht the ntenn fctor converges with the free spce ntenn fctor s the ntenn moves wy from the ground plne. 1 Z ( ) Z 1 S11 ( ) F lim F ( h) h l ZZ S e 21 [1/m] (5) 3 Antenn clibrtion method In Fig. 4, we show plots of the instnces of ntenn fctor F (h)  F [] 4 3 Hlfwve tuned dipole Z = h/ 4 Height dependency of ntenn fctor Cse of hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenn 3.1 Types of clibrtion method Antenn clibrtions re generlly conducted, s shown in Fig. 5, through propgting wves from trnsmitting ntenn to receiving ntenn However, the clibrtion is conducted under the ssumption tht ny one of the three components in the clibrtion the mesurement site (hereinfter referred to site ), the trnsmitting ntenn, or the receiving ntenn is idel nd its chrcteristics cn be determined bsed on relevnt theories. First, we will explin clibrtion method where it is ssumed tht the site is idel ; the ground plne is fully reflective, flt, nd infinitely expnds; in the site environment, there exist no objects reflecting / diffrcting the wves tht the trnsmitting ntenn rdites; nd, no Trnsmitting ntenn Site Receiving ntenn Signl genertor Receiver 5 Necessry conditions for ntenn clibrtion 85
4 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology other wves such s brodcsting wves come into the site environment. Under those idel conditions, wves from trnsmitting ntenn propgte to receiving ntenn exctly s propgtion theory predicts; therefore, by mking three mesurements of the propgtion losses on ech combintion of two ntenns out of the three ntenn #1, ntenn #2, nd the ntenn under clibrtion (hereinfter, referred to s AUC ) setting up simultneous equtions nd solving them, we cn determine the required ntenn fctor. We cll the method described bove the stndrd site method becuse the site is used s the reference, or the threentenn method becuse three ntenns re used [6]. The significnt feture of the method is tht it cn produce ntenn fctors even using ntenns whose chrcteristics re completely unknown. Therefore, ntionl institutes in chrge of mesurement stndrds hve employed clibrtion method to estimte ntenn fctors using other physicl quntities length, RF ttenution, RF impednce, nd frequency. However, the method hs the following drwbck: the method requires more work compred to other methods becuse mesurements hve to be mde three times more mesurements cn led to greter uncertinty in clibrtion. Second, we will explin clibrtion method where it is ssumed tht the receiving ntenn is idel. By the method, we determine the ntenn fctor of AUC by mking mesurements of the electric field strength induced by n rbitrry trnsmitting ntenn t the position of AUC using receiving ntenn whose ntenn chrcteristics re identicl to the theoreticlly estimted chrcteristics. Such n idel ntenn is clled clculble ntenn or stndrd ntenn [7][8]. For conducting clibrtion by this method, we hve to mke mesurements two times. Also, s stndrd ntenn, we usully use dipole ntenns or stndrd gin horn ntenns, becuse they hve simple structures ensuring the esy determintion of chrcteristics. Third, we will explin clibrtion method bsed on the ssumption the trnsmitting ntenn is idel. By the method, we determine the ntenn fctor of AUC by prepring n idel trnsmitting ntenn tht rdites electric field strength s theoreticlly predicted, nd mesuring the electric field strength t the position where AUC is plced to receive the wves. The method is clled stndrd field method, becuse it uses theoreticlly predicted electric field. The method, while hving the dvntge tht it requires mesurement just one time [9], is likely to produce errors when used in n unrelistic site for propgting wves, even if n idel trnsmitting ntenn is prepred discrepncies in the field strength mesured t the AUC position from the theoreticl strength. Becuse the method requires tht those two conditions re stisfied, we cn t perform high ccurcy