Physics 303 Fall Module 4: The Operational Amplifier


 Deirdre Allison
 8 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Module 4: The Operational Amplifier Operational Amplifiers: General Introduction In the laboratory, analog signals (that is to say continuously variable, not discrete signals) often require amplification. Amplification of a signal is the process of increasing a signal s power. For an ideal amplifier, the information contained in the signal is not altered, only its power level is. In addition, we often need to process the signal. For example, it might be necessary to subtract two signals, add two signals, or even carry out more sophisticated operations such as integration, differentiation, or taking the logarithm. A standard, packaged device which allows us to easily perform these operations is the operational amplifier, or for short, the op amp. An op amp is a device which contains many transistors and complicated circuitry. We will concentrate here only on the behavior of the amplifier, not the details of its construction. The generic representation of an op amp is shown below: v Vnon The op amp is powered via the supply rails, and. The output of the device is given by. has a range which is usually close to the range given by the supply rails. The output cannot exceed the supply rail voltage. There are two input terminals to the op amp, the input labeled with a is known as the noninverting input and the input labeled with a  is the inverting input. The voltages applied to these terminals are written as Vnon and v, respectively. To first approximation, the output voltage is controlled by the difference voltage to the inputs. The op amp is, therefore, a difference amplifier with effective input voltage vdif = vnon vinv. There are, however, restrictions on the allowable values of the input. Again, these values are usually close to the range spanned by the supply rails. To begin our analysis, we will consider an ideal device. In the real world, though, nothing behaves ideally! Since the op amp looks at the input voltage and delivers an output voltage, an ideal amplifier would have infinite input impedance (so any device could be attached to it) and the output would have zero source impedance (so any load can be driven). The relationship between the effective input vdif and the output, vout is described by the transfer characteristic shown in the figure below. Notice that because the amplification is high, it only takes a small vdif to drive vout over its active range. Outside of the active range, the amplifier saturates. The gain G of the amplifier is given by the slope of the active portion of the curve: dvout G = dv For typical op amps, G is in the range of dif
2 sat active range Vdif sat Vdif active range Operational Amplifiers with Feedback Up to now, we have used the op amp simply as a differential amplifier. In most applications, the op amp is not used this way, since the output is very sensitive to imperfections of the device and not particularly stable. Instead, we apply negative feedback to the input as shown below. The feedback loop is a way of assuring that any errors in the output are selfcorrected. The boxed g in the figure represents a control on the amount of feedback we apply, known as the transfer function. g g Assuming infinite gain of the amplifier and that it is operating in its active region, we can see that initially there will be a difference voltage between the two inputs which gets amplified and shows up as a nonzero voltage on the output. But because of the feedback, a voltage of g now appears on one of the inputs, thereby reducing the voltage difference and, therefore, changing the output to reflect the new input difference. Very rapidly, the configuration approaches the state where the input difference is very close to zero. In that limit, g = 0, and we see that the output voltage is simply given by:
3 = g Naturally, real op amps do not have infinite gain, but we can show that for a wide range of operating values, the infinite gain approximation actually works well. In analyzing op amp circuits, we begin by neglecting the nonideal characteristics of an op amp such as: voltage offset bias current offset current openloop gain rolloff slewing rate limitations output current limit We approximate the op amp as having the following two principal characteristics (Golden Rules): 1) The inputs have infinite impedance, and therefore, draw no current. 2) The op amp will deliver whatever output voltage it needs to keep the difference of the input at zero. [Exercise 1: Small Signal Amplification] Using the ProtoBoard and a 741 op amp, construct the circuit shown schematically below: K 15 1M Signal Generator 47K 100 We wish to study the op amp within its active range in order to measure G, the small signal gain. To do this we will pass the voltage from our signal generator through a voltage divider as shown in the schematic. This allows us to conveniently monitor the signal going to the op amp, while keeping the actual signal small.
