1 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 295 Bit error rate and cross talk performance in optical cross connect with wavelength converter M. S. Islam and S. P. Majumder Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh Received September 5, 2006; revised December 12, 2006; accepted January 19, 2007; published February 28, 2007 Doc. ID An analytical approach is presented for modeling cross talk and evaluating the bit error rate (BER) performance in a WDM network for link with optical cross connect (OXC). Factors affecting the magnitude of cross talk in the OXC are investigated and identified. The effects of OXC induced cross talk on the BER performance is evaluated at a bit rate of 10 Gbits/s by optimizing different parameters. The results show that for optimized values of gate extinction ratio, filter transmission factor, and number of wavelengths and input fibers, the minimum input power is approximately 10 to 8 dbm to maintain a BER of Optical Society of America OCIS codes: , , , , Introduction WDM is a technique to increase the information capacity of a fiber by transmitting a number of optical signals of different wavelengths simultaneously over the same fiber. WDM networks are very promising due to their flexibility and possibility of upgrading the existing optical fiber networks to WDM networks . The optical cross connect (OXC) is an essential network element enabling reconfigurable optical networks, where lightpaths can be set up and taken down as needed [2 4]. It offers routing scalability, bit rate and protocol independence, power saving, and increased transport capacity to WDM networks [5,6]. Propagation through the switching elements that are part of the OXC results in signal degradation both due to the device intrinsic losses and their imperfect operation. Imperfect switching gives a leakage signal, the wavelength of which can be equal to or different from the signal wavelength. The cross-talk induced power penalties could also be caused by various nonlinear mechanisms including four-wave mixing (FWM). The effect of this cross talk would be smaller for spectrum-sliced light sources since these light sources are relatively insensitive to the nonlinear cross talk caused by FWM . The build-up of cross talk noise on a certain optical channel due to interference with other signals while propagating through the different elements of the WDM network could result in serious problems. Cross talk due to the OXC is one of the basic criteria that characterize the performance of the WDM network [8 11]. Since optical cross talk is a major limiting factor, the commercial use of an all-optical OXC is so far prevented in WDM networks. In this paper, we present an analytical approach to identify and determine the optimum values of parameters that induce cross talk in the OXC with a wavelength converter and its influence on the overall bit error rate (BER) performance for spectral-sliced light sources at a bit rate of 10 Gbits/s. 2. Optical Cross-Connect Topology The block diagram of a WDM transmission link with an OXC is shown in Fig. 1. The OXC is based on the gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (GC-SOA) and wavelength converter (WC). It uses a combination of space and wavelength switching. The wavelength channel to be transmitted is multiplexed by a WDM multiplexer and fed to an incoming fiber. At the input of OXC the incoming signals are split by a first array of power splitters followed by a second array of power splitters. At the input of GC-SOA gates, all channels are present. The gate selects the wavelength that carries /07/ /$ Optical Society of America
2 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 296 Fig. 1. Block diagram of a WDM transmission link with an OXC based on GC-SOA and wavelength. the desired channel. A wavelength converter is used to convert the channel wavelength from one wavelength to the other wavelength. The OXC enables any wavelength channel from any input fiber to be cross-connected to any output fiber, on the condition that no two channels in the output fiber have the same wavelength. In Fig. 1, fiber a carries wavelength channels a1, a2,..., am and fiber b carries wavelength channels b1, b2,..., bm. Given that N is the number of input fiber and M is the number of different wavelengths, there are a total of N M wavelength channels. The N M wavelength channels passed through first array of power splitters. There are N power splitters for all the N input fibers. All the different wavelength channels appear at the output of the power splitter at lesser power due to power splitting. Wavelengths a1, a2,..., am are then fed to another array of M power splitters. There is a total of N M power splitters at the second array. The output of the second array of power splitters are fed to gates made from GC-SOA, which allows only specific wavelengths to pass through. The combiner at first output fiber, such as combiner 1, receives its inputs from a1, b1,..., 1. The output of N M combiners is fed to N M filters and wavelength converter. The second array of N combiners, combine all cross-connected wavelength channels and output them to N output fibers. The desired wavelength channel of an outgoing fiber is demultiplexed by a WDM demultiplexer and is received by a direct detection receiver. 3. Cross Talk and the Bit Error Rate Model An analytical model of cross talk due to the OXC is presented in this section and used to evaluate the BER performance of the WDM link with the OXC. Analytical expressions are given that describe the output power of the OXC as a function of input powers and component parameters. Here, P jo io is the input power of a channel, P out io1 is defined as the output power of wavelength channel i o with cross talk contributions added (with all wavelength channels carrying bit 1). T F is the filter transmission factor, R gate is the gate extinction ratio, X gate is gate cross talk, N is the number of input fiber into the OXC, and M is the number of wavelengths per input fiber. P jo i is the signal power at fiber j o with another wavelength i. P j io is the signal power at another fiber j that carries the wavelength under consideration, i o. P j i is the signal power at another fiber j with other wavelengths, i. We assume that all wavelength channels including P jo io carry bit 1. P out io1 at any output fiber may be just 1/N of the output power, due to division of power before entering the GC-SOA. However, in this paper, it is also assumed that the GC-SOA is set with gain of N times to compensate for the division of output optical power. X gate is a parameter that measures the gate s imperfection in gain clamping and is given by, X gate =P gate ref /P gate ; where P gate is the power output from the GC-SOA gate. P gate ref is the reference output power of the GC-SOA gate. T F is derived from the filter suppression of wavelength channel, T 1 F.