clibrtions by this method compred to others. We will summrize the discussions shown bove in Tble 1. NICT, with regrd to the clibrtions of hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns, hve been employing the stndrd ntenn method ssuming tht the receiving ntenn hs idel chrcteristics mong the three methods mentioned so fr. 3.2 Stndrd ntenn method In the stndrd ntenn method, the ntenn fctor of AUC is determined by compring the strength mesured by the stndrd ntenn of the field rdited from n rbitrry trnsmitting ntenn with tht mesured by AUC replcing the stndrd ntenn [8]. In Figure 6, we show the simplified scheme of the TTble 1 Antenn clibrtion methods Clibrtion method Conditions Fetures Stndrd Site Method (Threentenn method) Chrcteristic of the site is consistent with relevnt theory. Stndrd ntenn method Chrcteristic of the receiving ntenn is consistent with relevnt theory. Stndrd field method Chrcteristic of the trnsmitting ntenn is consistent with relevnt theory. Chrcteristic of the site is consistent with relevnt theory. Clibrtion is conducted using three ntenns whose ntenn fctors re unknown. Antenn fctors re determined using other physicl quntities. Mesure three times. lectric field strength is mesured using stndrd ntenn nd n ntenn under clibrtion is immersed in the field. Mesure twice. An ntenn under clibrtion is plced in n electric field obtined by theoreticl computtion. Chrcteristics of both the trnsmitting ntenn nd site must be consist with relevnt theories. Mesure once. 86 Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
5 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs stndrd ntenn method; where stndrd ntenn with known ntenn fctor is plced t position sufficiently wy from the trnsmitting ntenn to tret the wves trnsmitted from the trnsmitting ntenn s plne wves the strength of the field emitted from the trnsmitting ntenn t the position of the stndrd ntenn is determined by llying the ntenn fctor of the stndrd ntenn F (STD) nd the stndrd ntenn receiving voltge V(STD) to qution (1). F (STD) V(STD) (6) Then, similr mesurement is executed with AUC replcing the stndrd ntenn; the ntenn fctor of AUC, F (AUC), is determined from qution (7) obtined by putting qution (6) into qution (1). V(STD) F ( AUC) F (STD) (7) V(AUC) Usully, we express n ntenn fctor in vlue; so, ctully, ddition or subtrction opertions re used s shown in qution (8). F (AUC) F (STD) V (STD)V (AUC) (8) Antenn under clibrtion F (AUC) V (AUC) Trnsmitting ntenn Substitution Stndrd ntenn (STD) F Signl genertor V (STD) Receiver 6 Stndrd ntenn method port 1 port 2 lement Attchment circuit port β ATT () port 1 port 2 port A port γ ATT B 5 (b) 7 Stndrd ntenn (SchffnerChse, Model 65) 87
6 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology 3.3 Stndrd ntenn We show the stndrd ntenn tht NICT employs in Fig. 7 (), which is commercilly vilble hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenn (SchffnerChse, Model 65) [1][13]. The ntenn consists of dipole element components tht cn resonte t 24 frequencies nd n ttchment circuit component, hving structure enbling the seprtion of the ntenn into two components so tht element exchnge cn be crried out ccording to the frequency Fig. 7 (b) shows the inner structure. The ttchment circuit consists of 18 degree hybrid circuit, fixed ttenutors, nd semirigid coxil cble. The 18 degree hybrid circuit divides the input signl from Port Δ into two signls with n equivlent mplitude nd opposite phses, outputting them from Port A nd B; inversely, when two signls with n equivlent mplitude nd mutully opposite phses re input from Port A nd B, the circuit composes the two signls into coordinte phse signl, outputting it from Port Δ. We configure the circuit to prepre Port β nd γ to mount n ntenn element through connecting fixed ttenutors nd coxil cbles with equivlent chrcteristics. Then, we cn tret the whole ttchment