The Evolution of WiFi

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Evolution of WiFi"

Transcription

1 The Verification Experts Air Expert Series The Evolution of WiFi By Eve Danel Senior Product Manager, WiFi Products August 2016 VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction IEEE Standards a and b g and n b and Backward Compatibility ac GHz Frequency Band GHz Frequency Band Summary... 8 About VeEX... 9 VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

3 1. Introduction The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) formed the committee to develop and publish standards for the Wireless LAN (WLAN). The committee released the first IEEE standard specification in June It was the creation of this industry standard that served as the catapult for wireless equipment product creation. In 1999, Apple released the first commercial product using the new standard. Apple (in conjunction with Lucent) added a WiFi slot in its new ibook computers, called AirPort. The ibook was the first consumer computer to have integrated WiFi capability. In addition, they also released a base station for home WiFi use. Widespread use of WiFi quickly followed in offices and homes. In 2005, WiFi shipments reached 100 million annually and the term WiFi was officially added in the Merriam-Webster dictionary. By 2009, one billion WiFi chipsets were sold. There are today an estimated 12 billion WiFi devices shipped around the world. By the end of 2016, shipments are expected to reach 15 billion units. Today, most of the devices that we use do not have an Ethernet connector anymore. This makes WiFi the only networking option we have to communicate, work, or stream audio and video on our local networks. American households have an average of four WiFi enabled devices in their homes. WiFi is the access technology of choice - not only used in homes, but in businesses and public spaces across the globe. Many believe that WiFi is a plug and play technology, but it s actually quite complex, and to get it to work optimally requires some understanding of the underlying technology. 2. IEEE Standards In the 1980s, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission), an American government agency, opened up several bands of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum for use without license. These garbage bands, at 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5 GHz, were taken from the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical band) and U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure band) to open up for communication purposes. This opened the way for communications equipment to use the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz frequency bands. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) started working on the specification documents. The initial 1997 IEEE standard specification used the unlicensed 2.4 GHz RF spectrum and allowed for up to two megabits per second of data transfer using frequency hopping. In 1999 the industry association, Wi-Fi Alliance, was founded. It coined the name Wi-Fi and trademarked it. The WiFi Alliance is responsible for interoperability testing and certification of WiFi products. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

4 a and b The IEEE ratified both the a and b standards in The a standard used the same data link layer protocol and frame format as the original standard, but added a physical layer of an OFDM-based air interface. OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a modulation method used to encode 52 data sub-carriers spread over 20 MHz bandwidth. This method operates a in the 5 GHz band with a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps. Due to the cost and complexity to implement, most of the first commercial deployments used the b standard instead. The b standard could only achieve a maximum data rate of 11 Mbps, but implemented a simpler modulation technique called HR/DSSS (High-Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum). HR/DSSS used a 22 MHz wide bandwidth, but remained backward compatible with DSSS, used by the original standard within the 2.4 GHz frequency band g and n The third generation, g, was published in It operated in the 2.4 GHz frequency band like the b, but could also achieve speeds up to 54 Mbps using the same OFDM technology as a. The g standard was backward compatible with b hardware, making the transition to this new technology easier for the consumer as they could keep some of their equipment while transitioning to newer standards. In 2009, the n amendment was released. The n standard made progress both in data speed (reaching up to 450 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band) and in reliability by using more antennas and multiple streams of data. Multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO (pronounced my-moh ), technology uses multipath propagation to send and receive multiple data signals simultaneously over the same frequency. Using multiple antennas to enhance communication between transmitter and receiver provides significant increases in data rate without the need for higher transmitter power. The n standard supports both the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands and is backward compatible with older a/b/g technologies b and Backward Compatibility Since the beginning, the various standards were designed for backwards compatibility, so that legacy equipment could operate in the same network as newer generation equipment. Network administrators could then slowly evolve their equipment without needing a complete overhaul at each new standard release. This contributed to the success of technology. However, b is the exception to the ease of backward compatibility b is the only standard not using OFDM modulation; therefore, equipment using the newer OFDM standard has to ensure that b equipment is aware that all traffic, including traffic it cannot decode, will be transmitted. This is done by using RTS/CTS messages as a protection mechanism. Each time a device gets ready to send traffic, it first sends a RTS (Request to Send) message that is further acknowledged by a CTS (Clear to Send) message. This means that for every data frame an additional two management frames have to be transmitted. This creates a large traffic overhead and inefficiency on the networks. Some network administrators choose to disable b rates (1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps) from the AP s to avoid this problem. To b or not to b? is a controversial subject b clients have become a rarity. Discontinuing support for b rates makes sense; however, this decision would restrict the WiFi cell s coverage area. Non b equipment could fall back to b rates when signal quality was low. Thus, turning off AP support for the 1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps rates would prevent marginal clients from connecting. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

5 ac Released in two waves in 2014 and 2015, the ac standard is even faster than previously released standards ac Wave 1 devices are capable of transmitting at 1.3 Gbps, while today s latest Wave 2 devices advertise an amazing 3.4 Gbps ac devices achieve almost 8 times the speed of n by leveraging beamforming technology to increase the number of MIMO streams and increasing the channel bandwidth through further optimized OFDM modulation (up to QAM 256) ac Wave 2 supports up to eight spatial streams and is able to operate on channels up to 160 MHz wide, providing bandwidth well beyond 1 Gigabit per second. It also introduces downlink multi-user, multiple input and multiple output (MU-MIMO) technology. MU-MIMO allows downstream transmission to multiple receivers simultaneously, up to four simultaneous client transmissions. Figure Standard Amendments GHz Frequency Band The b, g and n standards are designed to transmit data over the 2.4 GHz frequency band and use frequencies from 2.4 to 2.5 GHz. The 2.4 GHz frequency band, also called Industrial Scientific and Medical or ISM, has been released by the FCC for unlicensed use. This means many different types of equipment can use it without requiring a license. Besides WiFi, other devices use the 2.4 GHz band, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee enabled devices, cordless phones and even microwave ovens. The 2.4 GHz band is divided into 14 channels spaced 5 MHz apart, beginning with channel 1, centered on GHz. Since it is easier to remember channel numbers than center frequency, people use the channel number from 1 to 14 to describe which channel their device is using. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

