# Windings and Axes 1.0 Introduction In these notes, we will describe the different windings on a synchronous machine. We will confine our analysis to

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1 Windings and Axes 1.0 Introduction In these notes, we will describe the different windings on a synchronous machine. We will confine our analysis to two-pole machines of the salient pole rotor construction. Results will be generalizable because A machine with p>2 poles will have the same phenomena, except p times/cycle. Round rotor machines can be well approximated using a salient pole model and proper designation of the machine parameters. We will also define an important coordinate frame that we will use heavily in the future. 2.0 Defined axes The magnetic circuit and all rotor winding circuits (which we will describe shortly) are symmetrical with respect to the polar and inter-polar (between-poles) axes. This proves convenient, so we give these axes special names: 1

2 Polar axis: Direct, or D-axis Interpolar axis: Quadrature, or Q-axis. The Q-axis is 90 from the D-axis, but which way? Ahead? Or behind? Correct modeling can be achieved either way, and some books do it one way, and some another. We will remain consistent with your text and choose the Q-axis to lag the D-axis by 90. Fig. 1 is from your text, and shows the Q-axis lagging the D-axis, consistent with our assumption. Fig. 2 is from Kundur, and shows the Q-axis leading the D- axis, which we will NOT do. 2

3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 3

4 3.0 Physical windings There are typically 5 physical windings on a synchronous machine: 3 stator windings (a-phase, b-phase, and c-phase) 1 main field winding Amortissuer windings on the pole-faces The stator windings and the field winding are familiar to you based on the previous notes. The amortissuer winding might not be, so we will take some time here to describe it. Amortissuer means dead. So this winding is a dead winding under steady-state conditions. It is also frequently referred to as a damper winding, because, as the name suggests, it provides additional damping under transient conditions. Amortissuer windings are not usually used on smoothrotor machines, but the solid steel rotor cores of such machines provide paths for eddy currents and thus produce the same effects as amortissuer windings. 4

5 Amortissuer windings are often used in salient-pole machines, but even when not, eddy currents in the pole faces contribute the same effect, although greatly diminished. Amortissuers have a number of other good effects, as articulated by Kimbark in his Volume III book on synchronous machines. Amortissuer windings are embedded in the pole-face (or shoe of the pole) and consist of copper or brass rods connected to end rings. They are similar in construction to the squirrel cage of an induction motor. Figures 3 (from Sarma) and 4 (from Kundur) illustrate amortissuer windings. Note that they may be continuous (Fig. 3a and Fig. 4) or noncontinuous (Fig. 3b). 5

6 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 6

7 4.0 Modeled windings and currents Although there are typically 5 physical windings on a machine, we will model a total of 7, with associated currents as designated below. 3 stator windings: i a, i b, i c Field windings: There are 2: one physical; one fictitious o Main field winding: carrying current i F and producing flux along the D-axis. o G-winding: carrying current i G and producing flux along the Q-axis. This is the fictitious one, but it serves to improve the model accuracy of the roundrotor machine (by modeling the Q-axis flux produced by the eddy-current effects in the rotor during the transient period), and its presence does not affect the accuracy of the salient pole machine. NOTE: A&F text does not include this one (see pg 124). The G-winding is like the F-winding of the main field, except it has no source voltage in its circuit. But Kimbark suggests it in his Vol. III, pg

8 Amortissuer winding: This one represents a physical winding for salient-pole machines with dampers, and a fictitious winding if not. Because these produce flux along both the D-axis and the Q-axis, we model two windings: o D-axis: amortissuer winding carrying current i D o Q-axis: armortissuer winding carrying current i Q It is of interest to compare the F and G windings to the D and Q windings. Both the F and D produce flux along the D-axis, but D is faster (lower time constant) than F. Both the G and Q produce flux along the Q-axis, but Q is faster than G. 5.0 Flux linkages and currents So we have seven windings (circuits) in our synchronous machine. The flux linkage seen by any winding i will be a function of Currents in all of the windings and 8