circuit, when clling Port Δ s Port α, s 3 port circuit to express it using Sprmeters. The NICT Stndrd Antenn uses BMA connector to connect Port β, γ nd n element. It cn mesure Sprmeters by inserting conversion dpter to SMA nd using vector network nlyzer (hereinfter, referred to s VNA ). Figure 8 shows the element supporter nd the conversion dpter. Furthermore, we will try to tret the whole ttchment circuit s 2port circuit through pplying the concept of Mixedmode Sprmeter which enbles us to consider Port β nd γ s port tht supports differentil signls. The reltion shown in qution (9) is obtined by ssigning port mde from Port β nd γ to Port 1 nd Port α to Port 2. S S S S S S S 11 S12 2 S S (9) S21 S22 S 2 In qution (9), Port 1 s chrcteristic impednce to differentil signls is 1 Ω (Z = 1 Ω), nd Port 2 s chrcteristic impednce is 5 Ω (Z = 5 Ω). We cn determine the ntenn fctor by putting dipole element s input impednce Z nd its effective length l e, which cn be obtined by n electromgnetic numericl nlysis simultor such s NC2, into qution (4) or (5). Note tht, becuse in ctul mesurement situtions, the ntenn element for 3 nd 35 MHz bends down due to the grvity force cused by its own weight, we estimte how deep the element bends when conducting such clcultions. We show, in Tble 2, the instnces of stndrd ntenn fctors t height of 2 m bove the ground plne determined by the procedures described bove; there we show the determined ntenn fctors over the 24 frequencies for three yers (213 to 215). The vrition of determined ntenn fctors is in the rnge of less thn.5 t ny frequency; it indictes tht the stndrd ntenns re well kept in stble condition. 4 Results of clibrtion NICT hs been conducting ntenn fctor determintions t height of 2 m, F (2 m) for its hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns once per yer, confirming clibrtion pplicbility. The hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns used for AUC re: Anritsu, Model MP 652B dipole ntenn (3 to 25 MHz) or Schwrzbeck, Model UHAP (1 to 1,MHz). The ntenn used for trnsmission is SchffnerChse, Model CBL6111 hybrid ntenn with configurtion implemented t n ntenn seprtion distnce of round 2 m (3 to 25 MHz) nd round 1 m (3 to 1, MHz). In the cse of mesurements bove the ground plne, the wves rdited from the trnsmitting ntenn rrive t the receiving ntenn in the following two wys: directly from the trnsmitting ntenn to the receiving ntenn, nd reflected by the ground plne to the receiving ntenn. Therefore, due to the interference of the two kinds of wves, the electric field strength t round the height of 2 m my decrese significntly t some frequencies. To solve this problem, we rise receiving voltge to its mximum level by chnging the trnsmitting ntenn height in the rnge of 1 to 4 m, mking clibrtions t those heights. We show, in Fig. 9, the trends in the results of clibrtion mde t frequencies 5, 1, 3, nd 1, MHz for ten yers from 26 to 215. Fig. 9 shows tht the vrition of ntenn fctors is within the rnge of.2 to +.2 for ny of the frequencies, indicting tht NICT hs provided good nd stble clibrtions. 5 Uncertinty evlution We evluted the uncertinties of clibrtion in the cses where hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns re clibrted by the stndrd ntenn method, showing below 88 Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