3 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 297 In the OXC with wavelength converter, there is one gate in the ON state for every group of N gates. Hence there are NM gates in the ON state at any time for a total of NM 2 gates. The calculation is done for worst-case situation, where the OXC is handling full traffic and also the amplitudes of the beat term are assumed to be maximum. Extinction ratio is defined as, R gate =P off /P on. P in is defined as the input power through each gate. The expression for output power with cross talk of wavelength channel i 0 is given by Eq. (1) based on  based on the assumption that all channels carry bit 1. P io out = P io jo + P io jo X gate M 1 P i jo + P io jo + P io j N 1 R gate 1+X gate MP i j + M 1 T F 1+X gate MP i j + N 1 M 1 2 T F R gate 2 P io jo Pio j N 1 R gate + M 1 T F + N 1 M 1 R gate T F 2P io j N 1 M 1 R gate T F + N N M 1 R gate T F + N 1 M 1 2 R gate T F 2P io j R gate M 1 N R gate T F t. M 2 t + T F t 1 P jo io is defined as N times of P in since there is one gate in the ON state for every group of gates. P out ref io is the output power of wavelength channel i o when the OXC is carrying only wavelength channel i o, such as when there is no cross talk. P io is out ref given by, P out ref io =P jo io +X gate P jo io 2. Since wavelength channel i o may carry bit 1 or bit 0 at any instant of time, Eq. (1) has to be modified. If wavelength channel i o carries bit 0, then Eq. (1) reduces to Eq. (2). P io0 out = P io j N 1 R gate 1+X gate MP i j + M 1 T F 1+X gate MP i j + N 1 M 1 2 T F R gate 2P io j N 1 M 1 R gate T F + N 1 2 M N 2 1 R gate T F + N 1 M 1 2 R gate T F 2P io j R gate M 1 N R gate T F t. M 2 t + T F t 2 P io out ref when wavelength channel i o carries bit 0 can be written as, P io out ref =0. The cross talk is calculated for a certain wavelength channel, which is called the channel under study. The expression for relative cross talk is given by P out ref io P out io1 cross talk =. 3 P io out ref To evaluate the BER of a WDM system, the cross talk model for the OXC with a wavelength converter is used to derive the BER model for the OXC with a wavelength converter. The expression for the BER of a WDM network with a wavelength converter in an IM-DD system can be given by Eq. (4). This equation assumes the scenario when a bit 1 is interfered with by a cross talk bit 1, bit 0 is interfered with by cross talk bit 0, bit 1 is interfered with by cross talk bit 0, and bit 0 is interfered with by cross talk bit 1 as reported by . where BER worse case = 1 8 erfc 1 + erfc i 1 + i CT0 i D i 1 + i CT1 i D erfc 1 i D i 0 i CT erfc 1 i D i 0 i CT , = th 2 +2eR d P S + P sp + P CT0 B + S sp 2 + CT0 sp 2 + sp sp 2 + S CT0 2, 5
4 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING = th 2 +2eR d P sp + P CT0 B + CT0 sp 2 + sp sp 2, = th 2 +2eR d P S + P sp + P CT1 B + S sp 2 + CT1 sp 2 + sp sp 2 + S CT1 2, = th 2 +2eR d P sp + P CT1 B + CT0 sp 2 + sp sp 2. 8 The variance of the interference is given in Eqs. (5) (8) where is the variance when signal bit 1 is interfered with by cross talk due to bit 0 and is the variance when signal bit 0 is interfered with by cross talk due to bit is the variance when signal bit 1 is interfered with by cross talk due to bit 1, and is the variance when signal bit 0 is interfered with by cross talk due to bit 1. th 2 is the power of thermal noise, R d is the receiver responsivity, B is the bandwidth of the receiver low-pass filter, and P S is signal power. The photocurrent for a transmitted bit 1 is given by i 1 =2R d P S. For transmitted bit 0, the photocurrent is i 0 =0, with P S assumed to be zero, and i D is the threshold current. The expression for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) power P sp is given by P sp =hff G 