4 (a) Calculate the relationship between Vnon and. In an ideal op amp, the output is zero if vdif is zero. In a real op amp, there are various internal voltages which unbalance the input. These are known collectively as the input offset voltage vio. Typically vio will be on the order of a few millivolts. We will compensate for vio by applying a small voltage to the inverting input. (b) Set up the function generator to deliver a sine wave at 1 khz, symmetric about ground. Reduce and rebalance the control voltage to the inverting input until the output remains in the active range and vout is symmetric about ground. Measure the amplification G of the amplifier. Repeat the measurement for frequency above and below 1 khz spanning from 100 Hz to 30 khz using intervals of factors of ~3 (i.e. 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 1kHz, 3kHz...). For each frequency note the relative phase between the input and output. (c) Make a loglog plot of your results for G vs. frequency. [End Exercise 1] You should have found that the amplification G of the op amp decreases at higher frequencies. The op amp is specifically designed to have G ~ 1/f above a corner frequency of ~ 10 Hz. For a frequency of 1 Hz, G is almost constant. This is an example of amplification rolloff. It is done to keep the op amp stable when used in a feedback configuration (next week s lab). When an op amp amplification automatically rolls off, it is said to be internally compensated. The Comparator: An Example of an Overdriven Amplifier In Exercise 1, we used the op amp to provide small signal amplification. In practice, we would usually not use the op amp in this configuration because 1) the gain is not necessarily linear, 2) the frequency response is designed for a feedback configuration, 3) this setup is sensitive to drifts in vio. There are times, however when we might use an op amp without feedback, an example being the comparator. A comparator is a device which lets us know when an input signal crosses a certain threshold value. We can overdrive the amplifier, i.e. swing the output from negative to positive saturation, to signal that the threshold crossing has just occurred. Provided we are working with large voltages, we can ignore vio.
5 [Exercise 2: The Comparator] Setup the circuit shown below with vnon initially connected to ground. Use the triangle wave setting of the function generator. Signal Generator 100K K Vref K 0.05 uf (a) Using both traces of the oscilloscope, observe and to determine at what level of the output switching occurs. (b) Measure the positive and negative output saturation voltages. (c) Now connect vnon to the adjustable voltage section of the circuit. Lets call this voltage Vref. Vary Vref and the level of. Observe where the op amp switching now occurs. (d) You should have noticed that the output moves in a direction opposite to that of the signal. Trade inputs to the amplifier to obtain a comparator whose output moves in the same direction as the input signal. (e) The accuracy of the comparator depends on how fast the input signal changes over the active region and on the intrinsic speed of the op amp. The maximum rate that the op amp can respond is known as the slewing rate. Vary the amplitude and frequency of to see how the rate of change of is affected. (f) Measure the slewing rate of the 741 op amp by changing the input signal to a square wave. [End Exercise 2]
6 Applications of Feedback Circuits A) The Voltage Follower: Consider the following circuit This circuit corresponds to negative feedback with g = 1. As a result, =, and the configuration is known as a voltage follower. Why build a voltage follower? A follower allows one to input a signal from a source with high output impedance (i.e. a source that cannot deliver much power) to a load with low impedance (i.e. a source which will draw significant current). The voltage follower is a unity gain circuit for the voltage, clearly, but it can deliver a gain in the power. In this application, the voltage follower is used as a power amplifier. Another name for this circuit is a buffer. [Exercise 3: The Voltage Follower] (a) Build a voltage follower using a 741 op amp. With a frequency of 1 khz, and a 5V pp amplitude, apply a sine and square wave and observe the output. (b) Look closely at the output of the follower with a square wave input. Measure the risetime of the output voltage. Does the output follow the input exactly? Explain. (c) Now substitute a 3140 op amp for the 741 and repeat part (b). Is there a difference in behavior? Explain. [End Exercise 3] For the exercises that follow, you will need to choose resistors appropriate for the circuit gain you are trying to achieve. As a guide, choose resistor values in the 1K100K range to avoid invoking some of the nonideal behavior of the op amp and continue to use the 3140 op amp. B) The Noninverting Amplifier Now, instead of feeding the output directly back to the input, lets decrease the voltage with a resistive voltage divider network as shown in the figure below:
