# Performance Evaluation of ½ Rate Convolution Coding with Different Modulation Techniques for DS-CDMA System over Rician Channel

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3 2.5.1 Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) In MRC the signals received from multiple path weighted according to their individual signal voltage to noise power ratios and then summed. Here, the individual signals must be co-phased before being summed. Maximal ratio combining produces an output SNR equal to the sum of the individual SNRs. Thus, it has the advantage of producing an output with an acceptable SNR even when none of the individual signals are themselves acceptable [7] Equal Gain Combining (EGC) The EGC receiver processes all the received replicas, weights them equally and then sums them to produce the decision statistic. In EGC receiver estimation of the channel carrier phase is required but the weights applied to each branch in the combiner are complex quantities whose amplitudes are all set to 1. EGC provide comparable performance to the MRC with less receiver complexity [9]. 3. SIMULATION RESULTS In this section, we present and discuss the simulation results of the BER Vs SNR performance of ½ rate convolutional coding with different modulation schemes (BPSK,QPSK and QAM-16) for a DS-CDMA system using MRC and EGC diversity reception over multipath Rician fading channel with Rician parameter K=1 and K=5db through MATLAB. Simulation parameter is given in table Bit Error Rate (BER) BER is defined as the rate at which errors occur in a transmission system due to noise, interference etc. To evaluate BER mathematically we take the ratio of number of errors to total number of bits transmitted Fig 6: BER performance of MRC using BPSK modulation (9) 3.2 Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) The signal to noise ratio is a measure of the sensitivity performance of a receiver. SNR is defined as the ratio of signal power to noise power it is usually measured in decibel. The SNR mathematically can be expressed as follows: Fig 7: BER performance of EGC using BPSK modulation ( ) (10) Table 1: Simulation Parameters Parameters value Number of input data bits 900 Chip rate 8 Mbps Number of users 1 Channel coding Convolutional coding Code rate 1/2 Modulation techniques BPSK,QPSK,QAM 16 Channel model Rician with K=1,5db Diversity combining MRC, EGC techniques Number of transmitter 1 Number of Receiver 1,2 Fig 8: BER performance of MRC using QPSK modulation 33

4 Fig 9: BER performance of EGC using QPSK modulation Fig 12: BER performance of MRC using BPSK Fig 10: BER performance of MRC using QAM-16 Fig 13: BER performance of EGC using BPSK modulation Fig 11: BER performance of EGC using QAM-16 Fig 14: BER performance of MRC using QPSK 34

5 4. CONCLUSION Based on the Simulation results we have concluded that when ½ rate convolutional coding is used with different modulation schemes SNR performance of a DS-CDMA system is improved. Among all the three modulation techniques BPSK schemes with ½ rate convolutional coding provide more than 5db gain in SNR performance compare to the QPSK and more than 10 db gain in SNR performance compare to the QAM-16 for a DS-CDMA system with diversity reception. Simulation results also shows that with MRC diversity reception SNR performance of a DS-CDMA system is improved by almost 1db as compared to the EGC diversity reception. We have also concluded that performance of a DS-CDMA system over Rician channel is also improved by almost 1db as the value of Rician parameter K is increases from 1 to 5. Fig 15: BER performance of EGC using QPSK Fig 16: BER performance of MRC using QAM-16 Fig 17: BER performance of EGC using QAM FUTURE SCOPE Work presented in this paper can be extended to evaluate the performance of ½ rate convolutional coding for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system and multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system. Our results can also be extended to include the performance of DS-CDMA system with different modulation schemes using ½ rate convolutional coding over Rayleigh, Nakagami and generalized fading channel. 6. REFERECES [1] Mohamed Slim Alouini, Sang Wu Kim and Andrea Goldsmith RAKE reception with maximal-ratio and equal-gain combining for DS-CDMA systems in Nakagami fading IEEE 6th International Conference on Universal Personal Communications Record, Vol.2, pp ,Oct [2] Ramesh Annavajjala, A. Chockalingam and Laurence B. Milstein Performance Analysis of Coded Communication Systems on Nakagami Fading Channels With Selection Combining Diversity IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 52, pp , [3] Y.L. Chen and C.H. Wei On the performance of rate 1/2 convolutional codes with QPSK on Rician fading channels IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,Vol.39, pp ,May [4] Mischa Schwartz, William R. Bennett and Seymour Stein Communication Systems and Techniques IEEE Press, [5] A. Annamalai, C. Tellambura and V. K. Bhargava Unified Analysis of Equal-Gain Diversity on Rician and Nakagami Fading Channels IEEE WCNC Vol.1, pp.10-14, [6] Andrea Goldsmith Wireless Communications Cambridge University Press, [7] Theodore S. Rappaport Wireless Communication Principal and Practice Second Edition, Inc. Pearson ed., [8] P. Mohana Shankar Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems Springer, [9] M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini Digital Communication over Fading Channels 1st Ed. New York: Wiley

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