55:041 Electronic Circuits

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1 55:041 Electronic Circuits Mosfet Review Sections of Chapter 3 &4 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-1

2 Basic Structure of MOS Capacitor Sect. 3.1 Width m or less Thickness m or less ` MOS Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-2

3 Why MOS? Very small compared to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) Field effect > inherently low power In digital circuits that allows for great density and so-called VLSI circuits: microcontrollers, memory, ownside The very thin oxide layer needs protection Power consumption increases with switching speed i dv V 12 5 C C 5 V, 1 pf, 1 ns i ma 9 dt t 1 10 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-3

4 MOS Capacitor Under Bias Parallel plate capacitor E V d (V/m) Very thin insulator MOS capacitor with negative gate bias Note direction of electric field Holes accumulate A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-4

5 MOS Capacitor Under Bias MOS capacitor with positive gate bias Note direction of electric field MOS capacitor with induced space-charge due (moderate positive gate bias) MOS capacitor with induced space-charge and induced electron inversion layer (larger positive gate bias) A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-5

6 MOS Capacitor: n-type Substrate p-substrate MOS capacitor One can also construct n-substrate MOS capacitors Hole inversion layer forms at large negative bias voltages A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-6

7 n-channel Enhancement Mode MOSFET Sect Oxide Gate Source rain Heavily doped n + (good conductor) Channel Oxide Substrate Heavily doped n + (good conductor) Note the symmetry. In principle, one can switch Source and rain. evice characteristics are influenced by material doping levels, t ox, W, and L. In semiconductor manufacture W, and L (specifically ratios of W/L) are easily manipulated to obtain desired characteristics. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-7

8 Basic Transistor Operation v GS < V TN, no conduction v GS > V TN, channel forms, conduction A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-8

9 Body iode Body diode side effect of manufacturing process Tie substrate to most negative point in circuit to ensure body diode is always reverse-biased. This effectively removes it from the circuit (except for 2 nd order effects) A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-9

10 n-channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET Symbols Body or substrate shown What we will use Note the polarities Also used A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-10

11 Question Name The Part n-channel MOSFET A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-11

12 rain/source/channel etc. Source of n-channel s electrons +++ e - e - I n-channel or NMOS rain of n-channel s electrons Enhancement mode, n-channel MOS Field Effect Transistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-12

13 Sect. 3.1 i Small gate voltage > thin channel, high channel resistance channel Channel Resistance Large gate voltage > thicker channel, lower channel resistance Voltage controllable resistance A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-13

14 Small v S Linear resistor (Ohmic) Larger v S i vs v S slope not constant v S v S (sat) Channel pinch off v v (sat) V GS S TN v S (sat) v GS V TN A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-14

15 Family of i Versus v S Curves: Enhancement-Mode n-mosfet i K n [2( v GS V TN ) v S v 2 S ] i K n [ v V ] TN GS 2 K n Wµ nc 2L C ε ox ox ox ox t K n conduction parameter C ox, μ n constant for fabrication technology K n ' k 2 n W L Process conduction parameter: k µ C ' n n ox Important concept: IC designers use W/L to control FET characteristics. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-15

16 p-channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET See Sections and 3.15 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-16

17 n-channel epletion-mode MOSFET Sect Manufactured so an n-channel exists without an external v GS. External v GS can increase or decrease channel A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-17

18 Family of i Versus v S Curves: epletion-mode n-mosfet Symbols Note FET is on even with no v GS A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-18

19 Cross-Section of n-mosfet and p-mosfet p-well makes a local p-substrate Both transistors are used in the fabrication of Complementary MOS (CMOS) circuitry. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-19

20 Summary of I-V Relationships NMOS PMOS Nonsaturation v S < v S (sat) v S <v S (sat) i K n [2( v GS V TN ) v Saturation v S > v S (sat) v S > v S (sat) S v 2 S ] i K p [2( v SG + V TP ) v S v 2 S ] i K n[ vgs VTN 2 ] i K [ v + VTP ] p SG 2 Transition Pt. v S (sat) v GS - V TN v S (sat) v SG + V TP Enhancement Mode V TN > 0 V V TP < 0 V epletion Mode V TN < 0 V V TP > 0 V A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-20

21 Channel Length Modulation: Early Voltage Sect A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-21

22 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) Sect See page 180 of textbook A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-22

23 NMOS, PMOS, Enhancement, epletion, It is easy to get confused with all the different transistors By far the most common type of FET is the NMOS (n-channel), enhancement mode transistor A positive v GS turns it on i K n [2 ( v GS V TN ) v S v 2 S ] i K n [ v VTN ] GS 2 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-23