7 R1 R2 [Exercise 4: The Noninverting Amplifier] (a) Show that the output of the noninverting amplifier is given by: R1 R2 = R1 (b) Build a noninverting amplifier with a gain of 10 and investigate its performance over a range of amplitudes and frequencies for a sine wave input. [End Exercise 4] C) The Inverting Amplifier For the noninverting amplifier, both inputs are usually maintained at a nonzero voltage and this can lead to lower performance of the amplifier when the nonideal characteristics of the op amp are considered. A way to increase performance is to operate the amplifier in an inverting amplifier configuration. R1 R2 [Exercise 5: The Inverting Amplifier] (a) Show that the output of the inverting amplifier is given by:
8 R2 = R1 (b) Build an inverting amplifier with a gain of 10 and investigate its performance over a range of amplitudes and frequencies for a sine wave input. [End Exercise 5] D) The Integrator To construct an integrator we simply replace R2 in the inverting amplifier with a capacitor: R C Let s see how the integrator works. If the noninverting input is grounded, then the inverting input is kept at virtual ground and the current which flows through R is simply i = / R The current through the capacitor is related to the voltage across it by the standard formula V i = C t Combining these equations, we get t 1 = dt V0 RC 0 where V 0 is any voltage on the capacitor at time t = 0. Of course, we must not forget that this for an ideal op amp. You will find that the nonideal bias and offset currents which exist will cause the capacitor to charge even when = 0! [Exercise 6: The Integrator] (a) Design and build an integrator to produce a triangle wave output with 10V pp output at 5 khz using a 5V pp square wave input centered about ground. Be sure to list and discuss your design considerations in your lab book. Note any nonideal behavior you observe.
9 (b) Add a large resistor across the capacitor. Does this help alleviate some of the non ideal behavior? Explain. Hint: You will want to install a switch in the circuit to periodically reset the integrator to zero. [End Exercise 6]
EE 3305 Lab I Revised July 18, 2003
Operational Amplifiers Operational amplifiers are highgain amplifiers with a similar general description typified by the most famous example, the LM741. The LM741 is used for many amplifier varieties
More informationChapter 9: Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers The Operational Amplifier (or opamp) is the ideal, simple amplifier. It is an integrated circuit (IC). An IC contains many discrete components (resistors, capacitors,
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Table of contents 1. Design 1.1. The Differential Amplifier 1.2. Level Shifter 1.3. Power Amplifier 2. Characteristics 3. The Opamp without NFB 4. Linear Amplifiers 4.1. The NonInverting
More informationDigital Applications of the Operational Amplifier
Lab Procedure 1. Objective This project will show the versatile operation of an operational amplifier in a voltage comparator (Schmitt Trigger) circuit and a sample and hold circuit. 2. Components Qty
More informationOpAmp Simulation Part II
OpAmp Simulation Part II EE/CS 5720/6720 This assignment continues the simulation and characterization of a simple operational amplifier. Turn in a copy of this assignment with answers in the appropriate
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Fundamentals of opamp Operation modes Golden rules of opamp Opamp circuits Inverting & noninverting amplifier Unity follower, integrator & differentiator Introduction An operational amplifier, or opamp,
More informationEE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #2. Basic OpAmp Circuits. Angsuman Roy. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #2 Basic OpAmp Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of
More informationPHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps. Characteristics of an Ideal Op Amp
PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to illustrate the golden rules of negative feedback for a variety of circuits. These concepts permit you to create and
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 019.101 Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Laboratory No. READING ASSIGNMENT
More informationLaboratory 9. Required Components: Objectives. Optional Components: Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore)
Laboratory 9 Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore) Required Components: 1x 741 opamp 2x 1k resistors 4x 10k resistors 1x l00k resistor 1x 0.1F capacitor Optional Components:
More informationIntroduction to Op Amps By Russell Anderson, BurrBrown Corp
Introduction to Op Amps By ussell Anderson, BurrBrown Corp Introduction Analog design can be intimidating. If your engineering talents have been focused in digital, software or even scientific fields,
More informationChapter 13: Comparators
Chapter 13: Comparators So far, we have used op amps in their normal, linear mode, where they follow the op amp Golden Rules (no input current to either input, no voltage difference between the inputs).
