ELEC387 Power electronics


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1 ELEC387 Power electronics Jonathan Goldwasser 1 Power electronics systems pp.3 15 Main task: process and control flow of electric energy by supplying voltage and current in a form that is optimally suited for user loads. In the year 2000: 50% of the electrical load supplied through power electronics. Linear electronics: low efficiency because transistor are used as resistors. Switch mode: efficient because fully off or fully high frequency: transformers and filters are small. Selection of f s : compromise between switching power dissipation (increases with f s ) and cost of transformer (decreases with f s ). Outputs (2): dc (regulated or adjustable) and ac (constant frequency, adjustable magnitude or adjustable frequency and magnitude). Categories (4): ac to dc, dc to ac, dc to dc, ac to ac. Converter: generic term. Rectifier: Power from ac to dc. Inverter: Power from dc to ac. Line frequency converter: naturally commutated (50 or 60Hz). Switching converter: f s >>. Resonant and quasiresonant converter: v = 0 and/or i = 0. 2 Overview of power semiconductor switches pp Diodes: on and off states controlled by the power circuit. Reverserecovery time t rr required to block negative polarity voltage. Schottky, fastrecovery, linefrequency. Thyristors: on state controlled by gate pulse, off state controlled by the power circuit. Turnoff time interval t q during which a reverse voltage must be applied. Phasecontrol thyristors, invertergrade thyristors, lightactivated thyristors. Ideal switches: block arbitrarily large forward and reverse voltages with zero current flow when off, conduct arbitrarily large currents with zero voltage drop when on, switch from on to off and vice versa instantaneously, vanishingly small power required to trigger the switch. P T = 1 2 V t on di o f s (t c(on) + t c(off) ) +V on I o }{{} T }{{ s } P s P on 1
2 Figure 1: Overview of devices capabilities 3 Review of basic electrical and magnetic circuit concepts pp Steadystate: reached when the circuit waveforms repeat with a time period T. %THD i = 100 I dis I 2 = 100 s I 2 s1 = 100 ( ) 2 Ish I s1 I s1 h 1 I s1 Crest factor = I s,peak I s PF = I s1 I s cos φ 1 = I s1 I s DPF = THD 2 i DPF Inductor: current cannot change instantaneously, net change of flux over T is zero, areas in voltsecond must be equal. Capacitor: current cannot change instantaneously, net change of charge over T is zero, areas in amperesecond must be equal. 4 Computer simulation of power electronic converters and systems pp Modeling and computer simulations play an important role in the analysis, design, and education of power electronic systems. It is important to simplify the system being simulated to be consistent with simulation objectives. 5 Linefrequency diode rectifiers: linefrequency ac uncontrolled dc pp Power flow: only from ac side to dc side. Capacitor: large to avoid ripple, filter effect. 2
3 5.1 Singlephase diode bridge rectifier pp Figure 2: Singlephase diode bridge rectifier Idealized circuit with L s = 0: two groups of diodes (D 1, D 2 ) and (D 3, D 4 ), transition between the two groups is instantaneous due to L s = 0. Average value obtained by integrating v s over onehalf time period V do = 2 π 2Vs 0.9V s %THD i 48.43% DPF = 1.0 PF = 0.9 Effect of L s on current commutation: transistion of the acside current i s from a value of +I d to I d will not be instantaneous, commutation interval u, all four diode conduct during the commutation interval (v d = 0). The current through inductor L s changes from I d to +I d. Figure 3: Singlephase diode bridge rectifier during commutation A u = u 0 2Vs sinωtd(ωt) = ωl s Id cos u = 1 2ωL s 2Vs I d I d di s = 2ωL s I d = 2V s (1 cos u) V d = 0.9V s 2ωL si d π Constant dcside voltage v d (t) = V d : approximation with a large value of C. When v s exceeds V d, diodes 1 and 2 begin to conduct. The average value I d depends on the value of V d, I d decreases when V d increases because v s V d decreases. Rectifier characteristic: For a given value of I d, increasing L s results in a smaller I short circuit. Increasing L s results in improved i s waveform with a lower THD i, a better PF and a lower crest factor. 3