6 Figure GHz Frequency Band Spread The technologies RF modulation techniques require a 22 MHz of channel width for b or 20 MHz channel width for a/g/n/ac to operate. Since the channels are spaced 5 MHz apart, there is significant overlap i.e. interference between adjacent channels. Because of this, it is recommended in the United States to setup Access Points on channels 1, 6, or 11 only, which are the only non-overlapping channels. Channels 12 and 13 are illegal to use in the USA. Channel 14 sits at GHz (12 MHz above channel 13) and is only legal for use in Japan. Figure GHz Frequency Band Allocation Channel Frequency (MHz) North America Japan Most of the World Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes In US, these are recommended to avoid interference Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 11b only No The n standard allows for the bonding of two 20 MHz channels together to achieve a higher data rate and create a 40 MHz channel. This ends up creating less non-overlapping channels and more possible interference with neighboring Access Points. Due to this reason, using n channel bonding is not recommended in the 2.4 GHz band. The allocation of the 2.4 GHz is regulated in each country by its own agency. In the United States, the allocation is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Channels 12 and 13, centered around and GHz respectively, is not allowed in the United States, but is allowed in most of the world. Channel 14, centered around GHz, is allowed in Japan only. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

7 8. 5 GHz Frequency Band Figure 4. 5 GHz Frequency Band Spread (U.S. and Canada) The Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) 5 GHz band is less crowded than the 2.4 GHz frequency band. It is used by the a, n and ac standards. The channels center frequencies range from GHz to GHz. The channels are 20 MHz wide and there is no overlap between adjacent channels, which means less possible interference from neighboring Access Points. Channel 36 is the first channel in the spectrum, ranging from to GHz, and centered at GHz. The 5 GHz band is further sub-divided into four ranges: UNII-1, UNII-2, UNII-2 extended and UNII-3 bands. Most WiFi devices support UNII-1 (channels 36 to 48) and UNII-3 (channels 149 to 165) only for indoor use. The FCC and other regulatory bodies allow the use of the UNII-2 and 2e bands for indoor and outdoor use, provided that your device s radio can support Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and Transmitter Power Control (TPC). DFS and TPC are designed to detect and adjust WiFi channels automatically if military or weather radar systems are present in order to avoid interfering with these systems. If the DFS channels are used, the 5 GHz band offers 25 non-overlapping 20 MHz channels. The n and ac standards make use of the 5 GHz band s many non-overlapping channels by bonding adjacent channels to transmit even more data. With 40 MHz channel width, the n and ac can roughly double their transmission speed, but at the cost of allowing only four non-overlapping 40 MHz channels (or 12 with DFS enabled). Using the ac standard and bonding two adjacent 40 MHz channels into a single 80 MHz channel, data speeds reach up to 1.3 Gbps, but at the cost of allowing only two non-overlapping channels (or six with DFS enabled). The ac Wave 2 standard defines 160 MHz channel width to achieve up to 3.4 Gbps rates, either by bonding contiguous channels (or discontiguous channels) together. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

8 9. Summary Once the IEEE formed and began releasing standards for WiFi implementation and usage, the world began to transform as markets opened and new technologies emerged. Each amendment to the standard specification has built upon the last and included major advances in both speed and output. Looking to the future, the IEEE is now working on the ax standard. This standard will build upon the ac standard by adding even higher speed. It is targeted to reach around 10 Gbps, although its official release is not planned until At this point, it may be difficult to imagine which application could reap the full benefit of such high-speed connections. However, history shows us that by the time standards are released, the need will already exist. VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

9 Notes About VeEX Located in the heart of Silicon Valley, VeEX develops innovative test and measurement solutions for nextgeneration communication equipment and networks. Founded in April 2006 by test and measurement industry veterans, VeEX products blend advanced technology and vast technical expertise with the discerning measurement needs of customers. VeEX products diligently address all stages of network deployment, maintenance, field service turn-up, and service verification features across DSL, Fiber Optics, CATV/DOCSIS, Mobile, Next-Generation Transport Network, Fibre Channel, Synchronous and Carrier Ethernet technologies. VeEX s multinational structure consists of several specialized business units operating in different parts of the world. VeEX has shipped more than 100,000 units since volume production began. The VeEX team brings simplicity to tomorrow s networks VeEX Inc. All rights reserved. D A /08 Wi-Fi Alliance and Wi-Fi are registered trademarks of Wi-Fi Alliance. The Verification Experts VeEX Inc Lakeview Court, Fremont, CA USA Tel: Fax:

EIE324 Communication & Telecommunication Lab. Date of the experiment Topics: Objectives : Introduction Equipment Operating Frequencies

EIE324 Communication & Telecommunication Lab. Date of the experiment Topics: Objectives : Introduction Equipment Operating Frequencies 1 EIE324 Communication & Telecommunication Lab. Date of the experiment Topics: WiFi survey 2/61 Chanin wongngamkam Objectives : To study the methods of wireless services measurement To establish the guidelines

