Application Note AN-1083

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1 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 Feaures of he Low-Side Family IPS10xx By Fabio Necco, Inernaional Recifier Table of Conens Page Inroducion...1 Diagnosis...1 Inpu Curren vs. Temperaure...1 Selecion of he Resisor Rdiag...1 Proecions...2 Over-emperaure Proecion...2 Thermal Runaway Prevenion...2 OT Proecion Response Time...2 Over-curren Proecion...2 Operaion a V IN > 5.5V...3 Operaion a V IN < 4.5V...3 Acive Clamp...3 Swiching Performances...4 Maximum Frequency...5 Inpu Volage Maximum Rise Time...5 Maximum Inducive/Capaciive Load...5 Maximum Baery Volage...6 Loss of Ground...6 Thermal Impedance Curve...6 Summary...6 The new IPS10XX family of proeced power MOSFETs consiss of hree erminal low side devices based upon he laes IR proprieary verical echnology P3 (Power Produc Plaform). IR proeced MOSFETs are verical power MOSFETs inegraed wih proecion circuiry. The new IPS10XX family feaures logic level inpus, over-emperaure shu down proecion, over-curren shu down proecion, acive clamp and diagnosis hrough he inpu pin. The new families are monolihic for RDSON as low as 13mΩ, which allows faser response ime for he over emperaure proecion and more accurae over curren shu down. Compared o he previous low side family, he IPS10XX offers beer proecion, inegraed wih a more efficien power MOSFET and a diagnosic feaure wihou he need of addiional erminals. This applicaion noe explains he feaures included in he low side IPS family IPS10XX and provides suggesions on how o use hese devices in he auomoive environmen. AN-1083 cover

2 APPLICATION NOTE Inernaional Recifier 233 Kansas Sree, El Segundo, CA USA AN-1083 Feaures of he low-side family IPS10XX By Fabio Necco Inernaional Recifier Table of Conens Inroducion Diagnosis Inpu curren vs. emperaure Selecion of he resisor Rdiag Proecions Over-emperaure proecion Thermal run-away prevenion OT proecion response ime Over-curren proecion Operaion a V IN > 5.5V Operaion a V IN < 4.5 Acive clamp Swiching performances Maximum frequency Inpu volage maximum rise ime Maximum inducive load Maximum capaciive load Maximum baery volage Loss of GND Thermal impedance

3 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 Feaures of he low-side family IPS10XX By Fabio Necco, Inernaional Recifier For addiional daa, please visi Inernaional Recifier websie a: Inroducion The new IPS10XX family of proeced power MOSFETs consiss of hree erminal low side devices based upon he laes IR proprieary verical echnology P 3 (Power Produc Plaform). IR proeced MOSFETs are verical power MOSFETs inegraed wih proecion circuiry. The new IPS10XX family feaures logic level inpus, overemperaure shu down proecion, over-curren shu down proecion, acive clamp and diagnosis hrough he inpu pin. The new families are monolihic for R DSON as low as 13mΩ, which allows faser response ime for he over emperaure proecion and more accurae over curren shu down. Compared o he previous low side family, he IPS10XX offers beer proecion, inegraed wih a more efficien power MOSFET and a diagnosic feaure wihou he need of addiional erminals. This applicaion noe explains he feaures included in he low side IPS family IPS10XX and provides suggesions on how o use hese devices in he auomoive environmen. Diagnosis Diagnosic feaures are used o communicae he condiion of he IPS o he microconroller. The IPS proecs iself agains differen faul condiions. Faul condiions can be eiher over curren or over emperaure. Once he faul condiion is deeced by he IPS, he diagnosic informaion is made available hrough he inpu pin. The low side family can deec differen kind of fauls bu only provide wo sauses: faul or normal condiion. Faul condiions can be over curren, over emperaure or open load. No disincion on he kind of faul is made. The diagnosic is implemened hrough he inpu curren. When he inpu is urned ON (o V IN = 5V) he curren a he inpu erminal (In) will change depending on he condiion of he IPS. The curren in case of a faul condiion is abou 8 imes higher han ha in normal condiions. A resisor in series wih he inpu allows curren variaions o be ranslaed o volage variaions. A ypical connecion of he IPS is shown in figure 1. Diagnosic volage can be deeced a he inpu pin, afer he inpu resisor (R DIAG ). Ou µ A/D In GND RDIAG In VDIAG Curren pah in case of GND loss Conrol 15K 150K 2K Load D S Baery Figure 1. Diagnosic volage reading on LS Typical diagnosic volages for a 1.2KΩ R DIAG resisor are shown in able 1. Condiion I_in Vdiag Rdiag Normal 32uA 4.96V 1.2KΩ Faul 230uA 4.72V Table 1. Low side diagnosis levels Inpu curren vs. emperaure The value of he inpu curren changes wih he juncion emperaure. Curves similar o he one showed in Figure 2 are provided in he device daashee. Iin (µa) T ( C) Figure 2 Inpu curren variaion wih emperaure I on I lach Selecion of he resisor Rdiag The resisor R DIAG serves wo purposes. Firs of all, i provides proecion for he microconroller in case of ground disconnecion. Under his condiion a curren flows beween V BAT and he inpu pin (In) as shown in figure 1. Secondly, since he curren hrough he inpu pin changes when a faul is deeced, he value of his resisor deermines he diagnosic volage levels. R DIAG mus be seleced according o he characerisics of he inpu sage ha is used o read Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

