Concepts to be Reviewed

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Concepts to be Reviewed"

Transcription

1 Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational amplifiers. Basics Amplification The 741 Op Amp Applications Transducers LM555 timer Monostable or one shot Astable multivibrator (oscillator) Operational Amplifier Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) 1

2 Op Amp Closed Loop Configurations A feedback loop allows for precise control of the voltage gain: Inverting Op Amp Non-Inverting Op Amp 1 a. b. Carter, B. and R. Mancini, Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes & TI, Burlington, MA (2009) Inverting Amplifier, Gain of or Changing R2 Changes Gain to or

3 Non-Inverting Amplifier, Gain of Op-Amp Parameters 1. Z IN (input impedance) This is the resistive impedance looking directly into the input terminals of the op-amp when used open-loop. Typical values are 1MΩ for op-amps with bipolar input stages, and a million megohms for FET-input op-amps. 2. Z o (output impedance) This is the resistive impedance of the basic op-amp when used open-loop. Values of a few hundred ohms are typical of most op-amps. 3. I b (input bias current) The input terminals of all op-amps sink or source finite currents when biased for linear operation. The magnitude of this current is denoted by I b, and is typically a fraction of a µa in bipolar op-amps, and a few pa in FET types. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) Parameters Continued 4. A o (open-loop voltage gain) Voltage gain occurring between the input and output terminals. Typical figures are x100,000, or 100dB, where V S (supply voltage range) Power supplies are typically dual supplies with positive and negative voltages and a common, but may also be single-ended. Typically ±3V to ±15V. 6. V i(max) (input voltage range) V i(max) is one or two volts less than V S keep your inputs at or below. 7. V io (differential input offset voltage) When both inputs are grounded the output should be zero. In practice you need to null a slight differential input that appears as a significant gain through the op-amp. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) 3

4 Ideal vs Real Op Amp Rule 1 For an ideal op amp, the open-loop voltage gain is infinite (A o = ). For a real op amp, the gain is a finite value, typically between 10 4 to Rule 2 For an ideal op amp, the input impedance is infinite (R in = ). For a real op amp, the input impedance is finite, typically between 10 6 (e.g., typical bipolar op amp) to Ω (e.g., typical JFET op amp). The output impedance for an ideal op amp is zero (R out = 0). For a real op amp, Rout is typically between 75 to 300 Ω. (Julio Garcia, Personal Communication ) Rule 3 The input terminals of an ideal op amp draw no current. Typically within the pa (e.g., typical JFET op amp) to na (e.g., typical bipolar op amp) range. Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Parameters Continued 8. CMRR (common mode rejection ratio) An op-amp produces an output proportional to the difference between the signals on its two input terminals. Ideally, it should give zero output if identical signals are applied to both inputs simultaneously, i.e., in common mode. In practice, such signals do not entirely cancel out within the op-amp, and produce a small output signal. The ability of an op-amp to reject common mode signals is usually expressed in terms of CMRR, i.e., the ratio of the opamp's gain with differential signals versus the gain with common mode signals. CMRR values of 90dB are typical of most op-amps. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) CMRR & CMR Mathematically, common-mode rejection can be represented as: where: A D is the differential gain of the amplifier. V CM is the common-mode voltage present at the amplifier inputs. V OUT is the output voltage present when a common-mode input signal is applied to the amplifier. The term CMR is a logarithmic expression of the commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR). 20 4

5 Common Mode Rejection Issue An op amp operated in the typical inverting or noninverting amplifier configuration will process common-mode signals, passing them through to the output, but will not normally reject them. Kitchin, C. and L. Counts, A Designers Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, 2 nd ed., Analog Devices (2004) Parameters Continued 9. f T (transition frequency) An op-amp typically gives a low-frequency voltage gain of about 100dB. The f T is the frequency at which there is unity gain (0dB). Open-loop frequency response is internally tailored so that the gain falls off at a rate of 6dB/octave (= 20dB/decade), eventually falling to unity. For example, the 741 op-amp, has an f T value of 1MHz and a low-frequency gain of 106dB. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) The 741 Op-Amp f T = 1MHz When the op-amp is used in a closed loop amplifier circuit, the circuit's bandwidth depends on the closed-loop gain. The circuit has a bandwidth of only 1kHz at a gain of 60dB, or 100kHz at a gain of 20dB. The f T figure can thus be used to represent a gainbandwidth product. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) 5

