# Lecture 9. Lab 16 System Identification (2 nd or 2 sessions) Lab 17 Proportional Control

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1 246 Lecture 9 Coming week labs: Lab 16 System Identification (2 nd or 2 sessions) Lab 17 Proportional Control Today: Systems topics System identification (ala ME4232) Time domain Frequency domain Proportional Control

2 Systems Analysis 247

3 248 Block diagram manipulations: Series Parallel Feedback Transfer Functions Three uses of transfer functions: Prediction: Given input, find output (Everything!) Control: Given desired output, find input to achieve it (Labs 17-22) System Identification: Given input and output, find the system (Labs 15-16)

4 249 Basic Skills Convert signals between Time domain and Laplace domain System description from differential equation to transfer function Find system response to inputs Block diagram simplification Pole locations and characteristic responses Frequency response

5 Frequency Response 250 Given a stable transfer function G(s) such that Y(s) = G(s) R(s) If the input is a sinusoid, r(t) = A sin (ω t), then the output is given, after the transient has died down, by y(t) = B sin(ω t + φ) with B = A G(j ω) and φ = phase of G(j ω) in radians This allows sinusoidal response to be easily characterized

6 Fourier series 251 Any periodic time function, r(t) of frequency Ω can be represented by a sum of sinusoids of harmonics of Ω r(t) = k = 0 1 M k sin(k Ω t + φ k ) Thus the steady state response of system G(s) to a periodic input is: where y(t) = k=0 1 B k sin(k Ω t + Φ k ) B k = M k G(j k Ω) and Φ k = φ k + G(j k Ω)

7 252 Fourier Transform / Frequency content An arbitrary signal (with finite power) can be considered to be a periodic signal with a very long period, i.e. T = 1/Ω -> 1 Then, Ω -> 0, and the harmonics Become a continuum.. 0, Ω, 2 Ω,, k Ω,. What do high and low frequency signals look like in time domain? For some R(j ω) which turns out to be R(s = jω) where R(s) is the Laplace transform

8 Input/Output Frequency Spectra 253 Roughly speaking: Y(jw) = G(jw) U(jw) System G(s) amplifies or attenuates different frequencies differently Equalizers in audio system If u(t) is a noise, e.g. 60Hz, we can design G(s) to notch out 60Hz If u(t) is a low frequency command signal, G(s) should be close to 1 in the range of frequency expected.

9 254 Frequency Response (Bode Plot) Analytical method (learn this first) G(jw) and Phase (G(jw) ) Program this in Matlab Matlab tool - know what to expect first!!! (Garbage in/garbage out) Bode plot 20 log10( G(jw) ) vs log10(w) Freqresp Sys = tf(num,den); Bode(sys) [H, w] = freqresp(sys)

10 EH Labs Overview To develop control systems 1. Determine a system model Lab 15 Simple open loop approach Lab 16 System identification (time domain, frequency domain) 2. Determine controller structure for desired properties Stability Performance (tracking); Disturbance rejection; Noise immunity; Robustness to model uncertainty Sophistication (analysis/design) à better tradeoffs Lab 17 Proportional; Lab 18 Proportional-integral Lab 19 Feedforward; Lab 20: Internal model control; [ Lab 20 Adaptive control ] Lab 21: Force control (integrative lab) 255

11 256 Determine G(s) by testing the system Probe with input U(s) Measure output Y(s) System Identification Often you have choice of what U(s) to use Time domain (step, impulse, ) Frequency domain (sine/cosine)

12 System Identification Approach 257

13 Repertoire of System Response 258 Time domain Frequency domain

14 259 First Order System Step response # of measurements = # of unknown parameters = 2 Not unique choice pick the ones that are most distinct Final value - Initial slope - (other choices 1/e of final value.) Plot a line and use least squares to find the parameters!

15 Impulse Response 260 Ideal impulse impulse Approximate impulse How to preserve the shape of the impulse response? Signal to noise ratio becomes low

16 First Order System 261 Shape of the bode plot for first order system Approximate with straight lines for sketching What happens when w = pole?

17 262 Control Design - Objectives Y(s) = G(s) U(s) Overall goal: choose U(s) so that Y(s) behaves as desired 1. Stability closed loop system poles on left half of complex plane 2. Performance how well does Y(s) follow command 3. Disturbance rejection not affected by disturbance 4. Immunity to measurement noise not affected by sensor inaccuracies 5. Robustness not affected by uncertainty in system model G(s)

18 Usefulness of Feedback 263 Feedback versus dead reckoning

19 264 Simplest feedback controller Proportional Control Consider 1 st order plant (note not all plants are first order!!!!) Formulate closed loop transfer function Use closed loop transfer function to analyze Stability how design parameters affect stability Performance time domain and frequency domain Disturbance rejection and noise immunity Input disturbance, output disturbance Robustness

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