4 Figure 4: Threephase diode bridge rectifier 5.2 Threephase, fullbridge rectifiers pp Better: lower ripple and higher power handling capability. Idealized circuit with L s = 0: six segments per cycle of line frequency (sixpulse rectifier), each diode conducts for 120, commutation instantaneous. Average value obtained by integrating v ab over a 60 interval. V do = 3 π 2VLL 1.35V LL DPF = 1.0 PF = 3 π Effect of L s on current commutation: during the commutation between phase c and a v Pn remains at v cn Figure 5: Threephase diode bridge rectifier during commutation cos u = 1 2ωL si d 2VLL V d = 1.35V LL 3 π ωl si d Constant dcside voltage v d (t) = V d : similar to the singlephase case. Rectifier characteristic: better THD i, PF and DPF. THD i decreases when L s increases. Comparison of singlephase and threephase rectifiers: singlephase rectifier contains significantly more distortion, this results in a much poorer PF. DPF is high in both rectifier. Ripple is smaller in the threephase rectifier thus the capacitor can be smaller. It is always preferable to use a threephase rectifier. 4
5 6 Linefrequency phasecontrolled rectifiers and inverters: linefrequency ac controlled dc pp Power flow: from ac to dc and vice versa. Inverter mode of operation on a sustained basis is possible only if a source of power is present on the dc side. 6.1 Singlephase converters pp Figure 6: Singlephase thyristor converter Idealized circuit with L s = 0 and i d (t) = I d : commutation is instantaneous. Average value obtained by integrating from α to π + α, becomes negative beyond α = 90 V dα = 2 2 π V s cos α 0.9V s cos α P 0.9V s I d cos α Line current i s : square wave with an amplitude of I d shifted by the delay angle α %THD i = 48.43% Power: DPF = cos α PF = 0.9cos α Effect of L s : current commutation takes a finite commutation interval u, during which all four thyristors conduct (v d = 0, v Ls = v s ). The reduction in voltradian area due to the commutation interval is the integral of v Ls from α to α + u. cos(α + u) = cos α 2ωL si d 2Vs V d = 0.9V s cos α 2 π ωl si d Input line current i s : essentially a trapezoidal waveform DPF cos(α u) Discontinuouscurrent conduction: occurs at light loads or beyond a certain value of E d because v s E d decreases. At constant α, if I d falls below a threshold that depends on α, V d increases sharply because the conduction is now discontinuous and V d remains at the value E d for a much longer time. Inverter mode of operation: possible only if there is a source of energy on the dc side, 90 < α < 180. Linear relation between V d and I d if i d is constant (large L d ). Knowing E d, we can determine I d and hence the power flow P d. E d = V d = V do cos α 2 π ωl si d 5
6 For startup, α is made sufficiently large (e.g., 165 ) so that i d is discontinuous, then α is decreased to obtain the desired I d and P d. 6.2 Threephase converters pp Figure 7: Threephase thyristor converter Idealized circuit with L s = 0 and i d (t) = I d : commutation is instantaneous. Average value obtained by determining the voltradian area A α V dα = V do A α π/3 1.35V LL cos α = V do cos α P 1.35V LL I d cos α Input line current i a, i b and i c : rectangular waveforms with an amplitude I d shifted by the delay angle α %THD i = 31.08% Better than the singlephase. Power: DPF = cos α PF = 3 cos α 0.955cos α π Better than the singlephase. Effect of L s : the German VDE standards require that Z s must be a minimum of 5%. Current commutation take a finite commutation interval u. The reduction in voltradian area due to the commutation interval is the integral of v Ls from α to α + u. Figure 8: Threephase thyristor converter during commutation cos(α + u) = cos α 2ωL s 2VLL I d V d = 3 2 π V LL cos α 3ωL s π I d 6
7 Input line current i s : the waveform can be approximated to be trapezoidal DPF cos(α u) The acside inductance L s reduces the magnitudes of the harmonic currents. A greater inductances leads to a greater u Discontinuouscurrent conduction: occurs at light loads or beyond a certain value of E d because v s E d decreases. At constant α, if I d falls below a threshold that depends on α, V d increases sharply because the conduction is now discontinuous and V d remains at the value E d for a much longer time. Inverter mode of operation: possible only if there is a source of energy on the dc side, 90 < α < 180. Linear relation between V d and I d if i d is constant (large L d ). Knowing E d, we can determine I d and hence the power flow P d. For startup, α is made sufficiently large (e.g., 165 ) so that i d is discontinuous, then α is decreased to obtain the desired I d and P d. Line notching and