More information

Wireless LAN Applications LAN Extension Cross building interconnection Nomadic access Ad hoc networks Single Cell Wireless LAN

Wireless LAN Applications LAN Extension Cross building interconnection Nomadic access Ad hoc networks Single Cell Wireless LAN Wireless LANs Mobility Flexibility Hard to wire areas Reduced cost of wireless systems Improved performance of wireless systems Wireless LAN Applications LAN Extension Cross building interconnection Nomadic

More information

802.11n. Suebpong Nitichai

802.11n. Suebpong Nitichai 802.11n Suebpong Nitichai Email: sniticha@cisco.com 1 Agenda 802.11n Technology Fundamentals 802.11n Access Points Design and Deployment Planning and Design for 802.11n in Unified Environment Key Steps

More information

Keysight Technologies Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE Standards. Application Note

Keysight Technologies Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE Standards. Application Note Keysight Technologies Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE 802.11 Standards Application Note Table of Contents The Evolution of IEEE 802.11...04 Frequency Channels and Frame Structures... 05 Frame structure:

More information

Wi-Fi. Wireless Fidelity. Spread Spectrum CSMA. Ad-hoc Networks. Engr. Mian Shahzad Iqbal Lecturer Department of Telecommunication Engineering

Wi-Fi. Wireless Fidelity. Spread Spectrum CSMA. Ad-hoc Networks. Engr. Mian Shahzad Iqbal Lecturer Department of Telecommunication Engineering Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity Spread Spectrum CSMA Ad-hoc Networks Engr. Mian Shahzad Iqbal Lecturer Department of Telecommunication Engineering Outline for Today We learned how to setup a WiFi network. This

More information

Outline / Wireless Networks and Applications Lecture 14: Wireless LANs * IEEE Family. Some IEEE Standards.

Outline / Wireless Networks and Applications Lecture 14: Wireless LANs * IEEE Family. Some IEEE Standards. Page 1 Outline 18-452/18-750 Wireless Networks and Applications Lecture 14: Wireless LANs 802.11* Peter Steenkiste Spring Semester 2017 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/wirelesss17/ Brief history 802 protocol

More information

IEEE ax / OFDMA

IEEE ax / OFDMA #WLPC 2018 PRAGUE CZECH REPUBLIC IEEE 802.11ax / OFDMA WFA CERTIFIED Wi-Fi 6 PERRY CORRELL DIR. PRODUCT MANAGEMENT 1 2018 Aerohive Networks. All Rights Reserved. IEEE 802.11ax Timeline IEEE 802.11ax Passed

More information

CSCD 433/533 Wireless Networks

CSCD 433/533 Wireless Networks CSCD 433/533 Wireless Networks Lecture 8 Physical Layer, and 802.11 b,g,a,n Differences Winter 2017 1 Topics Spread Spectrum in General Differences between 802.11 b,g,a and n Frequency ranges Speed DSSS

More information

ZEBRA AP 7522E ac ACCESS POINT

ZEBRA AP 7522E ac ACCESS POINT SPECIFICATION SHEET ZEBRA AP 7522E 802.11ac ACCESS POINT ZEBRA AP 7522E 802.11ac ACCESS POINT TH AFFORDABLE 5 GENERATION WIFI FOR ANY ENVIRONMENT 802.11AC WIFI SPEED AND THROUGHPUT ALL AT A LOW COST. Introducing

More information

Jeffrey M. Gilbert, Ph.D. Manager of Advanced Technology Atheros Communications

Jeffrey M. Gilbert, Ph.D. Manager of Advanced Technology Atheros Communications 802.11a Wireless Networks: Principles and Performance Jeffrey M. Gilbert, Ph.D. Manager of Advanced Technology Atheros Communications May 8, 2002 IEEE Santa Clara Valley Comm Soc Atheros Communications,

More information

802.11ax Design Challenges. Mani Krishnan Venkatachari

802.11ax Design Challenges. Mani Krishnan Venkatachari 802.11ax Design Challenges Mani Krishnan Venkatachari Wi-Fi: An integral part of the wireless landscape At the center of connected home Opening new frontiers for wireless connectivity Wireless Display

More information

COMPILED BY : - GAUTAM SINGH STUDY MATERIAL TELCOM What is Wi-Fi?

COMPILED BY : - GAUTAM SINGH STUDY MATERIAL TELCOM What is Wi-Fi? What is Wi-Fi? WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity. WiFiIt is based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards and is primarily a local area networking (LAN) technology designed to provide in-building broadband

More information

In this unit we will see how WiFi networks work

In this unit we will see how WiFi networks work In this unit we will see how WiFi networks work Wifi is a commercial term that is now used as a synonymous for wireless connectivity. A Wifi link connects a user to a wireless local area network using

More information

A White Paper from Laird Technologies

A White Paper from Laird Technologies Originally Published: November 2011 Updated: October 2012 A White Paper from Laird Technologies Bluetooth and Wi-Fi transmit in different ways using differing protocols. When Wi-Fi operates in the 2.4

More information

VoWLAN Design Recommendations

VoWLAN Design Recommendations 9 CHAPTER This chapter provides additional design considerations when deploying voice over WLAN (VoWLAN) solutions. WLAN configuration specifics may vary depending on the VoWLAN devices being used and

More information

HOW DO MIMO RADIOS WORK? Adaptability of Modern and LTE Technology. By Fanny Mlinarsky 1/12/2014