6 Parameters Continued 10. Slew rate The maximum rate of change of voltage at the opamp's output. Slew rate is normally specified in terms of volts per microsecond. The LM741 op amp slew rate is.5v/µs at unity gain. One effect of slew rate limiting is to make a greater bandwidth available to small-amplitude output signals than to large-amplitude output signals. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) Slew Rate Simulation Slew rate as determined by output of a square way input. LM741 Data Sheet Fairchild Semiconductor, LM741 Single Operational Amplifier Datasheet,

7 LM741 Fairchild Semiconductor, LM741 Single Operational Amplifier Datasheet, Voltage Follower Summing Amplifier See Summing Amplifier in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) 7

8 Difference Amplifier with Gain of 10 See Difference Amplifier in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) Differentiator Triangle wave input and square wave output Ω Symmetric 100 Hz triangle wave with peak voltage of 1 volt (same as 2 volt peak to peak) Ω See Differentiator in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) Integrator See Integrator in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) 8

9 Transducers A transducer converts data into an electrical signal. All transducers have offset voltages or currents, and they can be referenced to ground, either power supply rail, or some other voltage. The output of the transducer is an electrical signal representing the measured variable. The signal must be amplified and filtered so as to increase the signal to noise ratio. The analog to digital converter must have enough bits to obtain the resolution required by the accuracy specification. Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) ECG Medical Monitor for example Signal is 5 mv in a 60 Hz noisy environment, with a large DC component to offset. The buffer op amps are low noise, low input current FET op amps. The three resistors form a summing network to drive the force amplifier. Current is sent through the patient until the net sum output from the three buffer amplifiers is zero. The filters after the amplifiers remove the DC component. Note also some form of isolation to protect the patient. Kitchin, C. and L. Counts, A Designers Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, 2 nd ed., Analog Devices (2004) Resistive Transducers Voltage Divider for a Resistive Transducer Current Source Excitation for a Resistive Transducer Precision Current Source Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) 9

10 Optical Transducers Photodiode Amplifier Phototransistor Amplifier Photovoltaic Cell Amplifier Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) LM555 Timer Features & Applications: Precision Timing - µs to hours. Pulse Generation astable and monostable operation. Output can sink 200 ma TTL compatible. Sequential Timing Time Delay Generation Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Position Modulation Linear Ramp Generator LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) Pinouts for the LM555 Timer 1. Pin 1 (ground). IC ground. 2. Pin 2 (trigger). Input to comparator 2, which is used to set the flip-flop. When the voltage at pin 2 crosses from above to below 1 3VCC, the comparator switches to high, setting the flip-flop. 3. Pin 3 (output). The output of the 555 is driven by an inverting buffer capable of sinking or sourcing around 200 ma. The output voltage levels depend on the output current but are approximately Vout(high) = VCC 1.5 V and Vout(low) = 0.1 V. 4. Pin 4 (reset). Active-low reset, which forces Q high and pin 3 (output) low. 5. Pin 5 (control). Used to override the 2 3VCC level, if needed, but is usually grounded via a 0.01-μ bypass capacitor (the capacitor helps eliminate VCC supply noise). An external voltage applied here will set a new trigger voltage level. LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) 10

11 Pinouts 6. Pin 6 (threshold). Input to the upper comparator, which is used to reset the flip-flop. When the voltage at pin 6 crosses from below to above 2 3VCC, the comparator switches to a high, resetting the flip-flop. 7. Pin 7 (discharge). Connected to the open collector of the npn transistor. It is used to short pin 7 to ground when Q is high (pin 3 low). This causes the capacitor to discharge. 8. Pin 8 (Supply voltage VCC). Typically between 4.5 and 16 V for general-purpose TTL 555 timers. (For CMOS versions, the supply voltage may be as low as 1 V.) LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) Monostable Mode or One Shot Diagram Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Monostable Mode or One Shot Simulation T 11

12 Astable Multivibrator or Oscillator ms 1 25 Hz 0.18 Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Astable Multivibrator mS 1 25 Hz 0.18 Summary Operational amplifiers. Basics Amplification The 741 Op Amp Applications Transducers LM555 timer Monostable or one shot Astable multivibrator (oscillator) 12

Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers

Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational

More information

Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers The Operational Amplifier (or op-amp) is the ideal, simple amplifier. It is an integrated circuit (IC). An IC contains many discrete components (resistors, capacitors,

More information

Special-Purpose Operational Amplifier Circuits

Special-Purpose Operational Amplifier Circuits Special-Purpose Operational Amplifier Circuits Instrumentation Amplifier An instrumentation amplifier (IA) is a differential voltagegain device that amplifies the difference between the voltages existing