4 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 he diagnosic. The higher R DIAG he bigger he volage difference beween faul and no-faul condiion. There is a limi o he maximum value for his resisor and i is due o he minimum high-level inpu volage (VIH min). In order o keep he device ON he inpu volage mus be above he V IHmin = 4.5V. R DIAG can be seleced as follows: VOHmin VIHmin RDIAG = I INmax IH = 4.5V and = 250 A from he daashee. V min IIN max µ Assuming V OH min = 4.8V (min. microprocessor V OH ) R DIAG = 1.2KΩ The diagnosic levels, corresponding o a 1.2 Kohm resisor, are shown in Table 1. Due o he inpu curren level, an analog inpu is required o read he diagnosic volage. Proecions The previous secion describes he diagnosis feaures ha can be used o inform he logic sage (micro conroller) abou he IPS saus. The following secion explains how he device proecs iself when a faul condiion is deeced. Over curren and over emperaure could damage he IPS if no proecion is implemened. Over-emperaure proecion The IPS shus down when he juncion emperaure exceeds he over emperaure limi of 165 C. The IPS10XX laches afer he shu down akes place. In order o resar in lach mode (afer OT shudown), he inpu needs o be kep low for a ime longer han T RESET. This ime is se by design o allow he emperaure o go below a defined level and is defined based on he hermal characerisics of he package. Shu down waveforms are shown in figure 3. Vin Ids Isd Ishudown <T rese >T rese If, afer a hermal shu down, he device is urned ON before T RESET, he over emperaure proecion circui will reac before he device can be acivaed, prevening hermal run away. OT proecion response ime The over emperaure proecion response ime varies depending on he oupu curren. The sysem will reac faser o higher currens, due o he fac ha he juncion emperaure will reach he over emperaure shu down hreshold quicker. The behavior of he Over emperaure proecion for he IPS1011 is shown in figure 4. Figures like his are provided in he daa shee of each device. When he IPS is used in series wih a fuse, he fuse characerisic mus be above he Over emperaure proecion response ime characerisic of he IPS, as shown in figure 4. I DS A C/W 25 C ambien 50 C/W 85 C ambien 50 C/W -40 C ambien Fuse Characerisic Figure 4. Over emperaure response ime (s) Over-curren proecion The IPS10XX family feaures an over-curren shu down proecion. When he drain curren reaches he prese shu down limi, he device will be urned OFF. The response ime of he curren shu down feaure is a funcion of he peak curren, he inner delay and he di/d slope. The behavior of he IPS10XX depends on wheher he over curren happens when he device is already ON or he device is urned ON under an over-curren condiion. A ypical behavior of an IPS1031 under hese wo condiions is shown in figure 5a and 5b. Tj Tsd 165 C Tshudown Inpu 5V/div VDS 10/div Inpu 5V/div VDS 10/div Figure 3. Shu down and re-sar feaure Thermal run-away prevenion The response ime of he over emperaure proecion circui has been significanly improved from he previous family. A faser response ime proecs from hermal run-away. Ids 20A/div T=5us/div Ids 10A/div T=10us/div a) Shor circui afer IPS already ON b) IPS urned ON under shor circui Figure 5. Over curren shu down behavior Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

