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1 International Journal Of Scientific Research And Education Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages April-2015 ISSN (e): Website: Effects of Four Wave Mixing (FWM) on Optical Fiber in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Channels Authors Poonam Kumari 1, Abhishek Tiwari 2 1 M.Tech Scholar, Digital Communication, Marudhar Engineering College,Bikaner, Rajasthan, India 2 Assosiate Professor, ECE Department, Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India ABSTRACT - This paper deals with the investigation of Four Wave Mixing (FWM), a non-linearity in WDM system. In a typical commercial 128 channel 10Gbps system FWM is a third order non linearity in silica fibers that is analogous to intermodulation distortion in electrical system. Dense WDM transmission in which individual wavelength channel are modulated at the rates of 10 Gbps offer capacities of NX10 Gbps, where N is the number of wavelengths. To transmit such a high capacity overlong distance requires operation in the 1550nm window of dispersion shifted fiber.two dispersion shifted fiber of length 100 km were launched and the fiber dispersion values varied from -16 ps/nm/km to 16ps/nm/km through parametric runs. The signal observed were very close to the transmitter end. However, on increasing the dispersion values the system turned noisier. The low average dispersion minimized pulse spreading, whereas the high local dispersion destroyed the carrier frequency phase relationship that give rise to FWM intermodulation products. Thus, FWM product decreases with increase in dispersion values. Key words: WDM, FWM, OptSim, dispersion 1. INTRODUCTION An increase in optical fiber data rates, transmission lengths and number of wavelengths leads to Nonlinearity effects. Earlier fiber attenuation and fiber dispersion were the only known nonlinearities which has been dealt extensively. A novel impediment is the fiber nonlinearities. While designing the advanced fiber optic system special consideration is to be given to Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), Self-Phase Modulation (SPM), Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM). One of the unique characteristics of optical fibers is their relatively low threshold for nonlinear effects. This can be a serious disadvantage in optical communications, especially in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems, where many closely spaced channels propagate simultaneously, resulting in Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3183

2 high optical intensities in the fiber. For instance, in a typical commercial 128-channel 10-Gb system, optical nonlinearities limit the power per channel to approximately 5dBm for a total launched power of 16 dbm. Beyond this power level, optical nonlinearities can significantly degrade the information capacity of the system [1, 2]. There is need to deal with these limitations and to explore the measures to minimize the effects of fiber nonlinearities [3]. 2. FOUR WAVE MIXING Four wave mixing is one of the most dominating signal degradation effect in the wavelength division multiplexing system. It basically occurs with the dense channel spacing and low chromatic dispersion. Channels in the WDM system are equally spaced and the new waves generated by FWM will fall at channel frequencies and, thus, will give rise to crosstalk [4]. Dense WDM transmission in which individual wavelength channel are modulated at the rates of 10Gbps offer capacities of N*10 Gbps, where N is the number of wavelengths. To transmit such a high capacity over long distance requires operation in the nm window of dispersion shifted fiber. In order to preserve an adequate signal to noise ratio, a 10 Gbps system operating over a long distance and having nominal optical repeater spacing of 100 km needs optical power launch of around 1mW per channel. For such WDM system, the simulation requirements of high launch power and low dispersion give rise to the generation of new frequency due to four wave mixing. Four wave mixing is the third order non-linearity in the in silica fiber that is analogous to intermodulation distortion. 3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Study of WDM using conventional methods for non linearity is time consuming and expensive. However, OptSim a software that simulates the environment almost the exact physical realisation of a fiber-optic transmission system provides the users with laser diodes, filters, modulators and all the components which are essential to build an optical network. By using this software, the design cost of optical communication system link and component can be reduced and also can minimize time requirement. It is the innovative and powerful software that allow users to plan, test and simulate every type of optical link in the transmission layer of a broad spectrum of optical network. Fig.1 Experimental setup of FWM. Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3184

