Low Pass Harmonic Filters

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1 Exclusive e-rated Provider PRODUCT SHEET HARMITIGATOR TM Low Pass Harmonic Filters A solution for electrical distribution systems that require stable, reliable power, characterized by unparalleled power quality and efficiency. Low Pass Harmonic Filters are often applied in commercial, industrial, institutional, military, mining, municipal, solar, wind turbine as well as many other environments. Product Benefits Summary PQI Low Pass ( LP ) Harmonic Filters provide many benefits including but not limited to the following: Extend equipment life by reducing transformer and motor internal temperatures Eliminate nuisance tripping of overcurrent protective devices (OCPDs) by reducing RMS and peak current Increase available power from existing sources by reducing kva demand Increase energy cost savings by reducing penalty losses in the facility power system Improve equipment performance by eliminating harmonic influence from other equipment connected to the system Increase true power factor by increasing distortion power factor thereby reducing kva consumption. Increase productivity and profits Popular Options PQI LP Harmonic Filters include several different installation options: Enclosure: NEMA 1, 3R, 4, 4X, 12, etc. Mounting: Fixed, Modular (Open), OEM Kit Phase Configurations: 3-phase or 1-phase Customized Assemblies: o Filter with Bypass o Filter with Capacitor Cut-Out o Other custom options upon request Open Panel Style Enclosed Style Suitability PQI LP Harmonic Filters may be applied in, but are not limited to, the following applications: Diode converter with or without internal inductance SCR converter with or without internal inductance Variable or constant torque applications Nonlinear loads supplied from inverter power sources Harmonics, Cause and Effect The Cause of Harmonics Harmonics are recurring sinusoidal waveform disturbances of varying frequency, typically in the range of Hz, that together form a distorted, nonsinusoidal waveform. Harmonics are a wasteful derivative of the AC to DC conversion process common in today s commercial and industrial power electronic equipment such as adjustable speed drives, welders, arc furnaces, battery charges, UPSs, computers, fluorescent lighting, etc. During the AC to DC conversion process, current is drawn in pulses by the on/off conducting of rectifier diodes. As a result of this switching action, a composite, non-sinusoidal current waveform is created which consists of individual harmonic frequencies including the fundamental. Electronic loads cause harmonic currents to flow, not just from the power source to the electronic loads themselves, but very often to other non-linear and linear loads connected throughout the same electrical distribution system.

2 Three-phase rectifiers containing two (2) diodes per phase, often referred to as 6-pulse, are common in three-phase power electronics and most often cause the formation of 5 th, 7 th, 11 th, 13 th,, etc. positive- and negative-sequence harmonics within the system. The harmonic number indicates the waveform frequency as a multiple of the fundamental frequency. The Effect of Harmonics As discussed previously, the various harmonic current frequencies that form a non-sinusoidal waveform flow individually as sine waves but together produce a distorted, composite waveform. Based on this fact, it is evident that the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the input current is dependent upon the magnitude of the various harmonic frequencies that comprise the load s input current waveform. Depending upon the severity of system harmonics, RMS current can increase by as much as 40% above the fundamental current. Clearly, harmonic currents distort the input current waveform which ultimately increases RMS current, kva demand and I 2 R losses in transformer windings and conductors. Furthermore, harmonic currents cause the degradation of equipment due to overheating and an overall reduction in true power factor. As harmonic currents flow through the system s impedances, they also cause distortion of the input voltage waveform at the particular frequencies that are present in the waveform thus increasing transformer core losses and decreasing each load s published efficiency. Harmonic currents diminish the quality of system electrical power and can cause equipment malfunction. In summary, current and voltage harmonics have a negative impact on a facility s bottom line. By eliminating harmonic distortion, load and system losses are reduced and overall performance is enhanced. Product Performance Characteristics PQI LP Harmonic Filter Options PQI offers two choices for LP Harmonic Filters Type 2 and Type 3. Use our standard three-stage, Type 3 LP Harmonic Filter when a guaranteed performance level of 5% THD I is required. Use our basic two-stage, Type 2 LP Harmonic Filter for those applications where internal inductance already exists as part of the load or when 8% - 12% THD I is acceptable. Harmonic Filtering Stages 1.) Input Stage This stage is intended to isolate the shunt stage from other harmonic sources connected to the same power source and to prevent power system resonance. This stage also protects the load and filter capacitors from transients. 2.) Output Stage This stage is intended to provide a precise amount of impedance to minimize the amount of harmonics produced by the load. This stage also reduces the harmonic burden placed on the shunt stage and prevents resonance between the shunt stage and the load. 3.) Shunt Stage This stage is intended to absorb residual harmonics remaining after the input and output stages have performed their role of reducing load harmonics. Supply Input Stage Output Stage Load 1 2 Shunt Stage Three Stage Type 3 LP Harmonic Filter 3-Stage (Standard), Type 3 for THD I 5% The PQI Type LPF standard Type 3 Low Pass Harmonic Filter includes all three filter stages and achieves THD I 5% at virtually any load condition when used in combination with a 6-pulse diode rectifier. It can also be used with phase controlled (SCR) rectifiers with excellent results. 3