5 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 Operaion a V IN > 5.5V Coninuous operaions a inpu volage higher han 5.5V are no recommended since he behavior of he proecions changes wih he inpu volage, as shown in figures 6 and 7. In paricular, increased over emperaure may reduce he long-erm reliabiliy of he device. Operaing coninuously wih V IN > 5.5V is herefore no recommended. I DS (A) Operaion a V IN < 4.5 In he IPS10XX he proecion feaures are supplied hrough he inpu pin and herefore depend on V IN. The behavior of he over emperaure shu down versus he inpu volage is shown in Figure 6. The over emperaure hreshold is low a low V IN causing he device o fail o urn ON a high emperaures. This does no affec he life of he device. Figure 7 shows he behavior of he over curren proecion as a funcion of he inpu volage. In normal operaion, he gae volage is equal o he inpu volage. When V IN is around 2.5V, he power MOSFET will no be fully ON and he curren will be limied by he rans-conducance of he power MOSFET. In his mode he curren is limied below over curren shu down hreshold and he MOSFET will no lach. The power dissipaion under his condiion can be very high, causing he juncion emperaure o rise. Repeaed urn on and off under his condiion may reduce he reliabiliy due o he high hermal excursion of he juncion emperaure (hermal cycling). Operaing coninuously wih Vin < 4.5V is herefore no recommended. In conclusion coninuous operaions are recommended only for inpu volages beween 4.5V and 5.5V. 200 T SD ( C) Figure 6. Over emperaure proecion vs. inpu volage V IN (V) I limi I shudow n Figure 7. Over curren proecion vs. inpu volage Acive clamp Purpose of he acive clamp When swiched OFF, an inducive load generaes a volage across is erminal whose ampliude depends on he curren slope and he inducance value. In a low side configuraion he over volage across he inducance will cause he draino-source volage o rise above baery. This causes he body diode o go ino avalanche if no exernal zener clamps or freewheeling diodes are used, as shown in figure 8. The purpose of he acive clamp is o limi he volage across he MOSFET o a value below he body diode break down volage o reduce he amoun of sress on he device during swiching. 5V Swich ON VDS = 0V VLOAD = VBATTERY Load D S VLOAD VDS Baery 0V Swich OFF Figure 8. Acive clamp circuiry VDS = VAMP VLOAD = VBATTERY VAMP VLOAD < 0 D S VLOAD VDS V IN (V) Load Baery Acive clamp mehodology One way o conrol he V DS of a MOSFET is by driving i in linear region. A feedback loop inside he IPS, regulaes he V DS o he argeed acive clamp volage by adjusing he oupu MOSFET gae volage independenly from he load curren. The inernal circuiry consiss of a zener diode conneced beween drain and gae and a resisor from gae Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