More information

Introduction to IC-555. Compiled By: Chanakya Bhatt EE, IT-NU

Introduction to IC-555. Compiled By: Chanakya Bhatt EE, IT-NU Introduction to IC-555 Compiled By: Chanakya Bhatt EE, IT-NU Introduction SE/NE 555 is a Timer IC introduced by Signetics Corporation in 1970 s. It is basically a monolithic timing circuit that produces

More information

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 555 TIMER ASTABLE MULTIIBRATOR MONOSTABLE MULTIIBRATOR 555 TIMER PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) 555 TIMER Introduction The 555 timer is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of

More information

Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical transistors with two inputs and two outputs. 2 Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical

More information

Single Supply, Rail to Rail Low Power FET-Input Op Amp AD820

Single Supply, Rail to Rail Low Power FET-Input Op Amp AD820 a FEATURES True Single Supply Operation Output Swings Rail-to-Rail Input Voltage Range Extends Below Ground Single Supply Capability from + V to + V Dual Supply Capability from. V to 8 V Excellent Load

More information

HIGH LOW Astable multivibrators HIGH LOW 1:1

HIGH LOW Astable multivibrators HIGH LOW 1:1 1. Multivibrators A multivibrator circuit oscillates between a HIGH state and a LOW state producing a continuous output. Astable multivibrators generally have an even 50% duty cycle, that is that 50% of

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Spring 2008 Sean Lynch Lambros Samouris Tom Groshans History of Op Amps Non Named for their originally intended functions: performing mathematical operations and amplification Addition

More information

Lecture #4 Basic Op-Amp Circuits

Lecture #4 Basic Op-Amp Circuits Summer 2015 Ahmad El-Banna Faculty of Engineering Department of Electronics and Communications GEE336 Electronic Circuits II Lecture #4 Basic Op-Amp Circuits Instructor: Dr. Ahmad El-Banna Agenda Some

More information

Understanding Op-amp Specifications

Understanding Op-amp Specifications by Kenneth A. Kuhn Dec. 27, 2007, rev. Jan. 1, 2009 Introduction This article explains the various parameters of an operational amplifier and how to interpret the data sheet. Be aware that different manufacturers

More information

EE 3305 Lab I Revised July 18, 2003

EE 3305 Lab I Revised July 18, 2003 Operational Amplifiers Operational amplifiers are high-gain amplifiers with a similar general description typified by the most famous example, the LM741. The LM741 is used for many amplifier varieties

More information

CA3140, CA3140A. 4.5MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/Bipolar Output. Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information

CA3140, CA3140A. 4.5MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/Bipolar Output. Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information November 99 SEMICONDUCTOR CA, CAA.MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/Bipolar Output Features MOSFET Input Stage - Very High Input Impedance (Z IN ) -.TΩ (Typ) - Very Low Input Current (I

More information

GATE: Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 1 of 13)

GATE: Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 1 of 13) GATE: Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 1 of 13) 1. Removing bypass capacitor across the emitter leg resistor in a CE amplifier causes a. increase in current gain b. decrease in current gain c. increase

More information

Lesson number one. Operational Amplifier Basics

Lesson number one. Operational Amplifier Basics What About Lesson number one Operational Amplifier Basics As well as resistors and capacitors, Operational Amplifiers, or Op-amps as they are more commonly called, are one of the basic building blocks

More information

Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Real Time Wireless Electrocardiogram (ECG) Monitoring System Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Guilherme K. Kolotelo, Rogers G. Reichert Cambridge, MA

More information

EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #2. Basic Op-Amp Circuits. Angsuman Roy. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #2. Basic Op-Amp Circuits. Angsuman Roy. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #2 Basic Op-Amp Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of

More information

Dimensions in inches (mm) .268 (6.81).255 (6.48) .390 (9.91).379 (9.63) .045 (1.14).030 (.76) 4 Typ. Figure 1. Typical application circuit.

Dimensions in inches (mm) .268 (6.81).255 (6.48) .390 (9.91).379 (9.63) .045 (1.14).030 (.76) 4 Typ. Figure 1. Typical application circuit. LINEAR OPTOCOUPLER FEATURES Couples AC and DC signals.% Servo Linearity Wide Bandwidth, > KHz High Gain Stability, ±.%/C Low Input-Output Capacitance Low Power Consumption, < mw Isolation Test Voltage,

More information

LM2904AH. Low-power, dual operational amplifier. Related products. Description. Features. See LM2904WH for enhanced ESD performances

LM2904AH. Low-power, dual operational amplifier. Related products. Description. Features. See LM2904WH for enhanced ESD performances LM2904AH Low-power, dual operational amplifier Datasheet - production data Related products See LM2904WH for enhanced ESD performances Features Frequency compensation implemented internally Large DC voltage

