Mode S Skills 101. OK, so you ve got four basic surveillance skills, you ve got the: ATCRBS Skills Mode S Skills TCAS Skills ADS-B skills

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1 Mode S Skills 101 OK, so you ve got four basic surveillance skills, you ve got the: ATCRBS Skills Mode S Skills TCAS Skills ADS-B skills Fisher Fisher Slide 1

2 853D ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS GROUP MODE S 101 Prepared by: Mr. John Fisher 853 ELSG/NT Hanscom AFB, MA 19 Mar 07

3 Mode S 101 Objectives 1 Provide an understanding of ATCRBS 2 Provide an understanding of Mode S 3 Provide an understanding of transponders 4 Provide an understanding of ELS EHS deployment in Europe Slide 3 ESC/PA clearance number is ESC

4 1 ATCRBS 1 Provide an understanding of ATCRBS 2 Provide an understanding of Mode S 3 Provide an understanding of transponders 4 Provide an understanding of ELS EHS deployment in Europe Slide 4

5 Historical Background Accidents spur change One over the grand canyon in 56 and this one over NYC President Kennedy requests study One outcome is Mode S Another is Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) New York City 16 Dec, 1960 Slide 5

6 What is ATCRBS ATCRBS uses information gathered by the SSR Correlated with PSR to improve ATC picture ATCRBS gathers Mode A (4096 ident) and C (altitude) information from the aircraft DoD IFF system modes 1-4 based on ATCRBS Slide 6

7 Radar Antenna SSR Flat Array ATCRBS and Mode S PSR SAIL Slide 7

8 ATCRBS (Mode A/C in Europe) Interrogator Transmit 1030 MHz P 1 P 2 P 3 Transponder Receive 1090 MHz P 1 P 2 P 3 Mode 1,2 (Military Use) 3/A (Request IDENT) Mode Interrogation SPI Interrogation (controller request Ident) C (Request Altitude) P1-P3 Spacing determines mode F 1 data X data F 2 SPI F 1 data X data F 2 SPI Receive and correlate information to the interrogations Produce Track reports Position, speed, altitude, IDENT, X-Bit Set,... Content of Registers (Modes 1 & 2) 12-bit IDENT (e.g. squawk 2563) 12-bit Altitude (100ft) Reply with SPI (Squawk IDENT) Reply with X-Bit set or not Slide 8

9 Problems with ATCRBS Original implementation led to Frequency saturation Prone to synchronous garble, Limited information (compared to Mode S) Slide 9

10 ATCRBS Synchronous Garble Slide 10

11 Problems with ATCRBS (cont) During the early 1960 s delays and congestion begin to increase Several mid air collisions raised public awareness. This led the US government to act Slide 11

12 2 Mode S 1 Provide an understanding of ATCRBS 2 Provide an understanding of Mode S 3 Provide an understanding of transponders 4 Provide an understanding of ELS EHS deployment in Europe Slide 12

13 Mode S Equipment Ground Components Aircraft Components ASR Antenna Aircraft Antenna TCAS/Mode S Controller Mode S Sensor Slide 13 ATC Display Altimeter Mode S Transponder

14 Mode S Overview Works in the ATCRBS environment Much more done to control frequency saturation Decreases chances of synchronous garble Supports Full Air Air and Air Ground datalink Supports coordination of TCAS resolution advisories In European Elementary Surveillance (ELS) and Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) implementation Much more data transfer between air and ground Decreases air traffic controller workload Increases air traffic controller situational awareness Slide 14

15 Mode S Overview Mode S speaks only when spoken too Increases types and amount of info exchanged ADS-B Slide 15

16 Ground Systems What value does Mode S add? ELS and EHS helps Air Traffic Controllers to further improve operations and increase capacity Data used to associate aircraft tracks to flight plans. TCAS II Systems Use Mode S to coordinate resolution advisories (RA) and disseminate resolution maneuvers Slide 16

17 ATCRBS vs Mode S Basic Mode S A T C R B S Mode C Altitude 12-bits 100 ft steps Mode 3/A Identification 12-bits Squawk code All transponders reply Special Position Ident. (SPI) - 13 bit altitude 25ft step capable - 24-bit unique acft Address - Full data link Air-Ground and Air-Air - Down link of aircraft parameters (DAP) Slide 17