6 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 o ground. Please noe ha during acive clamp, he oupu MOSFET is driven in linear region and he power dissipaion does no depend on he R DSON. Iload (A) VIN IDS Tclamp Iclamp 10 VDS Vclamp Tj Tj Fig 9. Acive clamp waveforms Energy consideraion when using acive clamp An acive clamp allows faser recirculaion compared o free wheeling echniques, and does no require he use of exernal devices. However he drawback of he acive clamp echnique is ha he energy is dissipaed by he IPS and is poenially damaging. Energy dissipaion calculaions are shown in he following secion: Energy dissipaed by he IPS: 1 2 VAMP EIPS = L I 2 VAMP V Energy dissipaed by he load: 1 2 L I 2 BATT Since V AMP mus be higher han V BATT, he IPS dissipaes more energy han he load. This is due o he fac ha during acive clamp some energy is aken from he baery. The energy dissipaed by he IPS is proporional o he load inducance and he load curren. Curves similar o figure 10 are given in he daa shee and can be used o esimae he maximum load inducance versus load curren. These curves are based upon he amoun of energy ha can be dissipaed by he IPS during an acive clamp. The secion maximum inducive load explains how o calculae he maximum value of inducance. Please noe ha he load parasiic resisance provides a limiaion o he load curren. Maximum load curren mus be calculaed in he wors possible supply condiions. For example for a uh load, he curves shows a maximum Iloadmax = 23A. If he wors-case V BATTERY is 37V, he inducor minimum series resisance mus be 37V/23A= 1.6 Ohm, according o figure L (mh) Figure 10. Oupu curren vs. maximum inducive load Temperaure increase during acive clamp The energy dissipaion during acive clamp will cause he juncion emperaure o increase as shown in figure 9. The emperaure increase during acive clamp can be esimaed as follows: Tj = P Z TH ( AMP ) Where: Z ( ) is he hermal = AMP TH AMP which be read from he hermal impedance curves given in he daa shees and in figure 12. P = V I : Power dissipaion during acive clamp V = 39V avg : Typical V AMP value for he IPS10XX I Iavg = : Average curren during acive clamp 2 I = : Acive clamp duraion di d di VBaery V = : Demagneizaion curren d L The emperaure increase during acive clamp mus be limied by design o avoid damaging he IPS. Swiching performances The inpu of he IPS10xx is inernally conneced o he gae of he MOSFET hrough a 15Kohm resisor. This limis he speed of he IPS, reduces elecrical noise and improves EMC performances compared o he previous families. Typical swiching waveforms are showed in Figure 11. Swiching imes are provided in he daa shee. Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

7 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 VIN IDS VDS 80% 20% 80% 20% Td on Tr-in Tr Td off Figure 11. Typical swiching waveforms Maximum frequency The daa shee indicaes a maximum recommended frequency which is calculaed o have conducion losses equal o swiching losses. Operaing a higher frequency is possible, bu he conribuion due o he swiching losses will be higher han ha of he conducion losses. The maximum swiching frequency is herefore only limied by he urn ON and urn OFF imes and by he power dissipaion. Inpu volage maximum rise ime The over emperaure (OT) proecion block is supplied via he inpu. The OT response ime will decrease wih inpu volage for V IN below 4.5V. If he inpu rise ime is longer han he over emperaure proecion response ime, he over emperaure can be riggered before he device can urn ON, even if he emperaure is lower han 150 C. Table 2 shows ypical over emperaure shu down hresholds for differen inpu rise imes. Tr-in (0.5V - 4.5V). < 1us 3us 6us 20us Typical max sar emperaure C Table 2. OT reacion ime vs. Tr-in The daa shee suggess 1us as he maximum inpu volage raise ime. Maximum inducive load As explained in he acive clamp secion, inducive loads conribue o he juncion emperaure increase due o he acive clamp feaure. The value of inducance affecs he duraion of he acive clamp and herefore he maximum juncion emperaure of he device. The wors condiion is when he device shus down due o over emperaure (Tj=165C) and he load curren is jus below he over curren shu down hreshold. Due o he inducive load, he acive clamp will be riggered a shu down and he juncion emperaure will increase. The maximum load inducance indicaed in he daashee is he value of inducance ha causes an increase of 35 C in he juncion emperaure in case of over emperaure shu down (wors case OT=165C) a he maximum load curren Tf (ypical Isd =85A for he IPS1011). The daa shee also shows ha, if he load curren is limied, higher inducances can be driven. The formula below show how o calculae he maximum load inducance wih he available daa from he IPS10XX daa shee. (I SHUTDOWN yp = 85A V AMP yp V BATT = 14V) Power dissipaion during a single acive clamp can be calculaed as follows: V I P = = 1657W 2 If T Jclamp = 200 C (max Tj allowed during acive clamp) Tj = T Jclamp 165 C = 35 C Since Tj = P ZTH( ) We can calculae he maximum Z TH (cl) as follows: Tj 35 Z (cl) 0.02 C TH = = = P 1657 W From he Z TH (cl) curve we can read. = 22µ s : acive clamp phase duraion and VBa V L = = 6.5µ H I LOAD The formula above shows ha he maximum inducance depends on he load curren. The calculaions above are based upon 85A wors-case load curren. However, he parasiic series resisance of he load limis he maximum load curren. A load wih a series resisance of 0.5 Ohm will limi he maximum curren o BATT =14V and he maximum inducive load will be µh. Parasiic resisance mus herefore be considered when calculaing he maximum inducive load. Please noe ha he juncion emperaure will rise above 165 C if an OT shu down occurs while driving an inducive load. Repeiive operaion during his condiion may impac he reliabiliy of he device (i.e. hermal cycling) and mus be avoided. Maximum capaciive load There are wo effecs o consider when driving capaciive loads. Firs is he behavior of he curren shu down hreshold which decreases wih he inpu volage when Vin<4.5. For inpu below 3V he rans-conducance of he MOSFET limis he curren. The second is he dynamic response of he over curren shu down in relaion o he slope of he oupu peak curren caused by he capacior. A capaciive load generaes a peak curren which depends on he slew rae of he V DS and on he capaciance value. For his reason when driving capaciive loads, he over curren proecion can be riggered a urn on, causing a proecion feaure o ac during normal operaions. The maximum capaciive load can be esimaed assuming he maximum peak curren (a urn on) o be half of he shu down curren hreshold, given in he daashee. Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