3 Our standard Type 3 filter achieves 5% THD I or less for VFDs operating under any load condition and with any source impedance. Source Type 3 LP Harmonic Filter for 5% THDI Variable Frequency Drive Motor 2-Stage (Basic), Type 2 for 8%-12% THD I The PQI Type 2 Low Pass Harmonic Filter includes two filter stages and takes advantage of existing circuit inductance, which may be in the form of either AC or DC reactors. It can also be used without external AC or DC reactors for those applications where the current distortion limit is above 5%. When the load includes AC or DC reactors, Type 2 filters will typically maintain distortion levels as low as 5%-8% THD I. Without additional AC or DC inductance, Type 2 filters will maintain distortion within 8%-12% THD I. Source Variable Frequency Drive Motor The standard three stage (Type 3) filter design achieves the lowest possible harmonic distortion levels while preventing power system resonance. Application Example A typical 6-pulse, adjustable speed drive (or VFD) has been known to cause total harmonic distortion of current (THDi) in excess of 30% and sometimes as high as 100%, depending upon the device rating and system impedance. When THDi is reduced to 8%-12% by using Type 2, or less than or equal to 5% by using Type 3, PQI LP Harmonic Filters, I RMS current is significantly reduced. This also reduces I 2 R losses in transformer windings and conductors, decreases kva demand and increases load efficiency by decreasing total harmonic distortion of voltage (THDv). Harmonic Current Distortion PQI LP Harmonic Filters provide results that achieve the lowest THD I and THD V in the industry, under any operating condition (0% to 100% full load). The THD I for a given load will vary slightly depending upon the effective source impedance. Type 3 LP Harmonic Filters are capable of maintaining 5% THD I across the entire operating range from 0% to 100% full load. THD I may be slightly higher for low impedance power sources. Harmonic Voltage Distortion VFDs equipped with Type 3 LP Harmonic Filters will typically add approximately 1% THD V at the load side of the filter. The THD V for a given load will vary slightly depending upon the effective source impedance. THD V may be slightly higher for high impedance power sources. Voltage Regulation PQI Type LP Harmonic Filters control the output voltage to +5% at no load and -5% at full load. Type 2 LP Harmonic Filter for 8%-12% THDI