7 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs the evlution results [14]. We determined the uncertinty using qution (8); therefore, we cn estimte the stndrd uncertinty in AUC clibrtion, u ( (AUC)), by combining the three fctors s shown in qution (1) [15], F lement supporter TTble Frequency MHz Conversion dptor 8 lement supporter nd conversion dptor 2 Age vrition in ntenn fctor of the stndrd ntenn Antenn height is 2 m (h = 2 m) Antenn Fctor (1 / m) , u 2 2 F (AUC) uf (STD) uv (STD) uv (AUC) 2 (1) where the uncertinties re s shown in the following tble. u ( F (STD)) : Stndrd Uncertinty of Stndrd Antenn Fctor u ( V (STD)) : Stndrd Uncertinty of the Receiving Voltge Mesured with Stndrd Antenn u ( V (AUC)) : Stndrd Uncertinty of the Receiving Voltge Mesured with AUC Note tht, becuse bsolute vlues of ll sensitivity coefficients for qution (1) re 1, we did not use those fctors in the eqution. We show combined results in Tble 3 (). We mke evlutions on ech of the uncertinty cuses in the following sections; in Tble 3 (b): showing the stndrd uncertinty of stndrd ntenn fctor; in Tble 3 (c): showing the stndrd uncertinty of receiving voltge mesured with AUC, long with tht mesured with the stndrd ntenn. Idelly, we should show the individul evlutions t ech of the frequencies; insted, we took, s the evlution, the worst (lrgest) uncertinty we obtined for the 24 frequencies within the rnge of 3 to 1, MHz. 5.1 Uncertinty of stndrd ntenn ntenn fctor We determined the ntenn fctor of stndrd ntenn, F (STD), using Sprmeter mesurements nd clcultions vi the electromgnetic field numericl simultor, ND2; therefore, we took the following five items s the fctors of the overll uncertinty of stndrd ntenn ntenn fctors. (1) Mesurement uncertinty of ttchment circuit Sprmeter We determined the uncertinty using the uncertinty informtion of the VNA (Agilent Technologies, Model 8362B) tht we used for the mesurement; the informtion hs been relesed by the mnufcture [16]. Applying our mesurement conditions, we obtined n Sprmeter mesurement uncertinty of less thn.1 where the probbility function is ssumed to be norml distribution with coverge fctor k=3 (99.73 % level of confidence). 89
8 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology (2) Mesurement uncertinty of ntenn length A length mesurement of the ntenn element is required s the input dt for NC2 clcultions of the input impednce or the effective length of the element. The mesurement uncertinty for n element length we did the mesurement with mesurement tpe is in the rnge Antenn Fctor [(1/m)] 7.5 MP652B MHz Yer () 12.7 Antenn Fctor [(1/m)] Antenn Fctor [(1/m)] MP652B MHz Yer (b) UHAP MHz Yer (c) Antenn Fctor [(1/m)] 38.5 UHAP MHz Yer (d) 9 Results of clibrtions () 5 MHz, (b) 1 MHz, (c) 3 MHz, (d) 1, MHz 9 Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
9 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs of 3 to + 3 mm in the mesurement cse for 3 MHz nd in the rnge of 1 to + 1 mm for 1, MHz. The clcultion results of ntenn fctor by NC2 for vrious frequencies showed tht the vrition in ntenn fctor is within the rnge of.2 to +.2, on the ssumption tht vritions will be distributed ccording to rectngulr probbilistic distribution. (3) Uncertinty due to the gp t element power feeder As shown in Fig. 7 (b), the stndrd ntenn is structured so tht its ntenn element is power fed through the inner conductors of the two semirigid coxil cbles connected to Port 2 of the ttchment circuit. As shown in Fig. 1, the ntenn element feeder hs gp of round 9 mm becuse the feeder hs BMA connectors for ensuring n esy mounting or replcement of elements. However the clcultions by NC2 of the theoreticl ntenn vlues using the endtoend length of element re conducted on the ssumption tht the feeder hs no gps. Therefore, due to the feeder gp existing in the ctul sitution, NC2 will produce n input impednce nd n effective length tht correspond to the vlues for longer element by the length of the gp. Such n impct from the gp will become lrger s the frequency of pplied frequency goes higher. Therefore, we dded the cse where the element is shorter by 9 mm, obtining ntenn fctors for the two cses ctul length or shorter length tking the difference of the two ntenn fctors s the uncertinty of feeder gp s the frequency goes higher nd the difference becomes lrger to rech its mximum of.2 t the rnge of 7 to 1, MHz, ssuming tht the probbilistic distribution is rectngulr. (4) Uncertinty