18 Mode S (ATCRBS +) Interrogator Transmit 1030 MHz Mode A/C/S All-Call Mode A/C only All-Call Mode S only All-Call Broadcast Selective Interrogation Receive 1090 MHz Interrogation replies Service Requests Transponder Receive MHz A/C or Mode S Address A/C or No Mode S reply No reply or Mode S AA No reply Reply if Address match Transmit 1090MHz Interrogation replies Request Services Acquisition / Extended Squitter (ADS-B) Slide 18

19 Mode S Up and Down Link Slide 19 Interrogator Up Link Format UF=0 Short A-A* ACAS UF=4,5 Surveillance (roll call) Altitude, IDENT Request UF=11 Mode S Only All-Call UF=16 Long A-A ACAS UF=19 Military Use UF=20,21 Comm. A Altitude, IDENT Request UF=22 Military use only selective interrogation UF-24 Comm. C Extended Length Message (ELM) * A-A = Air to Air ** ES-Extended Squitter Transponder Down Link DF=0 Short A-A ACAS DF=4,5 Surveillance (roll call) Altitude, IDENT Reply DF=11 Mode S Only All-Call Reply (Acq. Squitter if II=0) DF=16 Long A-A ACAS DF= ES** DF=19 Military ES DF=20,21 Comm. B Altitude, IDENT Reply DF=22 Military use only DF=24 Comm. D ELM Reference: ICAO Annex 10, Volume IV pages 3-16 and 3-17

20 Mode S ICAO 24 bit Aircraft Address Initiating Surveillance 1 Grd All call Selective interrogation 2 Acft with 24 bit address Downlink Aircraft Parameters (DAPS) (2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0) Mode S Transponder 3 Grd interrogates the aircraft using the 24 bit address 4 Acft replies with alt ident or other data as requested XB20001 A1234 Secondary Radar SSR Mode S Sensor Heading Speed Selected FL Controller workstation ATC Radar Tracker and Server DAPs ASTERIX Cat Primary Radar Primary radar sensor Slide 20

21 ELS / EHS European Elementary Surveillance (ELS) European Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) ADS-B Slide 21

22 European Elementary Surveillance Register 2,0 Aircraft Identification Register 3,0 ACAS Resolution Advisory Slide 22

23 European Enhanced Surveillance Includes ELS (register 2,0 and, if applicable 3,0) Selected Vertical Intention (register 4,0) Selected Altitude from Altitude Control Panel Target Altitude Barometric Pressure Setting Track and turn report (register 5,0) Roll angle, Track angle rate, True track angle, Ground speed If Track angle rate is not available, substitute True airspeed Heading and speed report (register 6,0) Magnetic heading, Indicated airspeed, Mach No, Vertical rate Slide 23

24 Mode S Operation Slide 24

25 3 Transponders 1 Provide an understanding of ATCRBS 2 Provide an understanding of Mode S 3 Provide an understanding of transponders 4 Provide an understanding of ELS EHS deployment in Europe Slide 25

26 Information on Transponders Interface to the Aircraft Hold the unique Aircraft Address (AA, 24-bits) Gathers information from the bus (ELS) -Flight status, Aircraft ID (Call Sign), etc. (EHS) - Magnetic Heading, Air Speed, Selected Altitude, Vertical Rate, Track Angle Rate, Roll Angle, Ground Speed, True Track Angle, Mach Number Interface to the Pilot IDENT, Aircraft ID (Call Sign), SPI Controls On, Standby, Off Allows Military unique functions Slide 26

27 Five Levels* Information on Transponders Level 2 Satisfies all current applications Most new transponders provide level 3 Some provide Level 4 None provide level 5 (probably never needed) Surveillance Interrogator (SI) Code Processing Needed in Europe Required for DoD Aircraft installations Note: Recent kludge to support European needs Extended Squitter Recommended to support future ADS-B All current transponders have the capability * Reference: ICAO Annex 10 volume IV paragraph Slide 27

28 Information on Transponders Interface to TCAS Maneuver coordination Resolution Advisory Down Link Interface to IFF Suppression and priority considerations Receive and Transmit 1030 MHz Up Link receive 1090 MHz Down Link transmit Slide 28

29 Information on Transponders Mode S is integrated with other capabilities including IFF Civil applications integrated with Mode S include TCAS, TAWS, and Wind-Shear EUROCAE WG 49 and RTCA SC-209 are working on ELS and EHS Minimal Operational Performance Standards to be published by CY 2008 There will be standards changes through subsequent years but probably not major Slide 29