HOW DO MIMO RADIOS WORK? Adaptability of Modern and LTE Technology. By Fanny Mlinarsky 1/12/2014 By Fanny Mlinarsky 1/12/2014 Rev. A 1/2014 Wireless technology has come a long way since mobile phones first emerged in the 1970s. Early radios were all analog. Modern radios include digital signal processing

More information

Lecture 4 October 10, Wireless Access. Graduate course in Communications Engineering. University of Rome La Sapienza. Rome, Italy

Lecture 4 October 10, Wireless Access. Graduate course in Communications Engineering. University of Rome La Sapienza. Rome, Italy Lecture 4 October 10, 2018 Wireless Access Graduate course in Communications Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2018-2019 Inter-system Interference Outline Inter-system interference

More information

802.11ax introduction and measurement solution

802.11ax introduction and measurement solution 802.11ax introduction and measurement solution Agenda IEEE 802.11ax 802.11ax overview & market 802.11ax technique / specification 802.11ax test items Keysight Product / Solution Demo M9421A VXT for 802.11ax

More information

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Current Trend

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Current Trend Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media Current Trend WLAN explosion (also called WiFi) took most by surprise cellular telephony: 3G/4G cellular providers/telcos/data in the same mix self-organization

More information

Planning Your Wireless Transportation Infrastructure. Presented By: Jeremy Hiebert

Planning Your Wireless Transportation Infrastructure. Presented By: Jeremy Hiebert Planning Your Wireless Transportation Infrastructure Presented By: Jeremy Hiebert Agenda Agenda o Basic RF Theory o Wireless Technology Options o Antennas 101 o Designing a Wireless Network o Questions

More information

Wi-Fi For Beginners Module 4

Wi-Fi For Beginners Module 4 Wi-Fi For Beginners Module 4 More RF (Slide deck v4) 1 Introduction Hello, my name s Nigel Bowden. Welcome to module 4 of the Wi-Fi for beginners podcast. This is a series of podcasts discussing the fundamentals

More information

Wireless Intro : Computer Networking. Wireless Challenges. Overview

Wireless Intro : Computer Networking. Wireless Challenges. Overview Wireless Intro 15-744: Computer Networking L-17 Wireless Overview TCP on wireless links Wireless MAC Assigned reading [BM09] In Defense of Wireless Carrier Sense [BAB+05] Roofnet (2 sections) Optional

More information

The Rejuvenation of 2.4 GH

The Rejuvenation of 2.4 GH The Rejuvenation of 2.4 GH Impact of IoT and 802.11ax Mathew Edwards, Aerohive Networks Perry Correll, Dir Product management Aerohive Networks 2017 Aerohive Networks Confidential Wi-Fi Technology Evolution

More information

Introduction to Wireless. Presented by: Lasantha Perera, CCIE Wireless #56374

Introduction to Wireless. Presented by: Lasantha Perera, CCIE Wireless #56374 Introduction to Wireless Presented by: Lasantha Perera, CCIE Wireless #56374 Introduction Hi my name is Lasantha Perera 5+ Years at LA Networks Network Engineer Former companies I ve worked for: Mercedes

More information

UGWDR82NUH50 Datasheet

UGWDR82NUH50 Datasheet A -UN1 802.11b/g/n WiFi USB Radio Dongle Issue Date: 16-OCT-2009 Revision: 1.0 Re-Tek - 1657-1 - 45388 Warm Springs Blvd. Fremont, CA 94539 REVISION HISTORY Rev. No. History Issue Date Remarks 0.1 Draft

More information

Atomic Clock Relative Phase Monitoring How to Confirm Proper Phase Alignment & Stability in the Field

Atomic Clock Relative Phase Monitoring How to Confirm Proper Phase Alignment & Stability in the Field SYNCHRONIZATION Atomic Clock Relative Phase Monitoring How to Confirm Proper Phase Alignment & Stability in the Field By Ildefonso M. Polo June 2015 2015 VeEX Inc. - All rights reserved. VeEX Inc. 2827

More information

802.11ac Gigabit Wi-Fi Chapter 2: RF Management Techniques

802.11ac Gigabit Wi-Fi Chapter 2: RF Management Techniques 802.11ac Gigabit Wi-Fi Chapter 2: RF Management Techniques Table of Contents 802.11ac technology deep dive 3 PHY enhancements, beamforming and more 3 Summary of PHY enhancements 3 Channel width 3 Review

More information

Fine-grained Channel Access in Wireless LAN. Cristian Petrescu Arvind Jadoo UCL Computer Science 20 th March 2012

Fine-grained Channel Access in Wireless LAN. Cristian Petrescu Arvind Jadoo UCL Computer Science 20 th March 2012 Fine-grained Channel Access in Wireless LAN Cristian Petrescu Arvind Jadoo UCL Computer Science 20 th March 2012 Physical-layer data rate PHY layer data rate in WLANs is increasing rapidly Wider channel

More information

Overcoming Interference is Critical to Success in a Wireless IoT World

Overcoming Interference is Critical to Success in a Wireless IoT World Overcoming Interference is Critical to Success in a Wireless IoT World Ensuring reliable wireless network performance in the presence of many smart devices, and on potentially overcrowded radio bands requires

More information

CSNT 180 Wireless Networking. Chapter 4 Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology

CSNT 180 Wireless Networking. Chapter 4 Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology CSNT 180 Wireless Networking Chapter 4 Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology Norman McEntire norman.mcentire@servin.com Founder, Servin Corporation, http://servin.com Technology

More information

MIMO in 4G Wireless. Presenter: Iqbal Singh Josan, P.E., PMP Director & Consulting Engineer USPurtek LLC