due to common mode component A dipole ntenn is driven by differentil signl component (differentil mode component), nd common mode component is unnecessry. The chrcteristics of the ttchment circuit will significntly impct the rise of the common mode component. As for the NICT stndrd ntenns, we mke mesurements of Sprmeter, estimting its mgnitude [14][17] in the following wy. We cn obtin, using the Sprmeter shown s qution (9), the differentil mode component S 1D nd the common mode component S 1C, which re chrcteristic of the ttchment circuit nd respectively expresses s qution (11) nd (12), S 1D S S S21 (11) 2 S1C S S (12) where the rtio of S 1C to S1D, S 1c /S 1D, is clculted s pproximtely.1 for ll the frequencies. It indictes tht the rise of common mode is sufficiently smll. We estimted the impcts of common mode on the ssumption tht the S 1C /S 1D portion of the common mode current flows into the λ/4 monopole ntenn nd superimposes on the induced voltge due to the common mode. We clculted the ntenn fctor ccording to the ssumption, obtining the following result: the ntenn fctor vrition is less thn.7 for the S 1c /S 1D rtio of.1. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (5) Uncertinty in numericl clcultions The numericl electromgnetic field simultor NC2 executes numericl clcultions bsed on the moment method, where n element is divided into number of segments ech segment is shorter thn the wvelength; it is known tht the results depend on the number of such divisions. Among moment methods, while NC2 employs 9 mm 14 mm 1 Gp in element feeder (1, MHz hlfwvelength resonnt element) 91
10 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology TTble 3 Uncertinty budget Hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenn, 3 to 1, MHz, Antenn height of 2 m Sources Stndrd uncertinty () Uncertinty of AUC s ntenn fctor Sensitivity coefficient Contribution Remrks (1) F(STD) see Tble 3(b) (2) V(STD) see Tble 3(c) (3) V(AUC) see Tble 3(c) Combined stndrd uncertinty xpnded uncertinty (Approx. 95 % level of confidence) Coverge fctor k = 2 Sources Vlue (1) Sprmeter of ttchment circuit.1 (b) Uncertinty of stndrd ntenn Distribution Norml (k = 3) Divisor Stndrd uncertinty Sensitivity coefficient Contribution (2) lement length.2 Rectngle (3) Gp in element feeder.2 Rectngle (4) Common mode component.7 Rectngle (5) Numericl simultion.1 Rectngle Combined stndrd uncertinty.14 (c) Uncertinty in receiving voltge Source Vlue Distribution Divisor Stndrd uncertinty Sensitivity coefficient Contribution (1) Antenn height.5 Rectngle (2) Antenn distnce.2 Rectngle (3) Antenn direction.5 Rectngle (4) Unwnted coupling.1 Rectngle (5) Directivity (6) Resolution of digitl Indiction.5 Rectngle (7) Linerity of receiver.5 Rectngle (8) Signltonoise rtio.15 Rectngle (9) Mismtch.5 Ushpe (1) Repetbility.1 Norml Combined stndrd uncertinty Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
11 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs technique clled the point mtching method, technique clled the Glerkin method is often used. It is wellknown tht different methods often led to different results. We confirmed, through repeting clcultions for different methods or different numbers of segments, tht the uncertinty is less thn.1, where the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. We estimted the stndrd dipole ntenn s ntenn fctor uncertinty s.14 by convolving the uncertinties so fr mentioned, s shown in Tble 3 (b). 