4 Product Technical Specifications Electrical Specification Major Component Specifications Reactor Specifications System Voltage: , , 480, 600 and 690 VAC Voltage Tolerance: +/-10% Frequency: 60Hz or 50Hz available Phases: 3-phase and 1-phase available Input Current Ratings: 3 to 3000 amps Input Power Ratings: 1.1 to 2500 kw (1.5 to 3000 HP) Total Harmonic Current Distortion (THDi): 5% (Type 3) 5% - 8% (Type 2, if VFD has internal AC or DC reactor) 8% - 12% (Type 2, if VFD has internal AC or DC reactor) Total Demand Distortion: Meets IEEE-519, Table 10.3 Inductance Tolerance Maximum Voltage Maximum Current Power Loss Dielectric Strength Coil to coil Coil to core Core construction Impregnation +/-3% (balanced in all 3 phases) 600V (Except 690V filters) 125% of rated AC current, 1 minute 0.4 Watts per kvar 3000V AC for 1 second 3000V AC for 1 second PolyGap TM, Low audible noise, low harmonic loss Vacuum, overpressure varnish Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (THDv): VFD typically contributes < 2% THDv to background THDv Voltage Regulation: +/-5% (no load to full load) Efficiency: 99% at rated load Dielectric Strength: Reactors V (1 minute) Capacitors - 2x rated +1000V (1 minute) Overload Capability: 1.5x rated current (1 min, 1 time/hr) Damping: Self damping reactors (no power resistors req d) Life Expectancy: > 480k hours at 50 C, rated power Environmental Ventilation - Natural convection (No fans required) Enclosures Available (NEMA 1, 3R, 4, 4X, 12, etc.) - Indoor, Outdoor, Industrial, Open, Kits Ambient Temperature - (-30 C to +50 C) Reduced kva Demand - Up to 30%, when THDi is reduced from 100% to 5% Reduced Current Demand - Up to 30%, when THDi is reduced from 100% to 5% Potential Energy Savings - Up to 4% (depending on transformer and conductors) Standards Underwriters Laboratories (UL): - Assemblies are UL-508A approved ( 600V) - Components are UL component recognized - Complies with UL1531 IEC / EN: Complies with EN60289, EN CE (Low Voltage Directive): LVD certificate available Operating Temperature Over Temperature Protection Life Expectancy Terminals Agency Approval Capacitor Specifications -40 C to +50 C Temperature switch included in shunt reactor (center leg) Over 20 years at 40 C operation Copper Capacitor Tolerance +/-4% Maximum Voltage Maximum Current Power Loss Dielectric Strength Terminal - case Terminal - terminal Construction Impregnation Operating Temperature Life Expectancy Terminals Agency Approval UL Component Recognized (File #E173113) 110% of rated AC voltage 135% of rated AC current 0.4 Watts per kvar 2x rated AC voltage V, for 1s 1.75x rated AC voltage for 1 second Impregnated Metalized Polypropylene (MPP) Vacuum, overpressure varnish -40 C to +80 C Over 1M hours at 40 C operation Brass UL Component Recognized (File #E71645) Note: There is no minimum source impedance requirement for PQI, Type 2 & 3, LP harmonic filters. Harmonic Standards: - Meets IEEE-519, AN-2279, EN , EN , G5/4

5 Product Selection Tables (Page 1 of 3 PQI LP Harmonic Filters are suitable for use with one or more 6-pulse VFDs. LPF s are not intended for use with linear loads (such as across-the-line started motors). Variable Torque Applications: Determine the total load (VFD) horsepower (HP) of kw rating. Select the appropriate filter based on the VFD HP or kw and then confirm that the total rated current is within the filter full load current rating. Full Load Amps (FLA) refers to the filter fundamental current rating. Constant Torque Applications: Determine the maximum current requirement. Select the appropriate filter based on the maximum required current in amperes. Example: A 100 HP, 480V, VFD rated for 124 full load amps (FLA), temporarily operated at 130% will require a filter rated for at least 161 amps (i.e. LPF XX- XX). Other Applications: Consult the factory for singlephase drives, DC drive applications, other rectifier types, frequency ratings, voltage ratings, load ratings, styles, etc. Horsepower Rating 1 HP to 1200 HP Voltage Rating 240V, 400V, 480V, 600V or 690V Frequency 50 or 60 Hz Type T2 (2-stage), T3 (3-stage) Model No. Configuration Enclosure Type NEMA [1, 3R, 4, 4X, 12, OP, (OPEN)] LPF - HP- Volts - Hz - Type - Enclosure Sample Model No. LPF T3-3R] VAC, 50 Hz LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX VAC, 60 Hz HP kw Max. Amps Model No LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX

6 Product Selection Tables (Page 2 of 3) VAC, 50 Hz LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX VAC, 60 Hz LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX

7 Product Selection Tables (Page 3 of 3) 600 VAC, 60 Hz LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX 690 VAC, 50 Hz LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX LPF XX-XX

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