# HIGH PERFORMANCE CONTROL OF AC DRIVES WITH MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELS

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1 HIGH PERFORMANCE CONTROL OF AC DRIVES WITH MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELS Haitham Abu-Rub Texas A&M University at Qatar, Qatar Atif Iqbal Qatar University, Qatar and Aligarh Muslim University, India Jaroslaw Guzinski Gdansk University of Technology, Poland A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication

2 Acknowledgment Biographies Preface 1 Introduction to High Performance Drives 1.1 Preliminary Remarks 1.2 General Overview of High Performance Drives 1.3 Challenges and Requirements for Electric Drives for Industrial Applications Power Quality and LC Resonance Suppression Inverter Switching Frequency Motor Side Challenges High dv/dt and Wave Reflection Use of Inverter Output Filters 1.4 Organization of the Book References 2 Mathematical and Simulation Models of AC Machines 2.1 Preliminary Remarks 2.2 DC Motors Separately Excited DC Motor Control Series DC Motor Control 2.3 Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Space Vector Representation Clarke Transformation (ABC to aß) Park Transformation (aß to dq) Per Unit Model of Induction Motor Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) 2.4 Mathematical Model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Motor Model in dq Rotating Frame Example of Motor Parameters for Simulation PMSM Model in Per Unit System PMSM Model in a-ß (x-y)-axis 2.5 Problems References

3 viii Contents 3 Pulse Width Modulation of Power Electronic DC-AC Converter Preliminary Remarks Classification of PWM Schemes for Voltage Source Inverters Pulse Width Modulated Inverters Single-Phase Half-bridge Inverters Single-Phase Full-bridge Inverters Three-phase PWM Voltage Source Inverter Carrier-based Sinusoidal PWM Third-harmonic Injection Carrier-based PWM Matlab/Simulink Model for Third Harmonic Injection PWM Carrier-based PWM with Offset Addition Space Vector PWM Discontinuous Space Vector PWM Matlab/Simulink Model for Space Vector PWM Space Vector PWM in Over-modulation Region Matlab/Simulink Model to Implement Space Vector PWM in Over-modulation Regions Harmonic Analysis Artificial Neural Network-based PWM Matlab/Simulink Model of Implementing ANN-based SVPWM Relationship between Carrier-based PWM and SVPWM Modulating Signals and Space Vectors Relationship between Line-to-line Voltages and Space Vectors Modulating Signals and Space Vector Sectors Multi-level Inverters Diode Clamped Multi-level Inverters Flying Capacitor Type Multi-level Inverter Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-level Inverter Impedance Source or Z-source Inverter Circuit Analysis Carrier-based Simple Boost PWM Control of a Z-source Inverter Carrier-based Maximum Boost PWM Control of a Z-source Inverter Matlab/Simulink Model of Z-source Inverter Quasi Impedance Source or qzsi Inverter Matlab/Simulink Model of qz-source Inverter Dead Time Effect in a Multi-phase Inverter Summary Problems 134 References Field Oriented Control of AC Machines 'Introduction Induction Machines Control 140

4 4.2.1 Control of Induction Motor using V/f Method Vector Control of Induction Motor Direct and Indirect Field Oriented Control Rotor and Stator Flux Computation Adaptive Flux Observers Stator Flux Orientation Field Weakening Control Vector Control of Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Introduction Vector Control of DFIG Connected with the Grid (aß Model) Variables Transformation Simulation Results Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Introduction Vector Control of PMSM in dq Axis Vector Control of PMSM in a-ß Axis using PI Controller Scalar Control of PMSM 166 Exercises 168 Additional Tasks 168 Possible Tasks for DFIG 168 Questions 169 References 169 Direct Torque Control of AC Machines Preliminary Remarks Basic Concept and Principles of DTC Basic Concept Principle of DTC DTC of Induction Motor with Ideal Constant Machine Model Ideal Constant Parameter Model of Induction Motors Direct Torque Control Scheme Speed Control with DTC Matlab/Simulink Simulation of Torque Control and Speed Control with DTC DTC of Induction Motor with Consideration of Iron Loss Induction Machine Model with Iron Loss Consideration Matlab/Simulink Simulation of the Effects of Iron Losses in Torque Control and Speed Control Modified Direct Torque Control Scheme for Iron Loss Compensation DTC of Induction Motor with Consideration of both Iron Losses and Magnetic Saturation Induction Machine Model with Consideration of Iron Losses and Magnetic Saturation Matlab/Simulink Simulation of Effects of both Iron Losses and Magnetic Saturation in Torque Control and Speed Control 218