MIMO in 4G Wireless. Presenter: Iqbal Singh Josan, P.E., PMP Director & Consulting Engineer USPurtek LLC MIMO in 4G Wireless Presenter: Iqbal Singh Josan, P.E., PMP Director & Consulting Engineer USPurtek LLC About the presenter: Iqbal is the founder of training and consulting firm USPurtek LLC, which specializes

More information

Smart Antenna Techniques and Their Application to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. Plenary Talk at: Jack H. Winters. September 13, 2005

Smart Antenna Techniques and Their Application to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. Plenary Talk at: Jack H. Winters. September 13, 2005 Smart Antenna Techniques and Their Application to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Plenary Talk at: Jack H. Winters September 13, 2005 jwinters@motia.com 12/05/03 Slide 1 1 Outline Service Limitations Smart Antennas

More information

Table of Contents. Primer. Physical Layer Modulation Formats Introduction...3. IEEE Standard and Formats...4

Table of Contents. Primer. Physical Layer Modulation Formats Introduction...3. IEEE Standard and Formats...4 Primer Table of Contents Introduction...3 IEEE 802.11 Standard and Formats...4 IEEE 802.11-1997 or Legacy Mode...4 IEEE 802.11b...4 IEEE 802.11a...5 IEEE 802.11g...6 IEEE 802.11n...6 IEEE 802.11ac...7

More information

Mobile Communication Systems. Part 7- Multiplexing

Mobile Communication Systems. Part 7- Multiplexing Mobile Communication Systems Part 7- Multiplexing Professor Z Ghassemlooy Faculty of Engineering and Environment University of Northumbria U.K. http://soe.ac.uk/ocr Contents Multiple Access Multiplexing

More information

ESP8266 Wi-Fi Channel Selection Guidelines

ESP8266 Wi-Fi Channel Selection Guidelines ESP8266 Wi-Fi Channel Selection Guidelines Version 1.0 Copyright 2017 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 1 2. Channel Selection Considerations... 2 2.1. Interference Concerns... 2 2.2. Legal Considerations...

More information

Page 1. Outline : Wireless Networks Lecture 6: Final Physical Layer. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Spread Spectrum

Page 1. Outline : Wireless Networks Lecture 6: Final Physical Layer. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Spread Spectrum Outline 18-759 : Wireless Networks Lecture 6: Final Physical Layer Peter Steenkiste Dina Papagiannaki Spring Semester 2009 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/wireless09/ Peter A. Steenkiste 1 RF introduction Modulation

More information

So many wireless technologies Which is the right one for my application?

So many wireless technologies Which is the right one for my application? So many wireless technologies Which is the right one for my application? Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits Don Dickinson 2013 ISA Water / Wastewater and Automatic

More information

5G deployment below 6 GHz

5G deployment below 6 GHz 5G deployment below 6 GHz Ubiquitous coverage for critical communication and massive IoT White Paper There has been much attention on the ability of new 5G radio to make use of high frequency spectrum,

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GAP-FREE SECURITY. MeshConnex on both data radios ELIMINATE RADAR INTERFERENCE WITH SCAN AHEAD RADIO

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GAP-FREE SECURITY. MeshConnex on both data radios ELIMINATE RADAR INTERFERENCE WITH SCAN AHEAD RADIO WLAN. GAP-FREE SECURITY The AP 8163 secures all your wireless transmissions, ensuring compliance with government and industry regulations, such as PCI in retail and HIPAA in healthcare. Your network is

More information

ETSI Standards and the Measurement of RF Conducted Output Power of Wi-Fi ac Signals

ETSI Standards and the Measurement of RF Conducted Output Power of Wi-Fi ac Signals ETSI Standards and the Measurement of RF Conducted Output Power of Wi-Fi 802.11ac Signals Introduction The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) have recently introduced a revised set

More information

AEROHIVE NETWORKS ax DAVID SIMON, SENIOR SYSTEMS ENGINEER Aerohive Networks. All Rights Reserved.

AEROHIVE NETWORKS ax DAVID SIMON, SENIOR SYSTEMS ENGINEER Aerohive Networks. All Rights Reserved. AEROHIVE NETWORKS 802.11ax DAVID SIMON, SENIOR SYSTEMS ENGINEER 1 2018 Aerohive Networks. All Rights Reserved. 2 2018 Aerohive Networks. All Rights Reserved. 8802.11ax 802.11n and 802.11ac 802.11n and

More information

FULL PERFORMANCE USING STANDARD POE The AP 6532 is designed to provide full n performance using standard and lower cost POE (af).

FULL PERFORMANCE USING STANDARD POE The AP 6532 is designed to provide full n performance using standard and lower cost POE (af). HIGH PERFORMANCE DUAL RADIO 802.11N ACCESS POINT The is a performance-focused 802.11n access point that offers higher throughput along with WiNG 5 s direct forwarding, security, QoS services and site survivability.