More informationWhen you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp
Op Amp Fundamentals When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp In general, the parameters are interactive. However, in this unit, circuit input
More informationMechatronics. Analog and Digital Electronics: Studio Exercises 1 & 2
Mechatronics Analog and Digital Electronics: Studio Exercises 1 & 2 There is an electronics revolution taking place in the industrialized world. Electronics pervades all activities. Perhaps the most important
More informationOperational Amplifier BME 360 Lecture Notes Ying Sun
Operational Amplifier BME 360 Lecture Notes Ying Sun Characteristics of OpAmp An operational amplifier (opamp) is an analog integrated circuit that consists of several stages of transistor amplification
More informationAmplification. Objective. Equipment List. Introduction. The objective of this lab is to demonstrate the basic characteristics an Op amplifier.
Amplification Objective The objective of this lab is to demonstrate the basic characteristics an Op amplifier. Equipment List Introduction Computer running Windows (NI ELVIS installed) National Instruments
More informationLesson number one. Operational Amplifier Basics
What About Lesson number one Operational Amplifier Basics As well as resistors and capacitors, Operational Amplifiers, or Opamps as they are more commonly called, are one of the basic building blocks
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Reading Horowitz & Hill handout Notes, Chapter 9 Introduction and Objective In this lab we will examine opamps. We will look at a few of their vast number of uses and also investigate
More informationGechstudentszone.wordpress.com
8.1 Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) UNIT 8: Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier ("opamp") is a DCcoupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a singleended
More informationChapter 10: The Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 10: The Operational Amplifiers Electronic Devices Operational Amplifiers (opamp) Opamp is an electronic device that amplify the difference of voltage at its two inputs. It has two input terminals,
More informationUnit WorkBook 1 Level 4 ENG U22 Electronic Circuits and Devices 2018 UniCourse Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Sample
Pearson BTEC Level 4 Higher Nationals in Engineering (RQF) Unit 22: Electronic Circuits and Devices Unit Workbook 1 in a series of 4 for this unit Learning Outcome 1 Operational Amplifiers Page 1 of 23
More informationChapter 10: Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical transistors with two inputs and two outputs. 2 Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical
More informationUniversity of North Carolina, Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 3157 EE Design II Fall 2009
University of North Carolina, Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 3157 EE Design II Fall 2009 Lab 1 Power Amplifier Circuits Issued August 25, 2009 Due: September 11, 2009
More informationECEN Network Analysis Section 3. Laboratory Manual
ECEN 3714Network Analysis Section 3 Laboratory Manual LAB 07: Active Low Pass Filter Oklahoma State University School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Section 3 Laboratory manual  1  Spring
More informationLab 10: Single Supply Amplifier
Overview This lab assignment implements an inverting voltage amplifier circuit with a single power supply. The amplifier output contains a bias point which is removed by AC coupling the output signal.
More informationOPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS and FEEDBACK
Lab Notes A. La Rosa OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS and FEEDBACK 1. THE ROLE OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A typical digital data acquisition system uses a transducer (sensor) to convert a physical property measurement
More informationOPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OPAMPS) II
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OPAMPS) II LAB 5 INTRO: INTRODUCTION TO INVERTING AMPLIFIERS AND OTHER OPAMP CIRCUITS GOALS In this lab, you will characterize the gain and frequency dependence of inverting opamp
More informationAN1106 Custom Instrumentation Amplifier Design Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017
AN1106 Custom Instrumentation Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017 Abstract This application note describes some of the fine points of designing an instrumentation amplifier with opamps. We will
More informationLecture 8: More on Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
Lecture 8: More on Operational mplifiers (Op mps) Input Impedance of Op mps and Op mps Using Negative Feedback: Consider a general feedback circuit as shown. ssume that the amplifier has input impedance
More informationOperational Amplifier
Operational Amplifier Joshua Webster Partners: Billy Day & Josh Kendrick PHY 3802L 10/16/2013 Abstract: The purpose of this lab is to provide insight about operational amplifiers and to understand the
More informationUNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EXPERIMENT 5 GAINBANDWIDTH PRODUCT AND SLEW RATE OBJECTIVES In this experiment the student will explore two
More informationInstrumentation Amplifiers Filters Integrators Differentiators FrequencyGain Relation NonLinear OpAmp Applications DC Imperfections
Lecture OpAmp Building Blocks and Applications Instrumentation Amplifiers Filters Integrators Differentiators FrequencyGain elation NonLinear OpAmp Applications DC Imperfections ELG439 Check List for
More informationHomework Assignment 07
Homework Assignment 07 Question 1 (Short Takes). 2 points each unless otherwise noted. 1. A singlepole opamp has an openloop lowfrequency gain of A = 10 5 and an open loop, 3dB frequency of 4 Hz.