More information

2.996/6.971 Biomedical Devices Design Laboratory Lecture 7: OpAmps

2.996/6.971 Biomedical Devices Design Laboratory Lecture 7: OpAmps 2.996/6.971 Biomedical Devices Design Laboratory Lecture 7: OpAmps Instructor: Dr. Hong Ma Oct. 3, 2007 Fundamental Circuit: Source and Load Sources Power supply Signal Generator Sensor Amplifier output

More information

55:041 Electronic Circuits

55:041 Electronic Circuits 55:041 Electronic Circuits Reiew of Op-Amps Sections of Chapters 9 & 14 A. Kruger Op-Amp Reiew-1 Real-World Op-Amp In earlier courses, op-amp were often considered ideal Infinite input resistance Infinite

More information

Op-Amp Simulation Part II

Op-Amp Simulation Part II Op-Amp Simulation Part II EE/CS 5720/6720 This assignment continues the simulation and characterization of a simple operational amplifier. Turn in a copy of this assignment with answers in the appropriate

More information

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 Spring 2017 V2 6.101 Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Laboratory

More information

PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps. Characteristics of an Ideal Op Amp

PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps. Characteristics of an Ideal Op Amp PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to illustrate the golden rules of negative feedback for a variety of circuits. These concepts permit you to create and

More information

Chapter 13: Comparators

Chapter 13: Comparators Chapter 13: Comparators So far, we have used op amps in their normal, linear mode, where they follow the op amp Golden Rules (no input current to either input, no voltage difference between the inputs).

More information

THIRD SEMESTER ELECTRONICS - II BASIC ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

THIRD SEMESTER ELECTRONICS - II BASIC ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING THIRD SEMESTER ELECTRONICS - II BASIC ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Prepared By: Checked By: Approved By: Engr. Saqib Riaz Engr. M.Nasim Khan Dr.Noman Jafri Lecturer

More information

Instrumentation Amplifiers

Instrumentation Amplifiers ECE 480 Application Note Instrumentation Amplifiers A guide to instrumentation amplifiers and how to proper use the INA326 Zane Crawford 3-21-2014 Abstract This document aims to introduce the reader to

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Here we see two matched differential amps cascaded to form a basic OPAMP. The differential pair cancel temperature drifts and common mode noise at the input. First built to perform

More information

Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator. Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce

Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator. Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce Table of Contents Introduction Capacitive Sensing Overview Reference Oscillator Capacitive Grid Phase Detector Signal Transformer

More information

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost, high speed, dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

More information

High Accuracy 8-Pin Instrumentation Amplifier AMP02

High Accuracy 8-Pin Instrumentation Amplifier AMP02 a FEATURES Low Offset Voltage: 100 V max Low Drift: 2 V/ C max Wide Gain Range 1 to 10,000 High Common-Mode Rejection: 115 db min High Bandwidth (G = 1000): 200 khz typ Gain Equation Accuracy: 0.5% max

More information

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier

TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost, high speed, dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage

More information

CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component

CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits, both analog and digital. The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is

More information

Gechstudentszone.wordpress.com

Gechstudentszone.wordpress.com 8.1 Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) UNIT 8: Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended

More information

AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Amplifier Design Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017

AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Amplifier Design Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017 AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017 Abstract This application note describes some of the fine points of designing an instrumentation amplifier with op-amps. We will

More information

Power Line Carrier Communication

Power Line Carrier Communication IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE) e-issn: 2278-2834,p- ISSN: 2278-8735.Volume 9, Issue 2, Ver. II (Mar - Apr. 2014), PP 50-55 Power Line Carrier Communication Dorathe.

More information

Basic Information of Operational Amplifiers

Basic Information of Operational Amplifiers EC1254 Linear Integrated Circuits Unit I: Part - II Basic Information of Operational Amplifiers Mr. V. VAITHIANATHAN, M.Tech (PhD) Assistant Professor, ECE Department Objectives of this presentation To

More information

55:041 Electronic Circuits

55:041 Electronic Circuits 55:04 Electronic Circuits Lecture -5 eiew of Op-Amps Sections of Chapters 9 & 4 A. Kruger Op-Amp eiew- eal-world Op-Amp In earlier courses, op-amp were often considered ideal Infinite input resistance

More information

High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847

High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847 a FEATURES Superior Performance High Unity Gain BW: MHz Low Supply Current:.3 ma High Slew Rate: 3 V/ s Excellent Video Specifications.% Differential Gain (NTSC and PAL).19 Differential Phase (NTSC and

More information

Physical Limitations of Op Amps

Physical Limitations of Op Amps Physical Limitations of Op Amps The IC Op-Amp comes so close to ideal performance that it is useful to state the characteristics of an ideal amplifier without regard to what is inside the package. Infinite

More information

R (a) Explain characteristics and limitations of op-amp comparators. (b) Explain operation of free running Multivibrator using op-amp.