24 MOSFET dc Circuit Analysis Example 3.3 Calculate the drain current and the drain-to-source voltage for the common-source amplifier below. R 1 30K, R 2 20K, and R 20K, K n 0.1 ma/v 2, V TN 1 V, and V 5 V. There is no gate current, so finding the gate voltage and V GS are easy V GS [ 20 ( ) ] 2 V 5 Assume the transistor is biased in saturation region: I K [ V V ] TN 2 n GS I ( 0.1) [2 1] 2 0.1mA V I 3 rain-source voltage: 5 5 ( )( 20K) 3 V S R Check assumption: V ( sat) V V 2 1 1V V > (sat) FET is in saturation region S GS TN S V S dc equivalent A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-24

25 Load-Line, Common Source NMOS Bias resistors, help set V GS and the quiescent or Q point Load Resistor V S V I Sect. 3.2 R Input Output Source is common to input and output: common source circuit I V R V R S Load-line equation I as a function of V S and load A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-25

26 I 5 S 20 V 20 ma I V R V R S Q from quiescent A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-26

27 I V R V R S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-27

28 I V R V R S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-28

29 Load Line, cont. Slope 1 R A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-29

30 Enhancement Load evice vs vgs > vgs VTN v S > v S v S (sat) (sat) > Always in saturation region i 2 2 K n( vgs VTN ) K n( vs VTN ) > Non-linear resistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-30

31 Enhancement Load evice K n 1 ma/v 2 V TN 1 V Non-linear resistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-31

32 Enhancement Load evice and NMOS river Active Load. View as a resistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-32

33 Voltage Transfer Characteristics: NMOS Inverter with Enhancement Load evice v I < V TN v I > V TN A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-33

34 NMOS Inverter with epletion Load evice Active Load. View as a resistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-34

35 CMOS Inverter Active Load. View as a (very high value) resistor Notice the steep transition with CMOS A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-35

36 2-Input NMOS NOR Logic Gate Sect Truth table V 1 (V) V 2 (V) V O (V) 0 0 High 5 0 Low 0 5 Low 5 5 Low Logic NOR A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-36

37 MOS Parameter Variation 2N7000 NMOS FET ifferent devices significantly different threshold voltages: 0.8 V (min), 3 V(max) Same device, different temperatures, significantly different threshold voltages All parameters vary with temperature, between samples of the same part number, and operating point. Variation is often much larger than with passive components. K n, K p, VTN, VTP,... A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-37

38 MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Switch V CC V CC V GS 0 V GS 0 No channel, no conduction, no current through load V CC V CC I I Maximum channel, V GS >> V TN V GS >> V TN R low resistance S(ON) between drain and source A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-38

39 MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Switch V CC I Small signal, low-power MOSFET V GS >> V TN R S(ON) R S(ON) in range 0.2 Ohm 20 Ohm I (max) > 200 ma Power MOSFETs R S(ON) ~1 milliohm S I (max) > 400 A G A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-39

40 Current-Source Biasing I Q n-channel MOSFET biased with constant current source. V GS adjusts itself to match I Q A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-40

41 Current Mirrors Sect. 3.4 I Q1? n-channel MOSFET biased with constant current source. V GS adjusts itself to match I Q A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-41

42 Current Mirrors Sect. 3.4 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-42

43 Current Source: Compliance Voltage An ideal current source will source its current regardless of the voltage across it: - V + + V - Real current sources stop working properly below some minimum voltage (compliance voltage) across the terminals. V min A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-43

44 NMOS Amplifier Slope 1 R A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-44

45 NMOS Amplifier Sect Slope 1 R v o v i Coupling capacitor. Open circuit for dc, short for ac Large R > flat slope > high amplification A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-45

46 Moving On to Chapter 4 Material A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-46

47 NMOS Common-Source Circuit Slope 1 R Sect 4.1 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-47

48 NMOS Common-Source Circuit Slope 1 R Sect 4.1 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-48

49 Small Signal Concept FETs, BJTs are inherently non-linear devices NMOS FET, saturation region i K n [ v V ] 2 GS TN slope g m v lim GS 0 i v GS i v GS A/V g m 1/(inremental resistance) i ( VGSQ VTN ) K ni Q gm 2 K n 2 vgs g m is a function of the quiescent current. Circuit designer controls g m with I Q A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-49

50 Small Signal Concept, cont. Slope changes with i r r o o i v S 1 ( V V ) [ ] 2 1 λk ( λi ) 1 n GSQ TN Q Early voltage A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-50

51 NMOS Small-Signal Model Sect g m 2K n ( V GSQ V TN ) 2 K n I Q r o [ λi Q ] 1 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-51

52 Common-Source Configuration Question: input signal changes with amplitude vv ii result in what changes at the output? Sect 4.3 Step 2: AC analysis: Coupling capacitor is assumed to be a short. C voltage supply is set to zero volts. Step 3: Small Signal analysis: Replace active components with small-signal (linear approximation) model. Step 1. C analysis: Coupling capacitor is assumed to be open. Find circuit Q-point values. Numerical value of II will determine small-signal model parameters. Step 4: Analyze small signal (linear approximation) circuit with standard methods. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-52

53 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit G S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-53