More informationChapter 3 THE DIFFERENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR Name: Date
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPERIMENTS The following two experiments are designed to demonstrate the design and operation of the opamp differentiator and integrator at various frequencies. These two experiments
More informationChapter 8: Field Effect Transistors
Chapter 8: Field Effect Transistors Transistors are different from the basic electronic elements in that they have three terminals. Consequently, we need more parameters to describe their behavior than
More informationPURPOSE: NOTE: Be sure to record ALL results in your laboratory notebook.
EE4902 Lab 9 CMOS OPAMP PURPOSE: The purpose of this lab is to measure the closedloop performance of an opamp designed from individual MOSFETs. This opamp, shown in Fig. 91, combines all of the major
More informationPhysical Limitations of Op Amps
Physical Limitations of Op Amps The IC OpAmp comes so close to ideal performance that it is useful to state the characteristics of an ideal amplifier without regard to what is inside the package. Infinite
More informationI1 19u 5V R11 1MEG IDC Q7 Q2N3904 Q2N3904. Figure 3.1 A scaled down 741 op amp used in this lab
Lab 3: 74 Op amp Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory is to become familiar with a two stage operational amplifier (op amp). Students will analyze the circuit manually and compare the results with SPICE.
More informationIntegrators, differentiators, and simple filters
BEE 233 Laboratory4 Integrators, differentiators, and simple filters 1. Objectives Analyze and measure characteristics of circuits built with opamps. Design and test circuits with opamps. Plot gain vs.
More informationExamining a New InAmp Architecture for Communication Satellites
Examining a New InAmp Architecture for Communication Satellites Introduction With more than 500 conventional sensors monitoring the condition and performance of various subsystems on a medium sized spacecraft,
More informationINDIANA UNIVERSITY, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, P400/540 LABORATORY FALL Laboratory #6: Operational Amplifiers
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, P400/540 LABORATORY FALL 008 Laboratory #: Operational Amplifiers Goal: Study the use of the operational amplifier in a number of different configurations: inverting
More informationIntroduction to Analog Interfacing. ECE/CS 5780/6780: Embedded System Design. Various Op Amps. Ideal Op Amps
Introduction to Analog Interfacing ECE/CS 5780/6780: Embedded System Design Scott R. Little Lecture 19: Operational Amplifiers Most embedded systems include components that measure and/or control realworld
More informationEKT 314 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION
EKT 314 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION Elektronik Instrumentasi Semester 2 2012/2013 Chapter 3 Analog Signal Conditioning Session 2 Mr. Fazrul Faiz Zakaria school of computer and communication engineering.
More informationSpecialPurpose Operational Amplifier Circuits
SpecialPurpose Operational Amplifier Circuits Instrumentation Amplifier An instrumentation amplifier (IA) is a differential voltagegain device that amplifies the difference between the voltages existing
More informationChapter 14 Operational Amplifiers
1. List the characteristics of ideal op amps. 2. Identify negative feedback in opamp circuits. 3. Analyze ideal opamp circuits that have negative feedback using the summingpoint constraint. ELECTRICAL
More informationBasic Information of Operational Amplifiers
EC1254 Linear Integrated Circuits Unit I: Part  II Basic Information of Operational Amplifiers Mr. V. VAITHIANATHAN, M.Tech (PhD) Assistant Professor, ECE Department Objectives of this presentation To
More informationLT Spice Getting Started Very Quickly. First Get the Latest Software!