R (a) Explain characteristics and limitations of op-amp comparators. (b) Explain operation of free running Multivibrator using op-amp. Set No: 1 1. (a) Draw the equivalent circuits of emitter coupled differential amplifier from which calculate Ad. (b) Draw the block diagram of four stage cascaded amplifier. Explain the function of each

More information

Precision, Low-Power and Low-Noise Op Amp with RRIO

Precision, Low-Power and Low-Noise Op Amp with RRIO MAX41 General Description The MAX41 is a low-power, zero-drift operational amplifier available in a space-saving, 6-bump, wafer-level package (WLP). Designed for use in portable consumer, medical, and

More information

For input: Peak to peak amplitude of the input = volts. Time period for 1 full cycle = sec

For input: Peak to peak amplitude of the input = volts. Time period for 1 full cycle = sec Inverting amplifier: [Closed Loop Configuration] Design: A CL = V o /V in = - R f / R in ; Assume R in = ; Gain = ; Circuit Diagram: RF +10V F.G ~ + Rin 2 3 7 IC741 + 4 6 v0-10v CRO Model Graph Inverting

More information

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LM555 Timer General Description The LM555 is a highly stable device for

More information

Low Cost, General Purpose High Speed JFET Amplifier AD825

Low Cost, General Purpose High Speed JFET Amplifier AD825 a FEATURES High Speed 41 MHz, 3 db Bandwidth 125 V/ s Slew Rate 8 ns Settling Time Input Bias Current of 2 pa and Noise Current of 1 fa/ Hz Input Voltage Noise of 12 nv/ Hz Fully Specified Power Supplies:

More information

LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL

LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL LIC & Communication Lab Manual LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL FOR V SEMESTER B.E (E& ( E&C) (For private circulation only) NAME: DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION SRI SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

More information

Op Amp Booster Designs

Op Amp Booster Designs Op Amp Booster Designs Although modern integrated circuit operational amplifiers ease linear circuit design, IC processing limits amplifier output power. Many applications, however, require substantially

More information

High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141 REV. B FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection

High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141 REV. B FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection a FEATURES High Common-Mode Rejection DC: 100 db typ 60 Hz: 100 db typ 20 khz: 70 db typ 40 khz: 62 db typ Low Distortion: 0.001% typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s typ Wide Bandwidth: 3 MHz typ Low Cost Complements

More information

LM158, LM258, LM358. Low-power dual operational amplifiers. Related products. Description. Features. See LM158W for enhanced ESD ratings

LM158, LM258, LM358. Low-power dual operational amplifiers. Related products. Description. Features. See LM158W for enhanced ESD ratings Low-power dual operational amplifiers Datasheet - production data Related products See LM158W for enhanced ESD ratings Features Frequency compensation implemented internally Large DC voltage gain: 100

More information

Electronic Instrumentation. Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link

Electronic Instrumentation. Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link Electronic Instrumentation Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link Agenda Brief Review: Diodes Zener Diodes Project 4: Optical Communication Link Why optics? Understanding

More information

St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE

St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE Dhulapally, Kompally, Secunderabad-500014. Branch Year&Sem Subject Name : Electrical and Electronics Engineering : III B. Tech I Semester : IC Applications OBJECTIVES QUESTION

More information

V CC OUT MAX9945 IN+ V EE

V CC OUT MAX9945 IN+ V EE 19-4398; Rev 1; 12/ 38V, Low-Noise, MOS-Input, General Description The operational amplifier features an excellent combination of low operating power and low input voltage noise. In addition, MOS inputs

More information

PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach

PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach By Nagaraj Vannal Assistant Professor School of Electronics Engineering, K.L.E Technological University, Hubballi-31 nagaraj_vannal@bvb.edu 555 Timer The

More information

TL074 TL074A - TL074B

TL074 TL074A - TL074B A B LOW NOISE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT LOW NOISE e n = 15nV/ Hz (typ) OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION

More information

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department

More information

Op Amp Technology Overview. Developed by Art Kay, Thomas Kuehl, and Tim Green Presented by Ian Williams Precision Analog Op Amps