distortion: There are six commutations per linefrequency. During each commutation, two out of three phase voltages are shorted together by the converter thyristors through L s in each phase. A linetoline voltage is shorted twice per cycle resulting in deep notches (ringing due to capacitances can also occur). ( dia v a v b (v A v B ) = L s dt di ) b dt ωl s ( i a i b ) = 2ωL s I d = Deep notch area A n Deep notch area depth 2V LL sin α Notch width u 2ωL si d 2VLL sin α Voltage %THD = 100 (I h ωl s1 ) 2 h V phase(fundamental) 7 dcdc switch mode converters pp Task: convert unregulated dc input into a controlled dc output at a desired voltage level. Converters: only the stepdown and the stepup are the basic converter topologies. All others are derived from those basic topologies. Modes: continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. Drawbacks of basic converter (2): in practice the load would be inductive thus the switch would have to absorb the inductive energy, the output voltage fluctuates between 0 and V d 7.1 Stepdown (buck) converter pp Output voltage: the average output voltage is obtained by equating the voltsecond areas across the indutor. It varies linearly with D. V o = t on T s V d = DV d 7
8 Figure 9: Stepdown (buck) converter Continuousconduction mode: the inductor current flow continuously. During t on, v L = V d V o and during t off, v L = V o. Neglecting power losses associated with all the circuit elements, the input power P d equals the output power P o. Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction: the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period. I LB = 1 2 i L,peak = t on 2L (V d V o ) = DT s 2L (V d V o ) = T sv d 2L D(1 D) = T sv o (1 D) 2L Discontinuousconduction mode with constant V d : in application such as a dc motor speed control. I LB,max = T sv d 8L when D = 0.5 I LB = 4I LB,max D(1 D) Occurs when the output load power is decreased thus the average inductor current will decrease. This dictates a higher V o (V d V o )DT s + ( V o ) 1 T s = 0 V o V d = i L,peak = V o L D + 1 1T s I o = i L,peak 2 V o D 2 = V d D (I o/i LB,max ) D D + 1 Discontinuousconduction mode with constant V o : in application such as dc power supplies. I LB,max = T sv o when D = 0 2L D = 0 is hypothetical because it would lead to V d = + I LB = I LB,max (1 D) D = V o V d ( Io /I LB,max 1 V o /V d Output voltage ripple: all of the ripple component in i L flows through the capacitor and its average component flow through the load resistor. The ripple is independent of the output load power so long as the conduction mode is continuous. ) 2 8
9 Figure 10: Stepup (boost) converter 7.2 Stepup (boost) converter pp Continuousconduction mode: the inductor current flows continuously V o = 1 V d 1 D Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction: the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period. I LB = 1 2 i L,peak = 1 V d 2 L t on = T sv o D(1 D) 2L I LB = 4D(1 D)I LB,max I ob = 27 4 D(1 D)2 I ob,max Discontinuousconduction mode: only with V 0 kept constant (power supplies). When I o is below a certain threshold, D must be varied in order to keep the same conversion ratio. [ ( ) ] 1 4 V o Vo Io 2 D = 1 27 V d V d I ob,max Effect of parasitic elements: due to losses associated with the inductor, the capacitor, the switch, and the diode. Poor switch utilization at high value values of D. Figure 11: Effect of parasitic elements on voltage conversion ratio 9
10 7.3 Buck boost converter pp Figure 12: Buck boost converter Applications: where a negativepolarity output may be desired. Continuousconduction mode: equating the integral of the inductor voltage over one time period to zero yields V o = D V d 1 D Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction: the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period. I LB = I LB,max (1 D) I ob = I ob,max (1 D) 2 Discontinuousconduction mode: only with V 0 kept constant (power supplies). When I o is below a certain threshold, D must be varied in order to keep the same conversion ratio. D = V o V d I o I ob,max 7.4 Cúk dcdc converter pp Figure 13: Cúk converter Applications: where a negativepolarity output may be desired. C 1 acts as the primary means of storing and transferring energy. V C1 = V d + V o 10 V o = D V d 1 D