LT Spice Getting Started Very Quickly First Get the Latest Software! 1. After installing LT Spice, run it and check to make sure you have the latest version with respect to the latest version available
More informationPHYSICS 330 LAB Operational Amplifier Frequency Response
PHYSICS 330 LAB Operational Amplifier Frequency Response Objectives: To measure and plot the frequency response of an operational amplifier circuit. History: Operational amplifiers are among the most widely
More informationOpamp characteristics Operational amplifiers have several very important characteristics that make them so useful:
Operational Amplifiers A. Stolp, 4/22/01 rev, 2/6/12 An operational amplifier is basically a complete highgain voltage amplifier in a small package. Opamps were originally developed to perform mathematical
More informationES250: Electrical Science. HW6: The Operational Amplifier
ES250: Electrical Science HW6: The Operational Amplifier Introduction This chapter introduces the operational amplifier or op amp We will learn how to analyze and design circuits that contain op amps,
More informationECE3204 D2015 Lab 1. See suggested breadboard configuration on following page!
ECE3204 D2015 Lab 1 The Operational Amplifier: Inverting and Noninverting Gain Configurations GainBandwidth Product Relationship Frequency Response Limitation Transfer Function Measurement DC Errors
More informationOperational Amplifiers: Part II
1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers: Part II The name "operational amplifier" comes from this amplifier's ability to perform mathematical operations. Three good examples of this are the summing amplifier,
More informationELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 6. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PART III DYNAMIC RESPONSE
77 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 6. PERATAL AMPLIIERS PART III DYNAMIC RESPNSE Introduction In the first 2 handouts on opamps the focus was on DC for the ideal and nonideal opamp. The perfect opamp assumptions
More informationUnit 3: Introduction to Op amps and Diodes
Unit 3: Introduction to Op amps and Diodes Differential gain Operational amplifiers are powerful building blocks conceptually simple, easy to use, versatile, and inexpensive. A great deal of analog electronic
More informationLecture #4 Basic OpAmp Circuits
Summer 2015 Ahmad ElBanna Faculty of Engineering Department of Electronics and Communications GEE336 Electronic Circuits II Lecture #4 Basic OpAmp Circuits Instructor: Dr. Ahmad ElBanna Agenda Some
More informationEXPERIMENT 10: SINGLETRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 11/11/10
EXPERIMENT 10: SINGLETRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 11/11/10 In this experiment we will measure the characteristics of the standard common emitter amplifier. We will use the 2N3904 npn transistor. If you have
More informationThe Difference Amplifier Sept. 17, 1997
Physics 63 The Difference Amplifier Sept. 17, 1997 1 Purpose To construct a difference amplifier, to measure the DC quiescent point and to compare to calculated values. To measure the difference mode gain,
More informationUniversity of Utah Electrical Engineering Department ECE 2100 Experiment No. 2 Linear Operational Amplifier Circuits II
University of Utah Electrical Engineering Department ECE 2100 Experiment No. 2 Linear Operational Amplifier Circuits II Minimum required points = 51 Grade base, 100% = 85 points Recommend parts should
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Continuing the discussion of Op Amps, the next step is filters. There are many different types of filters, including low pass, high pass and band pass. We will discuss each of the
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB WORK EE301 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB WORK EE301 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS EXPERIMENT : 3 TITLE : Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) OUTCOME : Upon completion of this unit, the student should be able to: 1. Gain
More informationLAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS ELEC 225 Introduction Operational amplifiers (OAs) are highly stable, high gain, difference amplifiers that can handle signals from zero frequency (dc signals) up
More informationLow Cost, General Purpose High Speed JFET Amplifier AD825
a FEATURES High Speed 41 MHz, 3 db Bandwidth 125 V/ s Slew Rate 8 ns Settling Time Input Bias Current of 2 pa and Noise Current of 1 fa/ Hz Input Voltage Noise of 12 nv/ Hz Fully Specified Power Supplies:
More informationLaboratory Project 1: Design of a Myogram Circuit
1270 Laboratory Project 1: Design of a Myogram Circuit AbstractYou will design and build a circuit to measure the small voltages generated by your biceps muscle. Using your circuit and an oscilloscope,
More information6. The Operational Amplifier
1 6. The Operational Amplifier This chapter introduces a new component which, although technically nonlinear, can be treated effectively with linear models This element known as the operational amplifier
More informationThe Operational Amplifier as a differential voltagecontrolled voltage source
The Operational Amplifier as a differential voltagecontrolled voltage source Operational amplifiers (op amps) are high performance differential amplifiers. They have inverting and noninverting inputs