5.2 Uncertinty in reception voltge mesurement We considered the ten fctors below in reltion to uncertinty in the mesurements when mesuring, with stndrd dipole ntenn, the strength of the electric field induced by the emission from the trnsmitter, estimting the uncertinty mgnitude for ech of the fctors. (1) Uncertinty of ntenn height The uncertinty of the ntenn height is in the rnge of 1 to + 1 cm for the height of 2 meters, which is the norml height t which the ntenn is set. As we stted in Section 4, in n ctul mesurement sitution, we conducted mesurements with different trnsmitting ntenn height for different frequency so we could mesure with the mximum receiving voltge for the frequency. In physicl configurtion where the receiving voltge is mximum the direct wves to the receiving ntenn nd the reflected wves re coopertively dded the electric field strength hs smller height dependency in the verticl direction. As consequence, the electric field strength will vry just within the rnge of.5 to +.5 for ll frequencies for the height vrition of 1 to + 1 cm; such vrition of the receiving voltge will led to the vrition of AUC ntenn fctor the finl trget of our nlysis of the rnge of.5 to +.5. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (2) Uncertinty in ntenn seprtion distnce We conducted our mesurements by setting stndrd ntenn or AUC seprted t distnce of 2 or 1 m; where we cn ssume tht the uncertinty in the setting is within the rnge of 1 to + 1 cm. As consequence, we cn mke such n estimtion tht, for the vrition of ntenn positions of 1 to + 1 cm, the electric field strength vries within the rnge of.2 to +.2 for ll frequencies, nd the AUC ntenn fctor vries within the rnge of.2 to +.2. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (3) Uncertinty in ntenn direction For mking ccurte mesurements, we hve to set the trnsmitting ntenn nd the receiving ntenn so tht they exctly fce to one nother. However, in n ctul mesurement sitution, direction error in the rnge of 2 to + 2 degrees cn occur. We predicted, from NC2 simultions, tht the error cn led to n AUC ntenn fctor uncertinty of less thn.5. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (4) Uncertinty due to unwnted coupling occurring between the trnsmission nd receiving ntenns In order to prevent unwnted coupling, we hve to set the stndrd ntenn or AUC sufficiently compred to the wvelength wy from the trnsmitting ntenn. While we re conducting our mesurements by setting the seprtion distnce t 2 meters for the frequency of 3 MHz, the wvelength corresponding to the frequency of 3 MHz is 1 meters; so, the two ntenns re just two wvelength s distnce wy from ech other. We obtined, by NC2 simultions, result such tht the impct of unwnted coupling in like cses will be less thn.1. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (5) Uncertinty due to the difference in directionl chrcteristics In the stndrd ntenn method, in the cse where stndrd ntenn nd AUC hve mutully different mechnicl structures hving different directionl chrcteristics such difference in directionl chrcteristics cn introduce some uncertinty to the clibrtion results. In Section 4, becuse AUC is hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenn no difference exists in directionl chrcteristics we were ble to ssume tht the uncertinty would be. However, when mking clibrtions of n ntenn with directionl chrcteristics, compred to doing such for stndrd ntenn, we hve to consider s fctor of uncertinty the differences in the situtions of the reflections from surrounding objects or the ground plne from those of the clibrtion configurtion in Section 4. (6) Uncertinty in indictor resolution of mesurement equipment We use, for clibrtions, VNA (Agilent Technologies, 93
