# Analysis of RF requirements for Active Antenna System

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3 the first, meanwhile Macro legacy system to Macro legacy system is also simulated for comparison, as shown in Table 1. where θ3db = 65 degrees is the vertical 3dB bandwidth, and SLAV = 25 db is the front-back ratio on vertical domain. TABLE 1 SIMULATION CASES FOR IN-BAND BLOCKING EVALUATION Aggressor Victim 1-a 1-b 1-c 1 z Case -1 1 B. Simulation Assumptions -1 1) 3D antenna model To evaluate AAS blocking requirement, we could first establish the radiating element pattern, and then, on db domain, make superposition of the element pattern with the array pattern which is determined by the vertical transmit weighting factor [1]. The antenna modeling is based on the preliminary geometry as shown in Fig.5. 1 y 3 2 x Figure 6. Radiating element pattern b) Composite antenna pattern The proposed composite pattern is a superposition of the element pattern and the vertical array pattern which is given by, N G (θ, ϕ ) = AE (θ, ϕ ) + 1 log1 wn u n n=1 2 (5) where un is the signal arrived at the n th radiating element with different phase shift. wn is the complex transmit weights applied to the vertical antenna array, assumed to be : wn = (6) where βetilt is electrical down tilt of BS, and dv is the element vertical spacing. Figure 5. Antenna array geometry. a) Radiating element pattern It is assumed that the radiating element pattern model is in a similar form to the 3GPP model in TR as below, and antenna pattern is shown in Fig z AE(φ,θ) = Gmax min{ [AE,H(φ)+AE,H(θ)], Am} d 1 exp i 2π (n 1) v sin β etilt λ N (2) -5 where -1 φ and θ is the given azimuth and elevation angle which is defined in Fig Gmax is the maximum directional gain of the radiating element in db y Figure 7. Composite antenna pattern 2) Cell layout For uncoordinated network simulations, identical cell layouts for each network shall be applied with worst case shift between sites. The second network s sites are located at the first network s cell edge. Inter site distance (ISD) of 75 meter is applied. (3) where φ3db = 65 degrees is the horizontal 3dB bandwidth and Am = 25dB is the front-back ratio. AE,H is the vertical pattern: AE,V (θ) = min[12(θ/θ3db)2,slav] 1 x AE,H is the horizontal pattern: AE,H (φ) = min[12(φ/φ3db)2,am] (4) 681

5 Test input port P s Splitting network Rx antenna interface P i Base Station REFERENCES [1] Xue-Song Yang, Hao Qian, Bing-Zhong Wang and Shaoqiu Xiao, Radiation Pattern Computation of Pyramidal Conformal Antenna Array with Active-Element Pattern Technique, Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, Volume 53, Feb.211, pp [2] TS , Release 1, UTRA Base Station conformance testing P s = sum(p i ), where P s is the required input power specified Figure 9. Receiver test set-up. If we use this testing approach for AAS, the wanted signal and blocking interference are equally allocated to each antenna port, and the blocking capability of each receiver is tested as: Blocking interference: Legacy BS in-band blocking level 1Log 1 (N); Wanted signal: Legacy BS wanted signal level 1Log 1 (N); where N is number of antenna ports in the AAS. However, according to our simulation result, there is not a 1log 1 (N) db relations between the blocking interference power level at individual element in AAS and the legacy BS as implied by the array testing setup using power splitter. Defining and testing the in-band blocking performance of each receiver in AAS at 1Log 1 (N) db scaled to legacy BS requirement would expose the AAS to big interference risks which eventually impact the stability of the network. The similar issues can be found for other receiver tests such as Dynamic Range, In-band Selectivity, and Inter-modulation. IV. CONCLUSION AAS is an emerging technology which is an integration of multiple transceivers and the antenna array in one package and offers significant benefit on site engineering and system performance gain. Since the interactions between the transmitters and receivers within the AAS might be different from the legacy BS and the legacy antenna system, the impacts of the transmitted or received radio signals on the transmitter and receivers could be different as well. This implies that new requirements shall be defined for the AAS with taking into account of its new characteristics. 683

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