Design and Simulation of Miniaturized Multiband Fractal Antennas for Microwave Applications

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2 with respect to iterations. International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No., September 2012 III. ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS A microwave antenna can be characterized by many parameters such as radiation patterns (polar and azimuth) as a function of angle, return loss characteristics, VSWR(voltage standing wave ratio), impedance, efficiency, gain and directivity as a function of frequency etc. The radiation pattern describes the way in which the electromagnetic energy is propagated in space as function of angle; the return loss locates the resonance frequency; the VSWR and the impedance determine the matching conditions for maximum power transfer; the gain and the directivity indicate the ability of the antenna in radiating the power. The directivity(d) is a measure of how much an antenna concentrates on the radiation at specific angles. This is shown by the following equation. D E(, ) / d d 2 2 where E(, ) is the relative Efield density at specific angles. The directivity of an antenna is only dependent upon the E(, ) at all the angles. Its unit is dbi meaning the db value compared to an ideally isotropic pattern or a pattern with constant E(, ). The gain(dbi) is defined as the directivity (dbi) excluding the loss on the antenna (db) as well as any mismatch loss (db). Fig.. Minkowskikoch fractal thin microstrip antenna Microstrip fed CPW fed This paper, in addition to simulation, compares the microstrip fed and CPW fed simulation results for these two antennas. The simulation results of fractal patch and thin microstrip antennas for both the feed systems are shown in figures from Fig. to Fig.8. Fig. 2. Feed systems. Microstrip CPW (top view) IV. SIMULATION The designed antennas were simulated using IED electromagnetic simulation software. IED is a fullwave electromagnetic solver. It solves the Maxwell Equations, governing the macro electromagnetic phenomenon. There is no much assumption involved except the numerical nature of the method. Therefore, the solution remains extremely accurate. Fig.. Minkowskikoch fractal patch antenna Microstrip fed CPW fed 826

3 International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No., September 2012 (h) Fig.. Simulation results of microstrip fed patch antenna Current distribution at f=2.2ghz Current distribution at f=.2ghz Current distribution at f=6.18ghz Return loss(s 11 ) versus frequency Polar radiation pattern Efficiency (g) Directivity (h) Gain (g) 82

4 International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No., September 2012 (g) Fig. 6. Simulation results of CPW fed patch antenna Current distribution at f=.1ghz Current distribution at f=.1ghz Return loss(s 11 ) d).polar radiation pattern Efficiency Directivity (g) Gain 828

5 International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No., September 2012 Fig.. Simulation results of microstrip fed thin microstrip antenna Current distribution at f=ghz Return loss(s 11 ) Polar Radiation pattern Efficiency Directivity Gain 82

6 International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No., September 2012 Fig. 8. Simulation results of CPW fed thin microstrip antenna Current distribution at f=.1ghz Return loss(s 11 ).Polar radiation pattern Efficiency Directivity Gain TABLE I: PERFORMANCES OF PROPOSED ANTENNAS RL Antenna f 0 f u f l BW D G Patch (micro strip) Patch (CPW ) Strip (micro strip) Strip (CPW ) V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION η% R A For the geometries shown in Fig. and Fig., the simulations have been performed and the results are tabulated. The results of simulation show that the new MinkowskiKoch fractal antennas perform satisfactorily and yield good results. They provide good radiation pattern, appreciable gain, directivity and efficiency at resonant frequencies. Moreover, these antenna structures provide resonant frequencies at 2.2,,.1,.2,.1, 6.18, and.1ghz with good bandwidths. The Table I shows details of performance of all these antennas. All frequencies are in GHz with RL the return loss(db), f 0 the resonant frequency, f u the upper cutoff frequency, f l the lower cutoff frequency, BW the bandwidth(ghz), D the directivity(dbi), G the gain (dbi) and η the efficiency(r for radiation and A for antenna). However, there are some limitations in this simulation, such as setting maximum meshing frequency, meshing cell size (cells per wavelength). Usually, more cells in a simulation yield higher accuracy. However, one cannot just try to increase them as desired because computer memory will not be enough VI. CONCLUSION Fractal antennas prove to be providing size reduction and multiband operations. The designed and simulated antennas are basically a combination of Minkowski and Koch curves, exhibiting resonance at various frequencies with considerable bandwidths of operation. They can be used in S band (2GHz), C Band (6GHz) and X band (812GHz) applications; specifically suitable for various wireless handheld devices. However, an optimum selection of position of the feed is important for better results. It is observed that the computational time for simulation for CPW fed system is 0% less than that of the microstrip feed system. The future work is to fabricate and test the performance for conformation and agreement with the simulated results. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author S.Suganthi acknowledges the author 2 for sharing his expertise and the author from National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli for the technical supports provided. REFERENCES [1] N. Cohen, R. Hohlfeld, D. Moschella, and P. Salkind, Fractal Wideband Antennas for Software Defined Radio, UWB and Multiple Platform Applications, IEEE, pp. 102, 200 [2] J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. R. Samil, Fractal Antennas: A Novel Antenna Miniaturization Technique and Applications, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol., no. 1, pp. 206, Feb 2002 [] B. Mirzapour and H. R. Hassani, Size Reduction and Bandwidth Enhancement of Snowflake Fractal Antenna, IET Microwave Antennas Propagation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.18018, [] K. J. Vinoy and A. Pal, DualFrequency Characteristics of MinkowskiSquare Ring Antennas, IET, Antennas and Propagation, vol., no. 2, pp. 2122, [] R. Kumar, P. Malathi, and J. P. Shinde, Design of Miniaturized Fractal Antenna, in Proc. of the th European Microwave Conference, Munich Germany, 200, pp.. S. Suganthi is a Professor in ECE of SACET, Trichy, India. and is in teaching profession for about 2 years, presently perusing research in MIC Metamaterial antennas and filters. She is member of IAENG, IACSIT, Graduate member IEEE. D. Kumar is a Professor and Research Dean, in Periyar Maniyammai University, Thanjavur, India. He received his Ph.D from IIT, Madras. He is in the teaching profession for about 22 years with Optical Imaging, Biomedical Applications and Nano Technology as his focus areas. S. Raghavan is a Professor in ECE, NIT, Tiruchirappalli, India for the past 0 years. He received his Ph.D from IIT, Delhi. His research interests are MIC Filters, antennas, metamaterials, RF and BioMEMS. He is a member of IEEE, TSI, IETE, ISTE, FIE, STERM, BMES. 80

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