More information

Digi-Wave Technology Williams Sound Digi-Wave White Paper

Digi-Wave Technology Williams Sound Digi-Wave White Paper Digi-Wave Technology Williams Sound Digi-Wave White Paper TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Operating Frequency: The Digi-Wave System operates on the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) Band, which is

More information

Doodle Labs Prism-WiFi Transceiver NM-4965 High Performance COFDM/MIMO Broadband Transceiver with minipcie

Doodle Labs Prism-WiFi Transceiver NM-4965 High Performance COFDM/MIMO Broadband Transceiver with minipcie Doodle Labs Prism-WiFi Transceiver NM-4965 High Performance COFDM/MIMO Broadband Transceiver with minipcie Prism-WiFi Transceiver Overview Doodle Labs Prism-WiFi are frequency shifted long range Industrial

More information

ECS 455 Chapter 1 Introduction

ECS 455 Chapter 1 Introduction ECS 455 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.3 Spectrum Allocation 1 Dr.Prapun prapun.com/ecs455 Office Hours: BKD, 6th floor of Sirindhralai building Tuesday 14:20-15:20 Wednesday 14:20-15:20 Friday 9:15-10:15 Electromagnetic

More information

OFDMA and MIMO Notes

OFDMA and MIMO Notes OFDMA and MIMO Notes EE 442 Spring Semester Lecture 14 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a digital multi-carrier modulation technique extending the concept of single subcarrier modulation

More information

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Motivation

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Motivation Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media Motivation WLAN explosion cellular telephony: 3G/4G cellular providers/telcos in the mix self-organization by citizens for local access large-scale hot spots:

More information

Lecture 4 October 16, Wireless Access. Graduate course in Communications Engineering. University of Rome La Sapienza. Rome, Italy

Lecture 4 October 16, Wireless Access. Graduate course in Communications Engineering. University of Rome La Sapienza. Rome, Italy Lecture 4 October 16, 2017 Wireless Access Graduate course in Communications Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2017-2018 Inter-system Interference Outline Inter-system interference

More information

CSC344 Wireless and Mobile Computing. Department of Computer Science COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

CSC344 Wireless and Mobile Computing. Department of Computer Science COMSATS Institute of Information Technology CSC344 Wireless and Mobile Computing Department of Computer Science COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Wireless Physical Layer Concepts Part III Noise Error Detection and Correction Hamming Code

More information

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Current Trend

Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media. Current Trend Direct Link Communication II: Wireless Media Current Trend WLAN explosion (also called WiFi) took most by surprise cellular telephony: 3G/4G cellular providers/telcos/data in the same mix self-organization

More information

All Beamforming Solutions Are Not Equal

All Beamforming Solutions Are Not Equal White Paper All Beamforming Solutions Are Not Equal Executive Summary This white paper compares and contrasts the two major implementations of beamforming found in the market today: Switched array beamforming

More information

Home & Building Automation. parte 2

Home & Building Automation. parte 2 Home & Building Automation parte 2 Corso di reti per l automazione industriale Prof. Orazio Mirabella Technologies for Home automation Main distribution 230V TP (Twisted Pair) Socket Lighting Sun blinds

More information

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 3: Antennas, Propagation, and Spread Spectrum September 30, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Antennas and

More information

WiMAX/ Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/ W.wan.6. IEEE 802 suite. IEEE802 suite. IEEE 802 suite WiMAX/802.16

WiMAX/ Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/ W.wan.6. IEEE 802 suite. IEEE802 suite. IEEE 802 suite WiMAX/802.16 W.wan.6-2 Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/802.16 W.wan.6 WiMAX/802.16 IEEE 802 suite WiMAX/802.16 PHY Dr.M.Y.Wu@CSE Shanghai Jiaotong University Shanghai, China Dr.W.Shu@ECE University of New Mexico Albuquerque,

More information

Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/ W.wan.6

Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/ W.wan.6 Wireless WAN Case Study: WiMAX/802.16 W.wan.6 Dr.M.Y.Wu@CSE Shanghai Jiaotong University Shanghai, China Dr.W.Shu@ECE University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM, USA W.wan.6-2 WiMAX/802.16 IEEE 802 suite

More information

Aruba Instant ARUBA INSTANT DATA SHEET

Aruba Instant ARUBA INSTANT DATA SHEET DATA SHEET Aruba Instant ARUBA INSTANT Aruba Instant virtualizes Aruba Mobility Controller capabilities on 802.11n access points (AP), creating a feature-rich enterprisegrade wireless LAN (WLAN) that delivers

More information

DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) Introduction and Test Solution

DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) Introduction and Test Solution DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) Introduction Sept. 2015 Present by Brian Chi Brian-tn_chi@keysight.com Keysight Technologies Agenda Introduction to DFS DFS Radar Profiles Definition DFS test procedure

More information

Comparative Use of Unlicensed Spectrum. Training materials for wireless trainers

Comparative Use of Unlicensed Spectrum. Training materials for wireless trainers Comparative Use of Unlicensed Spectrum Training materials for wireless trainers Goals to see the issues related with the use of a shared medium, like the unlicensed radio spectrum (specifically the 2.4

More information

Testing Transmitted Signals for Compliance with IEEE a WLAN Standards

Testing Transmitted Signals for Compliance with IEEE a WLAN Standards Testing Transmitted Signals for Compliance with IEEE 802.11a WLAN Standards A Test Scenario for the Emerging WLAN Standard Among the new and emerging wireless Local Area Networking (WLAN) standards, IEEE

More information

Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 5th Generation Mobile Networks (5G) CS-539 Mobile Networks and Computing

Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 5th Generation Mobile Networks (5G) CS-539 Mobile Networks and Computing Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 5th Generation Mobile Networks (5G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) What is LTE? LTE is the next generation of Mobile broadband technology Data Rates up to 100Mbps Next level of

More information

Guide to Wireless Communications, Third Edition Cengage Learning Objectives

Guide to Wireless Communications, Third Edition Cengage Learning Objectives Guide to Wireless Communications, Third Edition Chapter 9 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks Objectives Explain why wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs) are needed Describe the components and modes

More information

ARUBA AS-100 WIRELESS SENSOR

ARUBA AS-100 WIRELESS SENSOR Multivendor, Remote Management for Aruba Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons Aruba Mobile Engagement enables venues to engage with visitors mobile devices using Aruba Beacons powered by Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