12 2 Reserch nd Development of Clibrtion Technology Model 8357A), of which the digitl indictor hs mesurement resolution of.1 ; therefore, we estimted the uncertinty due to indictor resolution s.5 to +.5. Note tht the probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be rectngulr. (7) Uncertinty in mesurement equipment linerity We mde mesurements of the linerity of the VNA we used, with n RF ttenutor trceble bck to the Ntionl Stndrds, confirming tht the differences in vlues obtined for the vrious frequencies for the vlue shown on the disply of the VNA re less thn.5 for ll frequencies. Therefore, we used the vlue.5 s the estimtion of the uncertinty on the ssumption its probbilistic distribution is rectngulr. Note tht vritions in the output level of signl genertor re not ble to impct clcultion results becuse we know by mesuring using VNA the exct vlue of the level t the time of clibrtion. (8) Uncertinty due to mesurement equipment s S / N rtio We mde our estimtion using our mesurements for the frequency 1, MHz becuse the reception level hits its lowest t tht frequency. S / N (signl to noise) rtio still remins over t 35 even t 1, MHz. There, the stndrd uncertinty is less thn.15. Note tht its probbilistic distribution is ssumed to be norml. (9) Uncertinty due to mismtching We cn estimte the impct of mismtching by pplying to qution (13) the reflection coefficient Γ of stndrd ntenn or AUC, nd ΓL, which is the ctully mesured reflection coefficient from the end of the cble connected to the ntenn towrd the receiver. Note tht, for the sign in qution (13), we use the one t which the eqution produces the lrgest vlue. L u ( M ) 2log 1 1 [] (13) The ctul uncertinty is less thn.5, independent of frequency, becuse, for reducing multiple reflections, fixed ttenutors of 6 re inserted t the cble ends. Note tht we ssumed the Ushped probbilistic distribution. Mismtching cn occur between the signl genertor nd the trnsmitting ntenn. However, becuse in the stndrd ntenn method mesurements re executed twice, the impcts by mismtching re cncelled during the two mesurement times; therefore, the uncertinty of the AUC ntenn fctor is not ffected. (1)Repetbility of mesurements We estimted the uncertinty of mesurement repetbility s.1 (.1 / 1) becuse the experimentl stndrd uncertinty we hve experienced nd documented so fr is.1 [15]. Note tht we ssumed tht its probbilistic distribution is norml. In our ctul clibrtion opertions, we tke mesurements twice; nd confirm tht the difference between the two mesurements is in the rnge of.15 to Our clibrtion procedure requires the following: in the cse where the difference goes beyond the rnge, we must investigte the cuse nd then repet the mesurement. By combilning the uncertinty sources described bove, we cn obtin the uncertinty in reception voltge mesurement s shown in Tble 3 (c). Therefore we estimted its uncertinty s Uncertinty budget We show, in Tble 3 (), the composite uncertinty obtined by combining the uncertinty sources, where we mde clcultions by using the coverge fctor (k = 2) so tht the level of confidence is pproximtely 95 %, nd we obtined result of.63. Tble 3 () to (c) suggest the following: with regrd to the ntenn fctor uncertinty, the gp in the element feeder produces the most significnt impct. To solve this problem the element feeder should be improved in its physicl structure so tht the gp width becomes nrrower s the frequency goes higher. On the other hnd, with regrd to the uncertinty of the receiving voltge mesurement, s the uncertinty of S/N rtio shown in Item (8), nd the repetbility shown in Item (1) significntly impct the improvement of S/N rtio nd repetbility, we hve to mke mesurements t nrrower trnsmitting nd receiving ntenns seprtion distnce. However, becuse s shown in Item (4) the shorter distnce from the trnsmitter leds to the occurrence of unwnted coupling, we hve to choose, ccording to the pplied frequency, n pproprite seprtion distnce between the trnsmitting ntenn nd the receiving ntenn tking cre to void unwnted coupling. 6 Conclusions We described the methods for clibrting, by the stndrdntenn method, hlfwvelength resonnt dipole ntenns used for the frequency rnge of 3 to 1, MHz. 94 Journl of the Ntionl Institute of Informtion nd Communictions Technology Vol. 63 No. 1 (216)
