# Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits Lecture 20. Advanced Opamp Topologies (Part II)

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1 Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits Lecture 20 Advanced Opamp Topologies (Part II) Michael H. Perrott April 15, 2012 Copyright 2012 by Michael H. Perrott All rights reserved.

2 Outline of Lecture Gain boosting technique Nested Miller technique Replica bias technique Improved slew rate opamp example 2

3 Recall the Folded Cascode Opamp Must set I bias2 > I bias1 /2 V bias4 I bias2 M 9 0 I bias2 I bias1 /2 I bias1 /2 V bias3 V out- M 7 M 8 V out+ I ref V in- M 2 V in+ V bias2 1 2 M 5 M 6 I bias2 -I bias1 /2 Controlled by CMFB V bias1 M 3 Modified version of telescopic opamp - Significantly improved input/output swing - High BW (better than two stage, worse than telescopic) - Single stage of gain (lower than telescopic) I bias2 -I bias1 /2 Can we further boost the DC gain? 3

4 Gain Boosting of Current Sources I out Rout DC Gain = K I out R out V ref DC Gain = K V ref v gs g m1 v gs -g mb1 v s r o1 R ref v s R ref We can achieve increased output impedance of a current source with an amplifier - The amplifier essentially increases g m1 by factor K R out = (Kg m1 r o1 ) R ref Key issue: what is a convenient implementation of the above circuit? 4

5 A Simple Gain Boosting Amplifier V ref DC Gain = K I out Rout I ref I bias I out Rout I ref M 2 M 3 M 2 M 3 Common source amplifier utilized K = g m4 r o4,r ref = r o2 R out =(g m4 r o4 ) (g m1 r o1 ) r o2 (g m r o ) 2 r o2 Issue: current source requires significant headroom due to the fact that V ds2 = V gs4 5

6 Folded Cascode Gain Boosting Amplifier V bias4 M 8 I out Rout V bias3 V bias2 M 7 V bias5 I ref V bias1 M 6 M 2 M 3 M 5 Folded cascode yields K = g m4 (((g m6 r o6 )r o5 ) ((g m7 r o7 )r o8 )) R out (g m r o ) 3 r o2 - Improved headroom and higher gain! Is there a convenient way to set V bias5? 6

7 Differential Version of Gain Boosting Amplifier V bias4 R out I out I out R out V bias4 V bias3 3 I bias 4 V bias3 1 M 2 2 V bias2 V bias0 V bias2 V bias1 M 9 M 5 M 3 M 6 0 V bias1 M 7 M 8 Leverage fully differential nature of current sources within the opamp - PMOS gain devices are now part of a differential pair - Need CMFB to set common-mode gate voltages of and M 2 7

8 Symbolic View of Folded Cascode Gain Boosting Amp R out I out I out R out V bias0 M 3 We can apply this to the overall folded cascode opamp 8

9 Folded Cascode with Gain Boosting V bias4 M 9 0 V out- M 7 M 8 V out+ I ref V in- M 2 V in+ M 5 M Controlled by CMFB V bias1 M 3 Gain boosting provides substantial increase of DC gain while maintaining good input and output swing - Gain is on the order of (g m r o ) 4 Issue very complex! 9

10 Recall Pole Splitting for Two Stage Compensation 20log V out /V id g m -g m w (rad/s) w p1 w p2 w p1 w p2 Moves the dominant pole of the second stage to higher frequencies such that it becomes a parasitic pole Places the first stage pole as the dominant pole - Leverages the gain of the second stage to achieve capacitor multiplication using the Miller effect Can we extend the pole splitting technique to more than 2 gain stages? 10

11 Nested Miller Compensation 20log V out /V id g m g m -g m Eschauzier, JSSC Dec 1992 Advantage: increased DC gain with high input and output swing Issue: more parasitic poles to deal with - Leads to lower unity gain bandwidth for reasonable phase margin w p1 w p3 w p2 w p1 w p2,w p3 w (rad/s) Proving to be a useful technique in advanced CMOS processes which offer fast speed (high g m /C) but low intrinsic gain (low g m r o ) 11

12 Nested Miller Example M 8 M 7 M 5 M 9 I ref V in- V in+ M V bias Cc2 V out C c M M 6 Intermediate gain stages must be non-inverting in order to achieve stable feedback Compensation resistors should also be included to eliminate the impact of RHP zeros - Not shown for simplicity 12

13 Recall the Telescopic Opamp Controlled by CMFB V bias3 V bias2 M 7 M 8 V out- M 5 M 6 V out+ V bias1 I ref V in+ M 3 M 2 V in- 0 M 9 Key issue is input swing - Can we improve this? 13

14 Replica Bias Technique Controlled by CMFB V bias3 V bias2 M 7 M 8 V out- M 5 M 6 V out+ I ref K V bias1 V in+ V in- V in+ M 3 M 2 V in M 9 Gulati, JSSC Dec, 1998 Allows current source to maintain its output current even for low V ds using dynamic bias of V gs - Allows extended input common-mode range 14

15 Recall: Slew Rate Issues for Opamps V dd V in V out ideal V in V ss V out slew-rate limited Output currents of practical opamps have max limits - Impacts maximum rate of charging or discharging load capacitance, - For large step response, this leads to the output lagging behind the ideal response based on linear modeling We refer to this condition as being slew-rate limited Where slew-rate is of concern, the output stage of the opamp can be designed to help mitigate this issue - Will lead to extra complexity and perhaps other issues 15

16 Key Observations for Slew Rate Calculations I bias1 I bias2 -V id /2 V id /2 V out M 2 R c C c M 3 M 6 Current Limits V id a vd1 I 1 C c a vd2 I 2 V out First stage - Max I 1 = I bias1 - Min I 1 = -I bias1 Second stage - Max I 2 = I bias2 - Min I 2 = Large How can we improve opamp slew rate? 16

17 Class A and AB Amplifiers/Buffers Class A Amplifier Class AB Amplifier/Buffer V bias M 2 I bias M 2 I bias I bias V out V out V in V bias V out V in V in M 2 Class A - Maximum slew rate in one direction is set by the nominal bias current Class AB - Maximum slew rate is not set by the nominal bias current Goal: low nominal bias current 17

18 Class AB Opamp M 9 M 5 M 6 0 I bias I bias V in- V in+ V out- V bias M 2 V bias V out+ M 3 Costello, JSSC Dec 1985 Low bias current can be achieved for V in+ = V in- - Must properly set V bias Much higher current when V in+ V in- DC gain can be increased through cascoding of 1 M 7 M 8 2 output stage 18

19 Biasing Network for Class AB Opamp M 9 M 5 M 6 0 I bias I bias V in- V in+ V out- 3 M 2 5 V out+ 4 6 I ref M 3 I ref 1 M 7 M 8 2 Bias current set by - Ratio of device sizes of - versus I ref current 19

20 Summary Opamps invite a wide variety of techniques to address different application requirements - Cleverness can substantially improve performance and robustness - Changing of CMOS processes over time leads to new techniques which were previously unnecessary or unpractical Four techniques discussed today - Gain boosting - Nested Miller - Replica bias - Class AB stages 20

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