More information

Beamforming for 4.9G/5G Networks

Beamforming for 4.9G/5G Networks Beamforming for 4.9G/5G Networks Exploiting Massive MIMO and Active Antenna Technologies White Paper Contents 1. Executive summary 3 2. Introduction 3 3. Beamforming benefits below 6 GHz 5 4. Field performance

More information

Automatic power/channel management in Wi-Fi networks

Automatic power/channel management in Wi-Fi networks Automatic power/channel management in Wi-Fi networks Jan Kruys Februari, 2016 This paper was sponsored by Lumiad BV Executive Summary The holy grail of Wi-Fi network management is to assure maximum performance

More information

Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering and Technology Laboratory Division

Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering and Technology Laboratory Division Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering and Technology Laboratory Division Guidance for IEEE 802.11ac and Pre-ac Device Emissions Testing This document provides guidance for emissions testing

More information

Addressing Future Wireless Demand

Addressing Future Wireless Demand Addressing Future Wireless Demand Dave Wolter Assistant Vice President Radio Technology and Strategy 1 Building Blocks of Capacity Core Network & Transport # Sectors/Sites Efficiency Spectrum 2 How Do

More information

Going Beyond RF Coverage: Designing for Capacity

Going Beyond RF Coverage: Designing for Capacity Going Beyond RF Coverage: Designing for Capacity Andrew von Nagy 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 1997 1999 2003 2009 2011 2013 Revolution Wi-Fi Have you experienced this? + Hint: It s NOT an RF coverage issue How Many AP

More information

ARUBA RAP-100 SERIES REMOTE ACCESS POINTS

ARUBA RAP-100 SERIES REMOTE ACCESS POINTS ARUBA RAP-100 SERIES REMOTE ACCESS POINTS High-performance wireless and wired networking for SMBs, branch offices and teleworkers The multifunctional Aruba RAP-100 series delivers secure 802.11n wireless

More information

Building a robust Wi-Fi Network

Building a robust Wi-Fi Network Building a robust Wi-Fi Network W E B I N A R 2 Topics Covered 1 Company Details About Us Global Presence Clients 2 RF: The Invisible beast CTO Talk WiFi Evolution Frequency Interference MIMO Speed vs

More information

ARUBA 90 SERIES ACCESS POINTS

ARUBA 90 SERIES ACCESS POINTS Aruba 9 Series Access Points ARUBA 9 SERIES ACCESS POINTS For low-density Wi-Fi client environments For large installations across multiple sites, the Aruba Activate service significantly reduces deployment

More information

Simple Algorithm in (older) Selection Diversity. Receiver Diversity Can we Do Better? Receiver Diversity Optimization.

Simple Algorithm in (older) Selection Diversity. Receiver Diversity Can we Do Better? Receiver Diversity Optimization. 18-452/18-750 Wireless Networks and Applications Lecture 6: Physical Layer Diversity and Coding Peter Steenkiste Carnegie Mellon University Spring Semester 2017 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/wirelesss17/

More information

Overview of IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Standards. Timo Smura Contents. Network topologies, frequency bands

Overview of IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Standards. Timo Smura Contents. Network topologies, frequency bands Overview of IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Standards Timo Smura 24.02.2004 Contents Fixed Wireless Access networks Network topologies, frequency bands IEEE 802.16 standards Air interface: MAC +

More information

IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Working Group < Working Group Review of Working Document IEEE 802.

IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Working Group <  Working Group Review of Working Document IEEE 802. Project Title Date Submitted IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group Specification of operational environments for non-exclusively assigned and licensed bands 2006-09-25

More information

Family. Enterprise-grade 2x2, 2-stream, n/ac access points for medium-density environments, as well as IoT and location-based services

Family. Enterprise-grade 2x2, 2-stream, n/ac access points for medium-density environments, as well as IoT and location-based services Family Enterprise-grade 2x2, 2-stream, 82.11n/ac access points for medium-density environments, as well as IoT and location-based services DATASHEET Aerohive AP122 Family Family AP122 and AP122X provide

More information

Wireless Networked Systems

Wireless Networked Systems Wireless Networked Systems CS 795/895 - Spring 2013 Lec #4: Medium Access Control Power/CarrierSense Control, Multi-Channel, Directional Antenna Tamer Nadeem Dept. of Computer Science Power & Carrier Sense

More information

Mark Niehus, RCDD DAS Simplified

Mark Niehus, RCDD DAS Simplified Mark Niehus, RCDD DAS Simplified Agenda- next 50 minutes Quick snapshot of wireless in enterprise space- and where we are going Technologies explored: -WIFI Bluetooth -ZigBee NFC -NFC licensed spectrum

More information

Unlicensed 5GHz WiFi Spectrum in the UK

Unlicensed 5GHz WiFi Spectrum in the UK White Paper Unlicensed 5GHz WiFi Spectrum in the UK 1 Forward I decided to put this brief white-paper together as I found it quite tricky to find definitive information about how the 5GHz band is used

More information

DSA Submission to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Consultation on Public Wi-Fi

DSA Submission to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Consultation on Public Wi-Fi Dynamic Spectrum Alliance Limited 21 St Thomas Street 3855 SW 153 rd Drive Bristol BS1 6JS Beaverton, OR 97003 United Kingdom United States http://www.dynamicspectrumalliance.org DSA Submission to the

More information

Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing

Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing Department of Computer Science Institute for System Architecture, Chair for Computer Networks Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing Prof. Dr. Alexander Schill http://www.rn.inf.tu-dresden.de Structure

More information

Major Leaps in Evolution of IEEE WLAN Technologies

Major Leaps in Evolution of IEEE WLAN Technologies Major Leaps in Evolution of IEEE 802.11 WLAN Technologies Thomas A. KNEIDEL Rohde & Schwarz Product Management Mobile Radio Tester WLAN Mayor Player in Wireless Communications Wearables Smart Homes Smart

More information

RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks

RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks What is Wi-Fi? Wi-Fi networks use radio technologies based on IEEE 802.11 standards to provide secure, reliable, fast wireless connectivity, typically

More information

Multiple Access Techniques

Multiple Access Techniques Multiple Access Techniques EE 442 Spring Semester Lecture 13 Multiple Access is the use of multiplexing techniques to provide communication service to multiple users over a single channel. It allows for

More information

G.T. Hill.