5 5.6 Modified Direct Torque Control of Induction Machine with Constant Switching Frequency Direct Torque Control of Sinusoidal Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (SPMSM) Introduction Mathematical Model of Sinusoidal PMSM Direct Torque Control Scheme of PMSM Matlab/Simulink Simulation of SPMSM with DTC 236 References 253 Non-Linear Control of Electrical Machines Using Non-Linear Feedback Introduction Dynamic System Linearization using Non-Linear Feedback Non-Linear Control of Separately Excited DC Motors Matlab/Simulink Non-Linear Control Model Non-Linear Control Systems Speed Controller Controller for Variable m Field Current Controller Simulation Results Multiscalar model (MM) of Induction Motor Multiscalar Variables Non-Linear Linearization of Induction Motor Fed by Voltage Controlled VSI Design of System Control Non-Linear Linearization of Induction Motor Fed by Current Controlled VSI Stator Oriented Non-Linear Control System (based on 4 S, i s ) Rotor-Stator Fluxes-based Model Stator Oriented Multiscalar Model Multiscalar Control of Induction Motor 21A Induction Motor Model State Transformations Decoupled IM Model MM of Double Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) Non-Linear Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Non-Linear Control of PMSM for a dq Motor Model Non-Linear Vector Control of PMSM in a-ß Axis PMSM Model in a-ß (x-y) Axis Transformations Control System Simulation Results Problems 289 References 290

6 xi Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Preliminary Remarks Advantages and Applications of Multi-Phase Drives Modeling and Simulation of a Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive Five-Phase Induction Motor Model Five-Phase Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter Model PWM Schemes of a Five-Phase VSI Indirect Rotor Field Oriented Control of Five-Phase Induction Motor Matlab/Simulink Model of Field-Oriented Control of Five-Phase Induction Machine ЪА1 7.5 Field Oriented Control of Five-Phase Induction Motor with Current Control in the Synchronous Reference Frame Model Predictive Control (MPC) MPC Applied to a Five-Phase Two-Level VSI Matlab/Simulink of MPC for Five-Phase VSI Using Eleven Vectors with у = Using Eleven Vectors with у = Summary Problems 359 References 361 Sensorless Speed Control of AC Machines Preliminary Remarks Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Speed Estimation using Open Loop Model and Slip Computation Closed Loop Observers MRAS (Closed-loop) Speed Estimator The Use of Power Measurements Sensorless Control of PMSM Control system of PMSM Adaptive Backstepping Observer Model Reference Adaptive System for PMSM Simulation Results MRAS-based Sensorless Control of Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive MRAS-based Speed Estimator Simulation Results 396 References 396 Selected Problems of Induction Motor Drives with Voltage Inverter and Inverter Output Filters Drives and Filters - Overview Three-Phase to Two-Phase Transformations Voltage and Current Common Mode Component Matlab/Simulink Model of Induction Motor Drive with PWM Inverter and Common Mode Voltage 405

7 XII Contents 9.4 Induction Motor Common Mode Circuit Bearing Current Types and Reduction Methods Common Mode Choke Common Mode Transformers Common Mode Voltage Reduction by PWM Modifications Inverter Output Filters Selected Structures of Inverter Output Filters Inverter Output Filters Design Motor Choke Matlab/Simulink Model of Induction Motor Drive with PWM Inverter and Differential Mode (Normal Mode) LC Filter Estimation Problems in the Drive with Filters / Introduction Speed Observer with Disturbances Model Simple Observer based on Motor Stator Models Motor Control Problems in the Drive with Filters Introduction Field Oriented Control Non-Linear Field Oriented Control Non-Linear Multiscalar Control Predictive Current Control in the Drive System with Output Filter Control System Predictive Current Controller EMF Estimation Technique Problems Questions 475 References 475 Index 479

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