Transmitting Light: Fiber-optic and Free-space Communications Holography

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1 1

2 Lecture 9 Transmitting Light: Fiber-optic and Free-space Communications Holography 2

3 Wireless Phone Calls 3

4 Undersea Cable and Satellite Networks 4

5 5

6 Optical Fiber 125µm cladding 5µm θc n 2 = 1.46 n 1 = 1.48 core θc = asin(n2/n1) = asin(1.46/1.48) =

7 How Fiber is Made 7

8 Modes in a Waveguide Remember the standing waves in an optical cavity? Standing wave L = n (λ/2) Cavity Modes: longitudinal L Natural Emission For a 10 cm cavity, wavelength of 500 nm, what is the order of n? 8 λ

9 Similarly in the Transverse Directions Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) 9

10 How Fiber-Optic Transmission Works 10

11 Attenuation in Silica Fiber 11

12 Decibel (db) (Attenuation) Level in db = 10 log 10 (P 1 /P o ) 12

13 Scattering of light with particles the size smaller than the wavelength A. Longer-wavelength light scatters more B. Shorter-wavelength light scatters more C. Scattering is independent of wavelength 13

14 Why is the sky blue? 14

15 Rayleigh Scattering Elastic scattering of light by particles with size smaller than the wavelength of light (λ) Shorter-λ light scattered more strongly than long-λ light 15

16 Is it possible to transmit light through a hollow core? 125µm cladding 5µm θc n 2 = 1.46 n 1 = 1.48 core 16

17 Photonic-Crystal Fiber (Hpley Fiber) Stronger light confinement than ordinary fiber Can have hollow core Wikipedia 17

18 Fiber Optic Data Systems Direct modulation Data Laser External modulation Modulator Detector Data 18

19 Wavelength Division Multiplexing wayanadnoticeboard.com 19

20 Fiber Optic Modulator Based on fiberoptic coupler LiNbO3 Lithium Niobate Electrical Data Claddings stripped off Cores close to each other Or fused two cores (Y coupler) Electrooptic = Electric field changes refractive index 20

21 Why Do Pulses Spread " In multimode fiber, different modes travel at slightly different speeds " In single mode fiber, different wavelengths spill into the cladding by different amounts " The glass of the fiber has slightly different n for different wavelengths " The speed of a single mode depends on its wavelength 21

22 In Summary " The longer the fiber... " The more light is absorbed, and the harder it is to detect, and... " The more the data pulses spread out and overlap with each other "! Need repeater stations 22

23 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier How to eliminate repeater stations, which convert optical signals to electrical signals, amplify the latter, and convert electrical to optical signals? Optical isolator

24 Circular Polarization 24

25 Faraday Rotator/Optical Isolator Linear polarization is composed of left and right-circular polarization L and R travel at different velocity in a medium in the direction of magnetic field! Linear polarization rotation Optical isolator in a fiber system! 45 o rotation! 90 o rotation in a round trip! eliminate backscattered light 25

26 Free-space Optical Communications (1): Optical Wireless No need to license spectrum - no interference 26

27 Free-space Optical Communication (2): Space 1.55 µm, 700 mw 5.6 Gbps, 6000 km 27

28 Free-Space Optical Communication (3): Underwater Blue laser 1-10 Mbps, 200 m 28

29 Holography? Allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed Optically stores, retrieves, and processes information Preserves the 3D information of a holographed subject 29

30 Incoherent and Coherent Wave 30

31 Interference of Two Coherent Beams 31

32 Interference at Different Angles 32

33 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics utm_source=slideshow02&utm_medium=ss &utm_campaign=share_slideshow_loggedout 33

34 34

35 Transmission Hologram 35

36 Reflection Hologram science.howstuffworks.com/ hologram10.htm Interference between the transmitted light and reflected light from the object 36

37 37

38 How is holography different from normal photography? 38

39 Photography vs. Holography Photography Holography Depth 2D 3D Light Incoherent Coherent (Usually) Records Medium Energy (Power x Time) Silver-Halide CCD Lens Amplitude + Phase Film & Other No lens Line of sight Interference 39

40 40

41 What We Learned " Mechanism: total internal reflection " Single vs multimode " Fiber communication technology " Erbium-doped fiber amplifier " Free-space optical communications " Holography 41

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