G.T. Hill. Making Wi-Fi Suck Less with Dynamic Beamforming G.T. Hill Director, Technical Marketing www.ruckuswireless.com What We ll Cover 802.11n overview and primer Beamforming basics Implementation Lot of Questions

More information

COPYRIGHT 2008 MESHDYNAMICS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. DISCLOSURES PROTECTED BY MULTIPLE PATENTS

COPYRIGHT 2008 MESHDYNAMICS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. DISCLOSURES PROTECTED BY MULTIPLE PATENTS THE MESHDYNAMICS MD4000 IS THE IDEAL MESH NODE FOR VIDEO AND SURVEILLANCE APPLICATIONS. ITS COMPACT SIZE ALONG WITH SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY AND EASE OF USE MAKE FOR A SWIFT INSTALLATION AND EFFORTLESS OPERATION.

More information

ULiège over WLAN. Chief Information Security Officer Network infrastructure team leader 13/12/2017

ULiège over WLAN.  Chief Information Security Officer Network infrastructure team leader 13/12/2017 + ULiège over WLAN 13/12/2017 www.segi.be Chief Information Security Officer Network infrastructure team leader Simon.Francois@uliege.be +.: Agenda :. n IT Dept. and network overview n Radio Frequency

More information

2.4GHz & 900MHz UNLICENSED SPECTRUM COMPARISON A WHITE PAPER BY INGENU

2.4GHz & 900MHz UNLICENSED SPECTRUM COMPARISON A WHITE PAPER BY INGENU 2.4GHz & 900MHz UNLICENSED SPECTRUM COMPARISON A WHITE PAPER BY INGENU 2.4 GHZ AND 900 MHZ UNLICENSED SPECTRUM COMPARISON Wireless connectivity providers have to make many choices when designing their

More information

M A R C H 2 6, Sheri DeTomasi 5G New Radio Solutions Lead Keysight Technologies. 5G New Radio Challenges and Redefining Test

M A R C H 2 6, Sheri DeTomasi 5G New Radio Solutions Lead Keysight Technologies. 5G New Radio Challenges and Redefining Test M A R C H 2 6, 2 0 1 8 Sheri DeTomasi 5G New Radio Solutions Lead Keysight Technologies 1 5G Market Trends 5G New Radio Specification and Implications New Measurement Challenges and Redefining Test Summary

More information

Lecture LTE (4G) -Technologies used in 4G and 5G. Spread Spectrum Communications

Lecture LTE (4G) -Technologies used in 4G and 5G. Spread Spectrum Communications COMM 907: Spread Spectrum Communications Lecture 10 - LTE (4G) -Technologies used in 4G and 5G The Need for LTE Long Term Evolution (LTE) With the growth of mobile data and mobile users, it becomes essential

More information

ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS Wireless Communication Systems Winter Lecture 2: Overview of Modern Wireless Communication Systems

ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS Wireless Communication Systems Winter Lecture 2: Overview of Modern Wireless Communication Systems ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS 513 - Wireless Communication Systems Winter 2004 Lecture 2: Overview of Modern Wireless Communication Systems Last lecture we looked at an introduction to the course. History FCC and

More information

MSIT 413: Wireless Technologies Week 10

MSIT 413: Wireless Technologies Week 10 MSIT 413: Wireless Technologies Week 10 Michael L. Honig Department of EECS Northwestern University November 2017 1 Technologies on the Horizon Heterogeneous networks Massive MIMO Millimeter wave Spectrum

More information

By Ryan Winfield Woodings and Mark Gerrior, Cypress Semiconductor

By Ryan Winfield Woodings and Mark Gerrior, Cypress Semiconductor Avoiding Interference in the 2.4-GHz ISM Band Designers can create frequency-agile 2.4 GHz designs using procedures provided by standards bodies or by building their own protocol. By Ryan Winfield Woodings

More information

Florida Public Service Commission Staff Workshop on Smart Meters

Florida Public Service Commission Staff Workshop on Smart Meters Florida Public Service Commission Staff Workshop on Smart Meters d Don Control Reeves, SVP Overview Smart Grid Services & Operations 9/20/2012 0 Silver Spring Networks Celebrating a decade of success Company

More information

1 Introduction. 1.1 Wireless Communication Systems Digital Broadcasting Systems

1 Introduction. 1.1 Wireless Communication Systems Digital Broadcasting Systems 1 Introduction All wireless communication standards, existing and under development, adopt or consider adopting orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) as the modulation technique. It is clear

More information

Wireless Communications

Wireless Communications 2. Physical Layer DIN/CTC/UEM 2018 Periodic Signal Periodic signal: repeats itself in time, that is g(t) = g(t + T ) in which T (given in seconds [s]) is the period of the signal g(t) The number of cycles

More information