9 Magnetic coupling between winding i and winding j, as characterized by ij, where j=1,,7. That is 1 7 j1 ij i j (1) For example, the flux linking the main field winding is: F Faia Fbib Fcic FFiF FDiD FQiQ FGiG (2) Repeating for all windings results in Equation (4.11) in your text, with exception that your text does not represent the G-winding like we are doing here. a b c F D Q G aa ba ca Fa Da Qa Ga ab bb bc Fb Db Qb Gb bc cc ac Fc Dc Qc Gc af bf cf FF DF QF GF ad bd cd FD DD QD GD aq bq cq FQ DQ QQ GQ ag bg cg FG DG QG GG i i i i i i i a b c F D Q G (3) Note the blocks of the above matrix correspond to 9

10 ower right-hand 4 4 are rotor-rotor terms. Upper-left-hand 3 3 are stator-stator terms; Upper right-hand 3 4 are stator-rotor terms; ower left-hand 4 3 are rotor-stator terms; Your text summarizes the expressions for each of these groups of terms on pp I will expand on this summary in the next section. 6.0 Inductance blocks 6.1a Rotor-rotor terms: self inductances Recall (see eq (15) in notes called Preliminary Fundamentals) that the general expression for selfinductances is ii i i i N 2 i R i (4a) where R i is the reluctance of the path seen by λ i, given by l A R i (4b) where l is the mean length of the path, μ is the permeability of the path s material, and A is the crosssectional area of the path. 10

11 At any given moment, the stator and the rotor present a constant reluctance path to flux developed by a winding on the rotor, i.e., the reluctance path seen by any rotor winding is independent of the position angle θ. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 for the main field (F) winding. Rotation φ F Rotation N φ F N S S Fig. 5a: θ=0 Fig. 5a: θ=90 Fig. 5 Thus, since ii =(N i ) 2 /R, rotor winding self-inductances are constants, and we define the following nomenclature, consistent with eq. (4.13) in your text. D-axis field winding FF F (5) Q-axis field winding GG G (6) D-axis amortissuer winding: DD D (7) Q-axis amortissuer winding: QQ Q (8) 11

12 Note your text s convention of using only a single subscript for constant terms. 6.1b Rotor-rotor terms: mutual inductances Recall (eq. (15) in Preliminary Fundamentals ) that: ij N N i i j i j R ij (9) where R ij is the reluctance of the path seen by λ i in linking with coil j or the path seen by λ j in linking with coil i (either way it is the same path!). Again, by similar reasoning as in section 6.1a, these mutual terms are constants (i.e., independent of θ). Therefore, we have the following: F (field) D (amort): G (field)-q (amort): FD GQ DF M R (10a) QG MY (10b) But we have four other pairs to address: F (field)-g (field): FG GF 0 (11a) F (field)-q (amort): FQ QF 0 (11b) 12

13 G (field)-d (amort): GD DG 0 (11c) D (amort)-q (amort): DQ QD 0 (11d) But these pairs of windings are each in quadrature, so the flux from one winding does not link the coils of the other winding, as illustrated in Fig. 6. Therefore the above four terms are zero, as indicated in eqs (11a-11d). Fig a Stator-stator terms: self inductances We can derive these rigorously (see Kundur pp ) but the insight gained in this effort may not be great. Rather, we may be better served by gaining a conceptual understanding of four ideas, as follows: 1. Sinusoidal dependence on of permeance on θ: Due to saliency of the poles (and to field winding slots in a smooth 13