11 Advantage: input and output currents reasonably ripple free. Disadvantage: requirement of a capacitor C 1 with a large ripplecurrentcarrying capability. 7.5 Fullbridge dc dc converter pp Figure 14: Fullbridge converter Applications (3): dc motor drives, dctoac (sinewave) conversion in singlephase uninterruptible ac power supplies, dctoac (high intermediate frequency) conversion in switchmode transformerisolated dc power supplies. Operates in all four quadrants of the i o v o plane. Antiparallel diodes: difference between the on state and conducting state of the switch. When a switch is turned on, it may or may not conduct depending on the direction of i o. Leg: two switches and their antiparallel diodes. When one switch is on the other one is off and vice versa. v AN = V d v AN = 0 (if T A+ is on and T A is off) (if T A is on and T A+ is off) V AN = V d duty ratio of T A+ V BN = V d duty ratio of T B+ PWM with bipolar voltage switching: (T A+, T B ) and (T A, T B+ ) are treated as two switch pairs, when v control > v tri, T A+ and T B are turned on. Otherwise, T A and T B+ are turned on. V o = V AN V BN = D 1 V d D 2 V d = (2D 1 1)V d PWM with unipolar voltage switching: a triangular waveform is compared with the control voltage v control and v control for determining the switching signals for leg A and leg B, respectively. Effective switching frequency of the output voltage waveform is doubled and the ripple is same switching frequencies. Figure 15: Unipolar vs bipolar 11
12 7.6 dc dc converter comparison pp Figure 16: Switch utilization in dc dc converters Stepdown, stepup, buck boost, and Cúk converters are capable of transferring energy only in one direction. Fullbridge converter is capable of a bidirectional power flow. It is preferable to use either the stepdown or the stepup converter from the switch utilization consideration. 8 Switchmode dcac inverters: dc sinusoidal ac pp Task: produce a sinusoidal ac output whose magnitude and frequency can both be controlled. Categories (3): Pulsewidthmodulated inverters, squarewave inverters, singlephase inverters with voltage cancellation. 8.1 Pulsewidthmodulated switching scheme pp m a = ˆV control ˆV tri m f = f s f 1 Harmonic spectrum: peak amplitude is m a times 1 2 V d, harmonics in the inverter output voltage appear as sidebands centered around the switching frequency and its multiples, the harmonic m f should be an odd integer resulting in an odd symmetry and halfwave symmetry (only odd harmonics). Small m f (m f 21): synchronous PWM (m f is an integer), asynchronous results in subharmonics. Large m f (m f > 21): asynchronous PWM can be used because the amplitudes of the subharmonics are small. Overmodulation: to increase further the amplitude of the fundamental frequency. many more harmonics, used with synchronous PWM. 12
13 Figure 17: Pulsewidth modulation Figure 18: Voltage control by varying m a Squarewave switching scheme: each switch of the inverter leg is on for one halfcycle, only odd harmonics, state change only twice per cycle, many harmonics, unregulated output voltage. 13
14 8.2 Singlephase inverters pp dcside current i d : Figure 19: Bipolar dcside current Figure 20: Unipolar dcside current 8.3 Threephase inverters pp Effect of blanking time on voltage in PWM inverters pp Resonant converters: zerovoltage and/or zerocurrent switchings pp Task: overcome the problems of switching stresses, switching power losses, and the EMI by turning on and turning off each of the converter switches when either the switch voltage or the switch current is zero. Categories (4): loadresonant converters, resonantswitch converters, resonantdclink converters, highfrequencylink integralhalfcycle converters. 14
15 Figure 21: Zerovoltage/zerocurrentswitching loci 9.1 Loadresonant converters pp Figure 22: SLR dc dc converter Discontinuousconduction mode with w s < 1 2 w o: the switches turn off naturally at zero current and at zero voltage, they turn on at zero current but not at zero voltage Discontinuousconduction mode with 1 2 w o < w s < w o : the switches turn on at a finite current and at a finite voltage, they turn off at zero current and zero voltage. Discontinuousconduction mode with w s > w o : the switches turn on at zero current and zero voltage, they turn off a finite current. 10 Switching dc power supplies pp / 15
16 About this document Document processed with L A TEX2ε using the following command lines: latex keywords.tex dvips Ppdf ta4 G0 keywords.dvi ps2pdf keywords.ps Written by: Jonathan Goldwasser Last revision: 12th June 2005
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