More informationLaboratory 4 Operational Amplifier Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California, San Diego MAE170
Laboratory 4 Operational Amplifier Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California, San Diego MAE170 Megan Ong Diana Wu Wong B01 Tuesday 11am April 28 st, 2015 Abstract: The
More informationHigh Speed BUFFER AMPLIFIER
High Speed BUFFER AMPLIFIER FEATURES WIDE BANDWIDTH: MHz HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT: 1mA LOW OFFSET VOLTAGE: 1.mV REPLACES HA33 IMPROVED PERFORMANCE/PRICE: LH33, LTC11, HS APPLICATIONS OP
More informationLABORATORY 5 v3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
University of California Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EECS 100, Professor Bernhard Boser LABORATORY 5 v3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Integrated operational amplifiers opamps
More informationOperational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Application
Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Application Laboratory Manual/3E James M. Fiore 2 Laboratory Manual for Operational Amplifiers & LIC Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated
More informationCommonSource Amplifiers
Lab 2: CommonSource Amplifiers Introduction The commonsource stage is the most basic amplifier stage encountered in CMOS analog circuits. Because of its very high input impedance, moderatetohigh gain,
More informationECE 2274 MOSFET Voltmeter. Richard Cooper
ECE 2274 MOSFET Voltmeter Richard Cooper PreLab for MOSFET Voltmeter Voltmeter design: Build a MOSFET (2N7000) voltmeter in LTspice. The MOSFETs in the voltmeter act as switches. To turn on the MOSFET.
More informationBUCK Converter Control Cookbook
BUCK Converter Control Cookbook Zach Zhang, Alpha & Omega Semiconductor, Inc. A Buck converter consists of the power stage and feedback control circuit. The power stage includes power switch and output
More informationFunction Generator Opamp Summing Circuits Pulse Width Modulation LM311 Comparator
Function Generator Opamp Summing Circuits Pulse Width Modulation LM311 Comparator Objective ECE3204 D2015 Lab 3 The main purpose of this lab is to gain familiarity with use of the opamp in a nonlinear
More informationLab 2: Capacitors. Integrator and Differentiator Circuits
Lab 2: Capacitors Topics: Differentiator Integrator LowPass Filter HighPass Filter BandPass Filter Integrator and Differentiator Circuits The simple RC circuits that you built in a previous section
More informationEE 210: CIRCUITS AND DEVICES
EE 210: CIRCUITS AND DEVICES OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PART II This is the second of two laboratory sessions that provide an introduction to the op amp. In this session you will study three amplifiers designs:
More informationState Machine Oscillators
by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 22, 2009, rev. March 31, 2013 Introduction State machine oscillators are based on periodic charging and discharging a capacitor to specific voltages using one or more voltage comparators
More informationVoltage Feedback Op Amp (VFOpAmp)
Data Sheet Voltage Feedback Op Amp (VFOpAmp) Features 55 db dc gain 30 ma current drive Less than 1 V head/floor room 300 V/µs slew rate Capacitive load stable 40 kω input impedance 300 MHz unity gain
More informationECEN 474/704 Lab 5: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifiers
ECEN 474/704 Lab 5: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifiers Objective Design, simulate and layout various inverting amplifiers. Introduction Inverting amplifiers are fundamental building blocks of electronic
More informationElectronics and Instrumentation Name ENGR4220 Spring 1999 Section Experiment 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers
Experiment 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Purpose: Become sufficiently familiar with the operational amplifier (opamp) to be able to use it with a bridge circuit output. We will need this capability
More informationCMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component
CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits, both analog and digital. The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is
More informationAnalysis and Design of a Simple Operational Amplifier
by Kenneth A. Kuhn December 26, 2004, rev. Jan. 1, 2009 Introduction The purpose of this article is to introduce the student to the internal circuits of an operational amplifier by studying the analysis
More informationConcepts to be Reviewed
Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational
More informationLABORATORY III : Operational Amplifiers
Physics 331, Fall 2008 Lab III  Exercises 1 LABORATORY III : Operational Amplifiers A. Objective In this week s lab we will investigate several circuits in order to understand the utility as well as the
More informationLearning Objectives:
Learning Objectives: At the end of this topic you will be able to; recall the conditions for maximum voltage transfer between subsystems; analyse a unity gain opamp voltage follower, used in impedance
More informationBasic Operational Amplifier Circuits
Basic Operational Amplifier Circuits Comparators A comparator is a specialized nonlinear opamp circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an output state that indicates which one is greater.