13 22 Clibrtion of Diile onleononcs At the sme time, we introduced our estimtions of the uncertinties ccompnying clibrtions. The results of our clibrtion of dipole ntenns distribute within the rnge of.2 to +.2, showing good coincidence with the uncertinty we estimted. It suggests tht we hve conducted clibrtions so fr with good stbility. Furthermore, we estimted the expnded certinty (k=2) in dipole ntenn clibrtions by stndrd ntenn method s.65 In the current sitution where rdio communiction using 3 to 1, MHz is widely used, the demnd for the clibrtion of MI mesurement ntenns used in this frequency rnge hs been growing. Therefore, we re prepring pln to study clibrtions pplying lrge nechoic chmbers. RReference 1 Specifiction for rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus nd methods  Prt 14: Rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus  Antenns nd test sites for rdited disturbnce mesurements, CISPR , dition 3.1, VCCI Council, Technicl Requirements V3/215.4, Normtive Annex 1, Rules for Voluntry Control Mesures, April K. Fujii nd A. Sugiur, Averge of the HeightDependent Antenn Fctor, IIC Trns. on Commun., vol.88b, no.8, pp , Aug T. Iwsski, lectromgnetic Wve Mesurements Network Anlyzer nd Antenn, Coron publishing, Oct. 27. (in Jpnese) 5 J. C. Logn, nd A. J. Burke, Numericl lectromgnetic Code, Nvl Ocen System Center, CA, USA, A. Sugiur, T. Morikw, K. Koike, nd K. Hrim, An Improvement in the Stndrd Site Method for Accurte MI Antenn Clibrtion, IIC Trns. on Commn., vol.78b, no.8, pp , Aug R. G. FitzGerrell, Stndrd Liner Antenns, 3 to 1 MHz, I Trns. on Antenns nd Propgtion, vol.ap34, no.12, pp , Dec Specifiction for rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus nd methods  Prt 16: Rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus MC ntenn clibrtion, CISPR , dition 1., Dec T. Moriok, T. Nkmori, nd K. Komiym, A Method to Clicurte Antenn Fctor by Single Site Attenution, Precision lectromgnetic Mesurement Digest, Tu4c24, pp , M. J. Alexnder, M. J. Slter D. A. Knight, B. G. Loder, nd K. P. Hollnd, Clibrtion nd use of ntenns, focusing on MC pplictions, A Ntionl Mesurement Good Prctice Guide, no.73, Dec. 24, vilble from M. Alexnder, M. Slter, B. Loder, nd D. Knight, Brodbnd Clculble Dipole Reference Antenn, I Trns. on MC, vol.44, no.1, pp.45 58, Feb M. Alexnder nd M. Slter, MC ntenn clibrtion nd the design of n open re ntenn rnge, Proc. of lectromgnetic Mesurements Conf., pp.31/1 31/3, Nov Specifiction for rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus nd method Prt 15: Rdio disturbnce nd immunity mesuring pprtus Antenn clibrtion sites nd reference test site for 5 MHz to 18 GHz, CISPR , dition 2., K. Koike, A. Sugiur, A. Ohtni, H. Msuzw, nd Y. Ymnk, Uncertinty vlution for the Stndrd Antenn Method, Technicl Report of IIC, MCJ987, pp.75 8, Oct (in Jpnese) 15 ISO, Guide to the xpression of Uncertinty in Mesurement, 1st edition, Keysight Technologies, Vector Network Anlyzer Uncertinty Clcultor, &pgeMode=CV&lc=eng&cc=US 17 A. Sugiur nd Y. Ymnk, Stndrd dipole ntenn for clibrtion of MI ntenns, IIC Generl Conference 1998, B472, Mrch (in Jpnese) Iwo NISHIYAMA lectromgnetic Comptibillity Lbortory, Applied lectromgnetic Reserch Institute Clibrtion of Mesuring Instruments nd Antenns for Rdio quipment Kojiro SAKAI Technicl xpert, lectromgnetic Comptibility Lbortory, Applied lectromgnetic Reserch Institute Clibrtion of Mesuring Instruments nd Antenns for Rdio quipment Tsutomu SUGIYAMA Senior Resercher, lectromgnetic Comptibillity Lbortory, Applied lectromgnetic Reserch Institute Clibrtion of Mesuring Instruments nd Antenns for Rdio quipment Kouichi SBATA Senior Resercher, lectromgnetic Comptibillity Lbortory, Applied lectromgnetic Reserch Institute Clibrtion of Mesuring Instruments nd Antenns for Rdio quipment, geodesy Ktsumi FUJII, Dr. ng. Reserch Mnger, lectromgnetic Comptibility Lbortory, Applied lectromgnetic Reserch Institute Clibrtion of Mesuring Instruments nd Antenns for Rdio quipment, lectromgnetic Comptibility 95
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