# Concepts to be Reviewed

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1 Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational amplifiers. Basics Amplification The 741 Op Amp Applications Transducers LM555 timer Monostable or one shot Astable multivibrator (oscillator) Operational Amplifier Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) 1

2 Op Amp Closed Loop Configurations A feedback loop allows for precise control of the voltage gain: Inverting Op Amp Non-Inverting Op Amp 1 a. b. Carter, B. and R. Mancini, Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes & TI, Burlington, MA (2009) Inverting Amplifier, Gain of or Changing R2 Changes Gain to or

3 Non-Inverting Amplifier, Gain of Op-Amp Parameters 1. Z IN (input impedance) This is the resistive impedance looking directly into the input terminals of the op-amp when used open-loop. Typical values are 1MΩ for op-amps with bipolar input stages, and a million megohms for FET-input op-amps. 2. Z o (output impedance) This is the resistive impedance of the basic op-amp when used open-loop. Values of a few hundred ohms are typical of most op-amps. 3. I b (input bias current) The input terminals of all op-amps sink or source finite currents when biased for linear operation. The magnitude of this current is denoted by I b, and is typically a fraction of a µa in bipolar op-amps, and a few pa in FET types. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) Parameters Continued 4. A o (open-loop voltage gain) Voltage gain occurring between the input and output terminals. Typical figures are x100,000, or 100dB, where V S (supply voltage range) Power supplies are typically dual supplies with positive and negative voltages and a common, but may also be single-ended. Typically ±3V to ±15V. 6. V i(max) (input voltage range) V i(max) is one or two volts less than V S keep your inputs at or below. 7. V io (differential input offset voltage) When both inputs are grounded the output should be zero. In practice you need to null a slight differential input that appears as a significant gain through the op-amp. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) 3

4 Ideal vs Real Op Amp Rule 1 For an ideal op amp, the open-loop voltage gain is infinite (A o = ). For a real op amp, the gain is a finite value, typically between 10 4 to Rule 2 For an ideal op amp, the input impedance is infinite (R in = ). For a real op amp, the input impedance is finite, typically between 10 6 (e.g., typical bipolar op amp) to Ω (e.g., typical JFET op amp). The output impedance for an ideal op amp is zero (R out = 0). For a real op amp, Rout is typically between 75 to 300 Ω. (Julio Garcia, Personal Communication ) Rule 3 The input terminals of an ideal op amp draw no current. Typically within the pa (e.g., typical JFET op amp) to na (e.g., typical bipolar op amp) range. Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Parameters Continued 8. CMRR (common mode rejection ratio) An op-amp produces an output proportional to the difference between the signals on its two input terminals. Ideally, it should give zero output if identical signals are applied to both inputs simultaneously, i.e., in common mode. In practice, such signals do not entirely cancel out within the op-amp, and produce a small output signal. The ability of an op-amp to reject common mode signals is usually expressed in terms of CMRR, i.e., the ratio of the opamp's gain with differential signals versus the gain with common mode signals. CMRR values of 90dB are typical of most op-amps. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) CMRR & CMR Mathematically, common-mode rejection can be represented as: where: A D is the differential gain of the amplifier. V CM is the common-mode voltage present at the amplifier inputs. V OUT is the output voltage present when a common-mode input signal is applied to the amplifier. The term CMR is a logarithmic expression of the commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR). 20 4

5 Common Mode Rejection Issue An op amp operated in the typical inverting or noninverting amplifier configuration will process common-mode signals, passing them through to the output, but will not normally reject them. Kitchin, C. and L. Counts, A Designers Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, 2 nd ed., Analog Devices (2004) Parameters Continued 9. f T (transition frequency) An op-amp typically gives a low-frequency voltage gain of about 100dB. The f T is the frequency at which there is unity gain (0dB). Open-loop frequency response is internally tailored so that the gain falls off at a rate of 6dB/octave (= 20dB/decade), eventually falling to unity. For example, the 741 op-amp, has an f T value of 1MHz and a low-frequency gain of 106dB. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) The 741 Op-Amp f T = 1MHz When the op-amp is used in a closed loop amplifier circuit, the circuit's bandwidth depends on the closed-loop gain. The circuit has a bandwidth of only 1kHz at a gain of 60dB, or 100kHz at a gain of 20dB. The f T figure can thus be used to represent a gainbandwidth product. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) 5