3 The simulation setup for FWM configuration is shown in figure (1). Block diagram of the system is divided into three section transmitter, channel and receiver. Transmitter section first block is data source where data rate and bit is customized. Electrical driver is to convert binary sequence into electrical pulses. Here we have employed band pass Bessel electrical filter in transmitter section, continuous wave lorentzian laser is used with various values of power. Booster is an erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) with fixed output power and further fixed gain optical amplifiers are used. Channel section basically consists of three components optical fiber, fibers braggs grating and amplifier with fixed output power. In receiver section a pre-amplifier i.e. fixed power EDFA is used. A raised cosine optical filter whose main concern is on central frequency and band pass shape of filter. An optical spectrum analyzer is used to access the non-linear output of optical spectrum Four Wave Mixing Two WDM channels were launched over two dispersion shifted fibers each of span 100Km. Dispersion is completely compensated at each span. The fiber dispersion value is varied from -16ps/nm/km to 16ps/nm/km through parametric run feature of OptSim. The optical power spectrum of the received signal showed that the FWM product decreases with increasing dispersion. In Figure 2 and Figure 3 we have shown the signal spectrum at the transmitter end and at receiver end at zero dispersion value. By comparing them, we found that at receiver end an extra peak had appeared with a noise is in the system due to FWM phenomena. In figure 4, figure 5, figure 6 we have shown the comparisons of -2 vs. 0, -4 vs. 0, -16 vs. 0 dispersion values and found that at -2 dispersion value, we are getting signal which is very close to what we get at the transmitter end and this is the best required value. But when we increase the dispersion value in the system, the system becomes noisier. Fig. 2 Signal spectrum of transmitter end at zero dispersion. Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3185

4 Fig. 3 Signal spectrum at receiver end at zero dispersion. Fig. 4 Signal spectrum comparison at 0 i.e. RED vs -2 i.e. GREEN dispersion values. Fig. 5 Signal spectrum comparison at 0 i.e. RED vs -4 i.e. GREEN dispersion values. Fig. 6 Signal spectrum comparison at 0 i.e. RED vs -16 i.e. GREEN dispersion values. Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3186

5 Fig. 7 Plot of dispersion vs. power. In figure (7) we observed the best result at -2 dispersion value since the more is the power, the more FWM effect will be there in the system. We have seen that at -2 and 2 dispersion values we are getting 8.68dBm of power which is the least power. But as we increases the dispersion values further upto 16 and -16 dispersion values the power is increasing which tend to increase FWM effect in the system. We had also seen that at 0 dispersion value the power is upto 8.85 dbm which is quite high. CONCLUSION The output results given in figure (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) shows that optical power spectrum at the fiber input and at the output for different settings of dispersion. Here the spectrum of the received signal shows that FWM product increases with increasing dispersion.at -2ps/nm/km and +2ps/nm/km we are getting the best result in which the power requirement for transmission of same data rate is lowest which tends to lower FWM product in the system. Thus we can conclude that FWM products in WDM system are stronger as we introduce dispersion in the system. At zero dispersion due to phase-matching condition, the FWM effect is maximum and by increasing the fiber dispersion we increase the phase mismatch and as a result FWM effect decreases. Here the spectrum of the received signal shows that FWM product increases with increasing dispersion. After increasing some dispersion we were getting the best result in which the power requirement for transmission of same data rate is lowest which will tend to low FWM product in the system. Thus in conclusion we illustrated that FWM products in WDM system are stronger as we are introducing dispersion in the system. At zero dispersion due to phase-matching condition the FWM effect is maximum by increasing the fiber dispersion we increase the phase mismatch and FWM effect decreases. Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3187

6 REFERENCES 1. L. G. L. Wegener, M. L. Povinelli, A. G. Green, P. P. Mitra, J. B. Stark, and P. B. Littlewood, The effect of propagating nonlinearities on the information capacity of WDM optical fiber systems: Cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing, Physica, D, vol. 189, no. 1 2, pp , February A.R. Chraplyvy, Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by fiber optic nonlinearities, J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 8, no. 10, p , October J. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Monika, Amit Wason, and R.S. Kaler, Investigation of four wave mixing effect with different number of input channels at various channel spacing, Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Vol. 124, Issue 20, pp , October Poonam Kumari, Abhishek Tiwari IJSRE Volume 3 Issue 4 April 2015 Page 3188

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