14 rotor machine), the path reluctance seen by the stator windings depends on θ, as illustrated in Fig. 7. Rotation φ a Rotation φ a N a a' a N S a' S Fig. 7a: θ=0 Fig. 7 From Fig. 7a, we observe that when θ=0, the path of phase-a flux contains more iron than at any other angle 0180, and therefore the reluctance seen by the phasea flux in this path is at a minimum, and permeance is at a maximum. From Fig. 7b, we observe that when θ=90, the path of phase-a flux contains more air that at any other angle 0180, and therefore the reluctance seen by the phasea flux in this path is at a maximum, and permeance is at a minimum. This suggests a sinusoidal variation of permeance with θ. 14 Fig. 7a: θ=90

15 2. Constant permeance component: There will be a constant permeance component due to the amount of permeance seen by the phase-a flux at any angle. This will include the iron in the middle part of the rotor (indicated by a box in Figs. 7a and 7b), the stator iron, and the air gap. Denote the corresponding component as Ps. 3. Double angle dependence: Because the effects described in 1 and 2 above depend on permeance (or reluctance), and not on rotor polarity, the maximum permeance occurs twice each cycle, and not once. Taking (1), (2), and (3) together, we may write that P P s P m cos2 (12) 4. Inductance: Because =N 2 /R=N 2 P, the self inductance of the a-phase winding can be written as aa s m cos2 (13) ikewise, we will obtain: bb s m cos2 120 (14) cc s m cos2 240 (15) 15

16 Equations (13), (14), (15) are denoted (4.12) in your text. 6.2b Stator-stator terms: mutual inductances We will identify 3 important concepts for understanding mutual terms of stator-stator inductances. 1. Sign: First, we need to remind ourselves of a preliminary fact: For any circuits i and j, ij is positive if positive currents in the two circuits produce fluxes in the same direction. With this fact, we can state important concept 1: As a result of defined stator current directions, the stator-stator mutual inductance is always negative. To see this, we can observe that the flux produced by positive currents of a and b phases are in opposite directions, as indicated in Fig

17 b' φ a X shows current into the plane; shows current out of the plane. RHR gives flux direction. a φ b φ ba φ ab a' b Fig. 8 Observe that physical location of the b-phase will cause its voltage to lag the a-phase voltage by 120, as, for counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation, the leading edge of the CCW-rotating mag field is seen first by the a pole of the a-phase winding and then, 120 later, by the b pole of the b-phase winding. Observe the following in Fig. 8: The component of flux from winding-a that links with winding-b, φ ab, is 180 from φ b. The component of flux from winding-b that links with winding-a, φ ba, is 180 from φ a. The implications of the above 2 observations are that Mutually induced voltages are negative relative to self induced voltages. Mutual inductance is negative. 2. Function of position: 2a. Maximum Permeance for Mutual Flux: 17

18 Recall that conditions where the amount of iron in the path is a maximum permeance (minimum reluctance) condition. This condition for phase-a self-flux is θ=0. This condition for phase-b self-flux is θ=-60. Therefore the condition for maximum permeance for the mutual flux between phases a and b (which maximizes the flux produced from one winding that links with the other winding) is halfway between these two at θ=-30. 2b. Periodicity of Permeance for Mutual Flux: Starting at the maximum permeance condition, a rotation by 90 to θ=60 gives minimum permeance. Starting at the maximum permeance condition, a rotation by 180 to θ=150 gives minimum permeance again. The implication of these observations are that permeance, and therefore inductance, is a sinusoidal function of 2(θ+30 ). 18

19 3. Constant term: There is an amount of permeance that is constant, independent of rotor position. ike before, this is composed of the stator iron, the air gap, and the inner part of the rotor. We will denote the corresponding inductance as M S. From above 1, 2, and 3, we express mutual inductance between the a- and b-phases as ab M s ab cos2( 30) (16) One last comment: The amplitude of the permeance variation for the mutual flux is the same as the amplitude of the permeance variation for the self-flux, therefore ab = m. And so the three mutual expressions we need are ab M s m cos2( 30) (17) bc M s m cos2( 90) (18) ca M s m cos2( 150) (19) 19