Op Amp Technology Overview. Developed by Art Kay, Thomas Kuehl, and Tim Green Presented by Ian Williams Precision Analog Op Amps Op Amp Technology Overview Developed by Art Kay, Thomas Kuehl, and Tim Green Presented by Ian Williams Precision Analog Op Amps 1 Bipolar vs. CMOS / JFET Transistor technologies Bipolar, CMOS and JFET

More information

MIC7122. General Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configuration. Pin Description. Rail-to-Rail Dual Op Amp

MIC7122. General Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configuration. Pin Description. Rail-to-Rail Dual Op Amp MIC722 Rail-to-Rail Dual Op Amp General Description The MIC722 is a dual high-performance CMOS operational amplifier featuring rail-to-rail inputs and outputs. The input common-mode range extends beyond

More information

Low Power INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

Low Power INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER INA2 ABRIDGED DATA SHEET For Complete Data Sheet Call Fax Line -800-8- Request Document Number 2 Low Power INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER FEATURES LOW QUIESCENT CURRENT: 0µA max INTERNAL GAINS:,, 0, 00 LOW

More information

MOSA ELECTRONICS. Features. Description. MS8870 DTMF Receiver

MOSA ELECTRONICS. Features. Description. MS8870 DTMF Receiver Features Complete DTMF receiver Low power consumption Adjustable guard time Central Office Quality CMOS, Single 5V operation Description O rdering Information : 18 PIN DIP PACKAGE The is a complete DTMF

More information

Micropower, Single and Dual Supply Rail-to-Rail Instrumentation Amplifier AD627

Micropower, Single and Dual Supply Rail-to-Rail Instrumentation Amplifier AD627 a FEATURES Micropower, 85 A Max Supply Current Wide Power Supply Range (+2.2 V to 8 V) Easy to Use Gain Set with One External Resistor Gain Range 5 (No Resistor) to, Higher Performance than Discrete Designs

More information

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EXPERIMENT 5 GAIN-BANDWIDTH PRODUCT AND SLEW RATE OBJECTIVES In this experiment the student will explore two

More information

Laboratory 9. Required Components: Objectives. Optional Components: Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore)

Laboratory 9. Required Components: Objectives. Optional Components: Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore) Laboratory 9 Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore) Required Components: 1x 741 op-amp 2x 1k resistors 4x 10k resistors 1x l00k resistor 1x 0.1F capacitor Optional Components:

More information

COMPARATOR CHARACTERISTICS The important characteristics of a comparator are these: 1. Speed of operation 2. Accuracy 3. Compatibility of output

COMPARATOR CHARACTERISTICS The important characteristics of a comparator are these: 1. Speed of operation 2. Accuracy 3. Compatibility of output SCHMITT TRIGGER (regenerative comparator) Schmitt trigger is an inverting comparator with positive feedback. It converts an irregular-shaped waveform to a square wave or pulse, also called as squaring

More information

Dual FET-Input, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Dual FET-Input, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER www.burr-brown.com/databook/.html Dual FET-Input, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES LOW DISTORTION:.3% at khz LOW NOISE: nv/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: 25V/µs WIDE GAIN-BANDWIDTH: MHz UNITY-GAIN STABLE

More information

Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter)

Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter) Experiment No. 1: DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter) APPARATUS: Transistor Resistors Connecting Wires Bread Board Dc Power Supply THEORY: Digital electronics circuits operate

More information

Precision Gain of 5 Instrumentation Amplifier AD8225

Precision Gain of 5 Instrumentation Amplifier AD8225 Precision Gain of Instrumentation Amplifier AD8 FEATURES No External Components Required Highly Stable, Factory Trimmed Gain of Low Power, 1. ma Max Supply Current Wide Power Supply Range ( 1.7 V to 18

More information

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING* DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING* DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING* DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUB.NAME : LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS SUB CODE: EC1254 YEAR / SEMESTER : II / IV UNIT- I IC FABRICATION

More information

Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail Low Power FET-Input Op Amp AD822

Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail Low Power FET-Input Op Amp AD822 Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail Low Power FET-Input Op Amp AD8 FEATURES True single-supply operation Output swings rail-to-rail Input voltage range extends below ground Single-supply capability from 5 V to

More information

LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits

LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits LM555 TIMER INTERNAL CIRCUIT BLOCK DIAGRAM "RESET" And "CONTROL" Input Terminal Notes Most of the circuits at this web site that use the LM555 and LM556 timer chips do not