30 An Interrogator Is assigned an II or SI Code Identification Puts this value in its Mode S Only All-Calls Tells aircraft not to reply to Mode S Only All-Calls with its sensor II or SI code (Lock out) A Transponder Information on Transponders Suppresses replies to Mode S Only All-Calls with the II or SI code as directed by the Interrogator Suppression times-out in 18 seconds. SI code processing is essential. II and SI codes overlap by 4 bits so confusion can arise. SI Code processing resolves the confusion. Slide 30

31 CONUS Information on Transponders FAA - most commercial aircraft must have TCAS II FAA has over 130 Mode S Sensors No FAA TCAS requirement on DoD Aircraft USAF required troop and passenger carrying aircraft to be TCAS equipped by 2005 European State Aircraft requires equipage by 3/31/09 Elementary Surveillance (ELS) for all aircraft Transport, larger aircraft, and those capable must have EHS Germany Requires military aircraft to be TCAS equipped Slide 31

32 Information on Transponders Transponders used by DoD must be Mark XIIA certified by the AIMS PMO TCAS II version 7 (ACAS II) requires compatible Mode S transponder ELS (DoD think fighter aircraft ±) Level 2 and SI Code Processing 1090ES capability inferred but not explicit Downlink Flight status, Capability, Flight ID, Altitude, etc. EHS (DoD think heavies ±) ELS Plus Downlink of Aircraft Parameters (DAPS) Magnetic Heading, Air Speed, Selected Altitude, Vertical Rate, Track Angle Rate, Roll Angle, Ground Speed, True Track Angle, and Mach Number Slide 32

33 4 ELS EHS deployment 1 Provide an understanding of ATCRBS 2 Provide an understanding of Mode S 3 Provide an understanding of transponders 4 Provide an understanding of ELS EHS deployment in Europe Slide 33

34 Mode S Coverage Jan 2007 Slide 34

35 Mode S Radar Coverage Now ELS Only 2008 Netherlands 2008 Luxembourg 2012 UK - FIRs/UIRs 2010 Belgium EHS Only 2005 UK - London TMA Commence ELS validation phase Potentially Start ELS validation Commence ELS validation phase Commence ELS validation phase ELS (and EHS) 2007 Germany 2007 Switzerland 2007 Maastricht 2008 France Commence ELS/EHS validation phase Commence ELS/EHS validation phase Commence ELS/EHS validation phase Commence ELS/EHS validation phase Slide 35

36 Mode S Radar Coverage Planned coverage out to 2012 Coverage by 2012 Portugal - No Plans until 2011 Latvia Possibly by 2012 Sweden - No Plans for Mode S Slide 36

37 Questions / Contact Info Wm. A. Thedford, Ph. D. GATSG (AACAS Contractor) Hanscom AFB, MA Office: (DSN ) Home: , Cell: John Fisher 853ELSG/NT (Odyssey Systems contractor) Hanscom AFB, MA Office: (DSN ) Cell: Slide 37

38 Up Next - TCAS skills Then - ADS-B skills Slide 38

39 Acronyms AA Aircraft Address (24-bit unique address) ACAS and TCAS Airborne Collision Avoidance System and Threat and Collision Avoidance System ADS Automatic Dependant Surveillance ADS-A/C/B ADS Addressed, ADS Contract, ADS Broadcast ARINC Aeronautical Radio, Inc. ATC Air Traffic Control ATCRBS Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System DAP Download of Aircraft Parameters ELS Elementary Surveillance EHS Enhanced Surveillance ELM Extended Length Message EUROCAE European Organization for Civil Avionics Electronics Like the RTCA ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IDENT Identification refers to the 12-bit ATCRBS Squawk address (e.g., 2564) IFF Identification Friend or Foe MHz Mega Hertz Mode A or Mode 3/A ATCRBS interrogation for IDENT or corresponding reply Mode C ATCRBS interrogation for Altitude or corresponding reply Mode S Mode Select Radar Beacon System PSR Primary Surveillance Radar RA and TA TCAS Resolution Advisory or Traffic Advisory RTCA RTCA, Inc. Develops standards and guidelines for the FAA SI and II Surveillance Identifier and Interrogator Identifier SPI Special Position Identifier SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar TAWS Terrain Awareness and Warning System UF and DF Up Link Format Mode S transmission and Down Link Format Mode S transmission Slide 39

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