6 Parameters Continued 10. Slew rate The maximum rate of change of voltage at the opamp's output. Slew rate is normally specified in terms of volts per microsecond. The LM741 op amp slew rate is.5v/µs at unity gain. One effect of slew rate limiting is to make a greater bandwidth available to small-amplitude output signals than to large-amplitude output signals. Marston, R., Op-Amp Cookbook Part 1, Nuts & Volts Magazine, (July 2001) Slew Rate Simulation Slew rate as determined by output of a square way input. LM741 Data Sheet Fairchild Semiconductor, LM741 Single Operational Amplifier Datasheet,

7 LM741 Fairchild Semiconductor, LM741 Single Operational Amplifier Datasheet, Voltage Follower Summing Amplifier See Summing Amplifier in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) 7

8 Difference Amplifier with Gain of 10 See Difference Amplifier in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) Differentiator Triangle wave input and square wave output Ω Symmetric 100 Hz triangle wave with peak voltage of 1 volt (same as 2 volt peak to peak) Ω See Differentiator in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) Integrator See Integrator in Berlin, H.M., Design of Op-Amp Circuits, H.W. Sams, Carmel, IN (1977) 8

9 Transducers A transducer converts data into an electrical signal. All transducers have offset voltages or currents, and they can be referenced to ground, either power supply rail, or some other voltage. The output of the transducer is an electrical signal representing the measured variable. The signal must be amplified and filtered so as to increase the signal to noise ratio. The analog to digital converter must have enough bits to obtain the resolution required by the accuracy specification. Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) ECG Medical Monitor for example Signal is 5 mv in a 60 Hz noisy environment, with a large DC component to offset. The buffer op amps are low noise, low input current FET op amps. The three resistors form a summing network to drive the force amplifier. Current is sent through the patient until the net sum output from the three buffer amplifiers is zero. The filters after the amplifiers remove the DC component. Note also some form of isolation to protect the patient. Kitchin, C. and L. Counts, A Designers Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, 2 nd ed., Analog Devices (2004) Resistive Transducers Voltage Divider for a Resistive Transducer Current Source Excitation for a Resistive Transducer Precision Current Source Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) 9

10 Optical Transducers Photodiode Amplifier Phototransistor Amplifier Photovoltaic Cell Amplifier Carter, B and Mancini B. Op Amps for Everyone, Newnes and TI, Burlington, MA (2009) LM555 Timer Features & Applications: Precision Timing - µs to hours. Pulse Generation astable and monostable operation. Output can sink 200 ma TTL compatible. Sequential Timing Time Delay Generation Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Position Modulation Linear Ramp Generator LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) Pinouts for the LM555 Timer 1. Pin 1 (ground). IC ground. 2. Pin 2 (trigger). Input to comparator 2, which is used to set the flip-flop. When the voltage at pin 2 crosses from above to below 1 3VCC, the comparator switches to high, setting the flip-flop. 3. Pin 3 (output). The output of the 555 is driven by an inverting buffer capable of sinking or sourcing around 200 ma. The output voltage levels depend on the output current but are approximately Vout(high) = VCC 1.5 V and Vout(low) = 0.1 V. 4. Pin 4 (reset). Active-low reset, which forces Q high and pin 3 (output) low. 5. Pin 5 (control). Used to override the 2 3VCC level, if needed, but is usually grounded via a 0.01-μ bypass capacitor (the capacitor helps eliminate VCC supply noise). An external voltage applied here will set a new trigger voltage level. LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) 10

11 Pinouts 6. Pin 6 (threshold). Input to the upper comparator, which is used to reset the flip-flop. When the voltage at pin 6 crosses from below to above 2 3VCC, the comparator switches to a high, resetting the flip-flop. 7. Pin 7 (discharge). Connected to the open collector of the npn transistor. It is used to short pin 7 to ground when Q is high (pin 3 low). This causes the capacitor to discharge. 8. Pin 8 (Supply voltage VCC). Typically between 4.5 and 16 V for general-purpose TTL 555 timers. (For CMOS versions, the supply voltage may be as low as 1 V.) LM555 Timer, Texas Instruments Datasheet, (2015) Monostable Mode or One Shot Diagram Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Monostable Mode or One Shot Simulation T 11

12 Astable Multivibrator or Oscillator ms 1 25 Hz 0.18 Scherz, P. and S. Monk, Practical Electronics for Inventors, McGraw Hill, New York (2016) Astable Multivibrator mS 1 25 Hz 0.18 Summary Operational amplifiers. Basics Amplification The 741 Op Amp Applications Transducers LM555 timer Monostable or one shot Astable multivibrator (oscillator) 12

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