More information

Examining a New In-Amp Architecture for Communication Satellites

Examining a New In-Amp Architecture for Communication Satellites Examining a New In-Amp Architecture for Communication Satellites Introduction With more than 500 conventional sensors monitoring the condition and performance of various subsystems on a medium sized spacecraft,

More information

When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp

When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp Op Amp Fundamentals When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp In general, the parameters are interactive. However, in this unit, circuit input

More information

PB63 PB63A. Dual Power Booster Amplifier PB63

PB63 PB63A. Dual Power Booster Amplifier PB63 Dual Power Booster Amplifier A FEATURES Wide Supply Range ± V to ±75 V High Output Current Up to 2 A Continuous Programmable Gain High Slew Rate 1 V/µs Typical Programmable Output Current Limit High Power

More information

16 V Rail-to-Rail, Zero-Drift, Precision Instrumentation Amplifier AD8230

16 V Rail-to-Rail, Zero-Drift, Precision Instrumentation Amplifier AD8230 V Rail-to-Rail, Zero-Drift, Precision Instrumentation Amplifier AD FEATURES Resistor programmable gain range: to Supply voltage range: ± V to ± V, + V to + V Rail-to-rail input and output Maintains performance

More information

EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS

EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS Prepared By: Ajay Kumar Kadel, Kathmandu Engineering College 1) PIN DESCRIPTIONS Fig.1 555 timer Pin Configurations Pin 1 (Ground):- All voltages are measured

More information

MF6 6th Order Switched Capacitor Butterworth Lowpass Filter

MF6 6th Order Switched Capacitor Butterworth Lowpass Filter MF6 6th Order Switched Capacitor Butterworth Lowpass Filter General Description The MF6 is a versatile easy to use, precision 6th order Butterworth lowpass active filter. Switched capacitor techniques

More information

PowerAmp Design. PowerAmp Design PAD135 COMPACT HIGH VOLATGE OP AMP

PowerAmp Design. PowerAmp Design PAD135 COMPACT HIGH VOLATGE OP AMP PowerAmp Design COMPACT HIGH VOLTAGE OP AMP Rev G KEY FEATURES LOW COST SMALL SIZE 40mm SQUARE HIGH VOLTAGE 200 VOLTS HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT 10A PEAK 40 WATT DISSIPATION CAPABILITY 200V/µS SLEW RATE APPLICATIONS

More information

Operational Amplifier

Operational Amplifier Operational Amplifier Joshua Webster Partners: Billy Day & Josh Kendrick PHY 3802L 10/16/2013 Abstract: The purpose of this lab is to provide insight about operational amplifiers and to understand the

More information

Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop

Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop Authors Shaunak Vyas Darshit Shah Affiliations B.Tech. Electrical, Nirma University, Ahmedabad E-mail shaunak_vyas1@yahoo.co.in darshit_shah1@yahoo.co.in

More information

Op-amp characteristics Operational amplifiers have several very important characteristics that make them so useful:

Op-amp characteristics Operational amplifiers have several very important characteristics that make them so useful: Operational Amplifiers A. Stolp, 4/22/01 rev, 2/6/12 An operational amplifier is basically a complete high-gain voltage amplifier in a small package. Op-amps were originally developed to perform mathematical

More information

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam Emma Ideal, University of California at Los Angeles Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, REU 2008 Abstract A schematic design

More information

Operational Amplifier: Characteristics and Open-Loop Op-Amp

Operational Amplifier: Characteristics and Open-Loop Op-Amp Lesson: Operational Amplifier: Characteristics and Open- Loop Op- Amp Lesson Developer: Dr. Arun Vir Singh College/Department: Shivaji College, University of Delhi Institute of Lifelong Learning, Delhi

More information

LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters

LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters General Description The LM231/LM331 family of voltage-to-frequency converters are ideally suited for use in simple low-cost circuits

More information

MIC7300 A17. General Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configurations. Functional Configuration.

MIC7300 A17. General Description. Features. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configurations. Functional Configuration. MIC7300 High-Output Drive Rail-to-Rail Op Amp General Description The MIC7300 is a high-performance CMOS operational amplifier featuring rail-to-rail input and output with strong output drive capability.

More information

Field Effect Transistors

Field Effect Transistors Field Effect Transistors Purpose In this experiment we introduce field effect transistors (FETs). We will measure the output characteristics of a FET, and then construct a common-source amplifier stage,

More information

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department

More information

LMC7101 A12A. Features. General Description. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configuration. Functional Configuration.