54 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-54 Small-Signal Voltage Gain + Si i i o m i o v R R R R r g V V A ) ( ( ) o gs m o R r V V g i Si i i gs V R R R V + i Si i i o m o V R R R R r g V + ) ( 0 ) ( + o o gs m R r V V g KCL at Voltage division at G

55 C Load Line Page 218 Q-point near the middle of the saturation region for maximum symmetrical output voltage swing,. Small AC input signal for output response to be linear. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-55

56 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor Sect Circuit Small Signal Model For now, ignore r o A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-56

57 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor What is the main purpose of this resistor? Source resistor minimizes stabilizes Q-point against transistor parameter variation A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-57

58 Parameter Variation: 2N7000 NMOS FET Same device, different temperatures, significantly different threshold voltages ifferent devices significantly different threshold voltages: 0.8 V (min), 3 V(max) A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-58

59 Effect of Source Resistor V TN 1 V, V O 2.83 V V TN 0.9 V, V O 2.43 V 10% Change in V TN resulted in about 14% change in V OQ A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-59

60 Effect of Source Resistor V TN 1V, V O 3.77 V V TN 0.9 V, V O 3.6 V 10% Change in V TN resulted in about 4% change in V OQ A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-60

61 Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor Sect For now, ignore r o A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-61

62 Effect of Source Resistor V o ( g Vgs ) R m Write KVL equation for gate-source loop: V i + V gs + ( g V ) R 0 m gs s i gs ( g V ) R V ( g R ) V V + 1+ m gs s gs m s Rewrite: V gs 1+ V ( g R ) i m s A v V V o i gmr 1+ g R m S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-62

63 Effect of Source Resistor A v gmr 1 + g R m S Less sensitive to device variations, but small-signal gain is lower A g v m R More sensitive to device variations, but higher gain A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-63

64 Common-Source Amplifier with Bypass Capacitor Sect Small-signal equivalent circuit A g v m R Constant current source sets Q- point and dramatically improves Q-point stability Capacitor connect source to ground at signal frequencies, and provides maximum gain. A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-64

65 NMOS Source-Follower or Common rain Amplifier Sect 4.4 High resistances Medium/low resistance Source voltage follows the input > source follower A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-65

66 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for Source Follower G S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-66

67 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for Source Follower Ohm s Law V o ( g V )( R r ) m gs s o KVL V gs V in V o Voltage ivision V in V i R 1 RSi R + 2 R Si High-school algebra A v V V o i RS ro 1 + RS g m r o R i Ri + R Si Always< 1 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-67

68 etermining Output Impedance NMOS Source Follower Sect G S V i + - Procedure: set all independent small-signal voltage sources to zero, then apply a test voltage V x at the output terminal, and then determine the current I x that flows. KVL V gs V x KCL I x g m V gs + V R x S V + r x o 0 Combine I x V x g m + 1 R S + 1 r o High-school algebra V x RO 1 I g x m R S r o A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-68

69 Common-Gate Circuit Sect S G Open circuit for AC Ground for AC Ground for AC A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-69

70 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-70 Common-Gate Circuit Si m L m i o v R g R R g V V A + 1 ) ( ) 1 )( ( Si m Si m L i O i R g R g R R R I I A + + G S

71 Comparison of 3 Basic FET Amplifiers Sect 4.6 Voltage Gain Current Gain Input Resistance Output Resistance Common Source A v > 1 R TH Moderate to high Source Follower A v 1 R TH Low Common Gate A v > 1 A i 1 Low Moderate to high A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-71

72 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load evice FET strapped such as this > always in saturation region, behaves as non-linear resistor A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-72

73 FET strapped such as this > always in saturation region, behaves as non-linear resistor NMOS Amplifier with epletion Load evice Sect Steeper transition than with enhancement mode device > higher gain A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-73

74 CMOS Common-Source Amplifier Current mirror Output resistance of the current mirror (very high) Sect g m n Q A g v 2 K I 2 K I m R n Bias A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-74

75 Output Resistance of Current Mirror v SG Constant r o? r o r op r op 1 λ I p Q 1 λ I p Bias Can be made very high A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-75

76 CMOS Common Source R ( r r ) op on A g v r mn ( on rop ) Small-signal model A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-76

77 Cascade Circuit Sect A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-77

78 Cascade Circuit Sect Voltage Gain > 1, high input impedance Voltage Gain < 1, low output impedance A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-78

79 Cascade Circuit Source-follower Common-source g m1? g m2? Perform C analysis g 2 m K n I Q A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-79

80 Cascode Circuit Sect g m1? g m2? Perform C analysis g 2 m K n I Q A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-80

81 CMOS Common Gate Page 257 Common source Common gate Why is this called a CMOS common gate amplifier? Common gate. Note where the input is now applied A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-81

82 CMOS Common Gate r o2 G S A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-82

83 CMOS Common Gate Output Resistance R O? Procedure: set all independent, small-signal voltage sources to zero, then apply a test voltage V x at the output terminal, and then determine the current I x that flows. See Example 4.15 in textbook A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-83

84 A. Kruger Mosfet Review, Page-84

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