20 6.3 Stator-rotor terms These are all mutual inductances. There are four windings on the rotor (F, G, D, and Q) and three windings on the stator (a, b, c phases). Therefore there are 12 mutual terms in all. Central idea: Recall that for stator-stator mutuals, windings were locationally fixed, and the path of mutual flux was fixed, but the rotor moves within the path of mutual flux and causes the iron in the path to vary, and for this reason, the path permeance varied. Now, in this case, for stator-rotor terms (all mutuals), the rotor winding locations vary, the stator winding locations are fixed, and so the iron in the path of mutual flux varies, and for this reason the path permeance varies. 20

21 To illustrate, consider the permeance between the a-phase winding and the main field winding (F). When the main field winding and the stator winding are aligned, as in Fig. 9a, the permeance is maximum, and therefore inductance is maximum. φ a φ F N φ a a a' a φ F N S a' S Fig. 9a Fig. 9b When the main field winding and the a-phase stator winding are 90 apart, as in Fig. 9b, there is no linkage at all, and inductance is zero. When the rotor winding and the a-phase stator winding are 180 apart, as in Fig. 10, the permeance is again maximum, but now polarity is reversed. 21

22 φ a S a a' N Fig. 10 This discussion results in a conclusion that the mutual inductance between a-phase winding and the main field winding should have the form: af M F cos (20a) The D-axis damper (amortissuer) winding is positioned concentric with the main field winding, both producing flux along the D-axis. Therefore, the reasoning about the mutual inductance between the a-phase winding and the D-axis damper winding will be similar to the reasoning about the mutual inductance between the a-phase winding and the main field (F) winding, leading to φ F ad M D cos (21a) 22

23 Now consider the mutuals between the a-phase winding and the windings on the q-axis, i.e., the G-winding and the Q damper (amortissuer) winding. The only difference in reasoning about these mutuals and the mutuals between the a-phase winding and the windings on the d-axis (the F-winding and the D damper winding) is that the windings on the q-axis are 90 behind the windings on the d-axis. Therefore, whereas the a- phase/d-axis mutuals were cosine functions, these mutuals will be sine functions, i.e., aq M Q sin (22a) ag M G sin (23a) Summarizing stator-rotor terms for all three phases, we obtain the equations on the next page. 23

24 af M F cos (20a) bf M F cos( 120) (20b) cf M F cos( 240) (20c) ad M D cos (21a) bd M D cos( 120) (21b) cd M D cos( 240) (21c) aq M Q sin (22a) bq M Q sin( 120) (22b) bq M Q sin( 240) (22c) ag M G sin (23a) bg M G sin( 120) (23b) bg M G sin( 240) (23c) 24

25 7.0 Summary Summarizing all of our needed equations: Rotor-rotor self terms: 5, 6, 7, 8 Rotor-rotor mutuals: 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b, 11c, 11d Stator-stator self terms: 13, 14, 15 Stator-stator mutuals: 17, 18, 19 Rotor-stator mutuals: 20a, 20b, 20c, 21a, 21b, 21c, 22a, 22b, 22c, 23a, 23b, 23c Counting the above equations, we see that we have 28. But let s look back at our original flux linkage relation (3): a b c F D Q G aa ba ca Fa Da Qa Ga ab bb bc Fb Db Qb Gb bc cc ac Fc Dc Qc Gc af bf cf FF DF QF GF ad bd cd FD DD QD GD aq bq cq FQ DQ QQ GQ ag bg cg FG DG QG GG i i i i i i i a b c F D Q G (3) We have 49 terms! Where are the other 21 equations? 25

26 Note because ij = ji, the inductance matrix will be symmetric. Of the 49 terms, 7 are diagonal. The other 42 terms are off-diagonal and are repeated twice. So we are missing the 21 equations corresponding to the offdiagonal elements for which we did not provide equations. But we do not need to, since those missing equations for the off-diagonal elements ij are exactly the same as the equations for the off-diagonal elements ji. We will look closely at this matrix in the next set of notes. 26

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