LMC7101 A12A. Features. General Description. Applications. Ordering Information. Pin Configuration. Functional Configuration. LMC7 LMC7 Low-Power Operational Amplifier Final Information General Description The LMC7 is a high-performance, low-power, operational amplifier which is pin-for-pin compatible with the National Semiconductor

More information

PART. Maxim Integrated Products 1

PART. Maxim Integrated Products 1 - + 9-; Rev ; / Low-Cost, High-Slew-Rate, Rail-to-Rail I/O Op Amps in SC7 General Description The MAX9/MAX9/MAX9 single/dual/quad, low-cost CMOS op amps feature Rail-to-Rail input and output capability

More information

The Operational Amplifier as a differential voltage-controlled voltage source

The Operational Amplifier as a differential voltage-controlled voltage source The Operational Amplifier as a differential voltage-controlled voltage source Operational amplifiers (op amps) are high performance differential amplifiers. They have inverting and noninverting inputs

More information

Low Cost Monolithic Voltage-to-Frequency Converter AD654

Low Cost Monolithic Voltage-to-Frequency Converter AD654 a FEATURES Low Cost Single or Dual Supply, 5 V to 36 V, 5 V to 18 V Full-Scale Frequency Up to 500 khz Minimum Number of External Components Needed Versatile Input Amplifier Positive or Negative Voltage

More information

QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS FEATURES. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (One Section Only)

QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS FEATURES. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (One Section Only) S The LM248/LM348 is a true quad LM741. It consists of four independent, high-gain, internally compensated, low-power operational amplifiers which have been designed to provide functional characteristics

More information

Analog Circuits and Systems

Analog Circuits and Systems Analog Circuits and Systems Prof. K Radhakrishna Rao Lecture 15: Amplifiers 1 Review Negative Feedback Systems were discussed Output variation follows the input variation if loop-gain is very large compared

More information

Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317. Medical Electronics Lab

Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317. Medical Electronics Lab Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317 Medical Electronics Lab Modified by Dr.Husam AL.Hamad and Eng.Roba AL.Omari Summer 2009 Exp # Title Page 1 2 3 4 An Introduction To Basic Laboratory Equipments

More information

High Current MOSFET Toggle Switch with Debounced Push Button

High Current MOSFET Toggle Switch with Debounced Push Button Set/Reset Flip Flop This is an example of a set/reset flip flop using discrete components. When power is applied, only one of the transistors will conduct causing the other to remain off. The conducting

More information

HM9270C HM9270D HM 9270C/D DTMF RECEIVER. General Description. Features. Pin Configurations. * Connect to V SS. V DD St/GT ESt StD Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1 TOE

HM9270C HM9270D HM 9270C/D DTMF RECEIVER. General Description. Features. Pin Configurations. * Connect to V SS. V DD St/GT ESt StD Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1 TOE General Description The HM 9270C/D is a complete DTMF receiver integrating both the bandsplit filter and digital decoder functions. The filter section uses switched capacitor techniques for high- and low-group

More information

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators Experiment 4 Introductory Electronics Laboratory Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators THE SCHMITT TIGGE AND POSITIVE FEEDBACK 4-2 The op-amp as a comparator... 4-2 Using positive

More information

LAB MANUAL EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY. Dharmapuri Regulation : 2013 Branch : B.E. ECE

LAB MANUAL EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY. Dharmapuri Regulation : 2013 Branch : B.E. ECE EC6412 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY 1 Dharmapuri 636 703 LAB MANUAL Regulation : 2013 Branch Year & Semester : B.E. ECE : II Year / IV Semester EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY EC6412

More information

Test Your Understanding

Test Your Understanding 074 Part 2 Analog Electronics EXEISE POBLEM Ex 5.3: For the switched-capacitor circuit in Figure 5.3b), the parameters are: = 30 pf, 2 = 5pF, and F = 2 pf. The clock frequency is 00 khz. Determine the

More information

AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA

AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA 555 TIMER AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY M. C. SHARMA, M. Sc. PUBLISHERS: BUSINESS PROMOTION PUBLICATIONS 376, Lajpat Rai Market, Delhi-110006 By the same author Transistor Novelties

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Fundamentals of op-amp Operation modes Golden rules of op-amp Op-amp circuits Inverting & non-inverting amplifier Unity follower, integrator & differentiator Introduction An operational amplifier, or op-amp,

More information

Multiple Instrument Station Module

Multiple Instrument Station Module Multiple Instrument Station Module Digital Storage Oscilloscope Vertical Channels Sampling rate Bandwidth Coupling Input impedance Vertical sensitivity Vertical resolution Max. input voltage Horizontal

More information