More informationCircuits Final Project: AdaptiveBiasing Differential Amplifiers
Circuits Final Project: AdaptiveBiasing Differential Amplifiers Franton Lin, Anisha Nakagawa, and Jen Wei May 4 07 Introduction In Lab 9, we learned about currentmirror differential amplifiers, where
More informationLM6118/LM6218 Fast Settling Dual Operational Amplifiers
Fast Settling Dual Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM6118/LM6218 are monolithic fastsettling unitygaincompensated dual operational amplifiers with ±20 ma output drive capability. The
More informationINTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS LAB MANUAL
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS LAB MANUAL V SEMESTER Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Government Engineering College, Dahod389151 http://www.gecdahod.ac.in/ L A B M A N U
More informationOp Amp Booster Designs
Op Amp Booster Designs Although modern integrated circuit operational amplifiers ease linear circuit design, IC processing limits amplifier output power. Many applications, however, require substantially
More informationIntroduction to Op Amps
Introduction to Op Amps ENGI 242 ELEC 222 Basic OpAmp The opamp is a differential amplifier with a very high open loop gain 25k AVOL 500k (much higher for FET inputs) high input impedance 500kΩ ZIN 10MΩ
More informationLab E5: Filters and Complex Impedance
E5.1 Lab E5: Filters and Complex Impedance Note: It is strongly recommended that you complete lab E4: Capacitors and the RC Circuit before performing this experiment. Introduction Ohm s law, a well known
More informationLecture 11. Operational Amplifier (opamp)
Lecture 11 Operational Amplifier (opamp) Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/de1_ee/ Email: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk
More informationCMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component
CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits both analog and digital The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is
More informationSingle Supply, Rail to Rail Low Power FETInput Op Amp AD820
a FEATURES True Single Supply Operation Output Swings RailtoRail Input Voltage Range Extends Below Ground Single Supply Capability from + V to + V Dual Supply Capability from. V to 8 V Excellent Load
More informationEK307 Passive Filters and Steady State Frequency Response
EK307 Passive Filters and Steady State Frequency Response Laboratory Goal: To explore the properties of passive signalprocessing filters Learning Objectives: Passive filters, Frequency domain, Bode plots
More informationDesign Document. Analog PWM Amplifier. Reference: DD00004
Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 1406 W. Green St. Urbana, IL 61801 Design Document
More informationLab Exercise 6: Digital/Analog conversion
Lab Exercise 6: Digital/Analog conversion Introduction In this lab exercise, you will study circuits for analogtodigital and digitaltoanalog conversion Preparation Before arriving at the lab, you should
More informationHIGH LOW Astable multivibrators HIGH LOW 1:1
1. Multivibrators A multivibrator circuit oscillates between a HIGH state and a LOW state producing a continuous output. Astable multivibrators generally have an even 50% duty cycle, that is that 50% of
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Real Time Wireless Electrocardiogram (ECG) Monitoring System Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Guilherme K. Kolotelo, Rogers G. Reichert Cambridge, MA
More informationNew Techniques for Testing Power Factor Correction Circuits
Keywords Venable, frequency response analyzer, impedance, injection transformer, oscillator, feedback loop, Bode Plot, power supply design, power factor correction circuits, current mode control, gain
More information