8 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 For he IPS1011, wih a ypical curren shu down of 85A, he peak curren during urn on should be limied o abou 42A The maximum capaciive load ha he IPS can drive may be calculaed as follows: dvc icload = C d Assuming V C = V BATT - V DS, and a consan V BATT dvds icload = C d The minimum dv DS /d is given by he minimum Rise ime (20uS) needed o go from 20% o 80% of V BAT = 14V dvds = = = d which gives: icload 42 C = = = µ F 3 dv DS d Please noe ha DC moors ofen use capaciors conneced in parallel wih he winding for EMC purposes. This capaciive load mus be aken ino accoun when selecing he IPS. Maximum baery volage The 10XX families are designed and qualified o operae coninuously a baery volages up o 28V, as indicaed in he daashee. The drain-o-source volage can exceed 28V bu will be clamped a 36V by he acive clamp. Energy dissipaion calculaions mus be performed for volages above 36V, such as in he case of inducive loads, or auomoive pulses. The device can handle volages beween 28V and 36V as long as hey are no permanenly applied. Loss of ground In case of loss of he ground connecion, a parasiic srucure in he IPS will creae a curren pah from he baery o he inpu pin, hrough he load. This curren will flow ino he oupu of he micro and can cause damage o he oupu sage of he micro if no limied. The connecion of he diagnosic resisor (R DIAG ) in series wih he inpu pin, as described previously in his documen, provides a limiaion for he curren in case of GND loss. Thermal impedance curve Thermal impedance curves (similar o he one showed in Figure 12) are given in he daa shee and can be used o deermine he maximum load inducance and he hermal performances of he device (s) 1E-05 1E Figure 12. Thermal impedance Summary This applicaion noe explains he behavior of he IPS10XX and gives suggesions on how o design he circuiry around he IPS10XX for auomoive applicaions. This documen also explains how he proecion feaures behave ouside he recommended condiions of he daa shee. Proecion feaures, such as over-curren shu down and over-emperaure, are designed o proec he IPS agains exreme condiions bu are no inended o be used repeaedly under normal operaions since hey can shoren he life of he device. Please conac he IR Technical Assisance Cener wih any quesions regarding he IPS10XX family. Inernaional Recifier Technical Assisance Cener: USA Europe +44 (0) of 6

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