1 B. The amount of cross talk power due to bit 1 is P CT1 = P io1 out ref P io1 out, and cross talk power due to bit 0 can be expressed as P CT0 = P io0 out. The threshold current, i D, is shown in Eq. (9). S sp 2 is the power of the beating of signal and ASE, shown in Eq. (10). CT sp 2 is the power of the beating of cross talk and ASE, shown in Eqs. (11) and (12) for cross talk due to bits 1 and 0, respectively. S CT 2 is the power of the beating of signal and cross talk, shown in Eqs. (13) and (14) for cross talk due to bits 1 and 0, respectively. sp sp 2 is the power of the beating of ASE and ASE, shown in Eq. (15). S sp f is the power spectral density of ASE noise, S CT1 f is the power spectral density of cross talk due to bit 1, S CT0 f is the power spectral density of cross talk due to bit 0, and S S f is the power spectral density of the signal. i D = 0 1i i , 9 S sp 2 = R d S S f S sp f H f 2 df, 10 CT1 sp 2 = R d S sp f S CT1 f H f 2 df, 11 CT0 sp 2 = R d S sp f S CT0 f H f 2 df, 12 S CT1 2 = R d S S f S CT1 f H f 2 df, 13 S CT0 2 = R d S S f S CT0 f H f 2 df, 14 sp sp 2 = R d S sp f S sp f H f 2 df Bit Error Rate and Cross Talk Results Following the analytical approach presented in Section 3, the BER performance results are evaluated at a bit rate of 10 Gbits/s. We determine the relation between filter transmission T F and the number of wavelength M under certain computation conditions such as varying R gate, N, and P in. The same models are used to determine the relation between R gate and N using selected set of T F, M, and P in parameters.
5 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 299 Fig. 2. Plot of BER versus filter transmission factor T F with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, R gate = 46.6 db, P in = 6.88 dbm). The plot of BER versus filter transmission factor T F is shown in Fig. 2. It is observed that for a certain number of wavelengths passing through the OXC, the quality of T F needs to be better than a value determined by setting BER to be at least As the number of wavelengths passing through an OXC increases, the wavelength suppression capability of the filter has to be improved to maintain a specific BER. A plot of the BER versus number of wavelength M is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 2 also shows a relationship between T F and M. This means that for a number of wavelengths BER is less than 10 9 if the filter transmission factor T F is chosen to be smaller than the value of T F at BER=10 9. It is confirmed in Fig. 3 and seen that the BER is successfully maintained below The plot of the number of wavelength M versus filter transmission factor T F (Fig. 5) shows that the BER increases as T F quality is decreased (larger value). The plot of cross talk versus number of wavelength, M, in Fig. 4 shows an almost linear relationship between cross talk and number of wavelength, M. It is evident that there is an inverse relationship between the filter transmission factor, T F, and M as shown in Fig. 5. It is discovered that increasing the suppression ratio T 1 F reduces the requirement for better gate extinction ratio R gate and vice versa. However, there is a minimum practical value of T F beyond which a requirement for better R gate will be impractical. Fig. 3. Plot of BER versus number of wavelength, M, with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, R gate = 46.6 db, P in = 6.88 dbm).
6 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 300 Fig. 4. Cross talk versus number of wavelength, M, with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, R gate = 46.6 db, P in = 6.88 dbm). The penalty for increasing M in terms of the need to increase the wavelength suppression capability of the OXC is decreasing as M is increased. From the plot in Fig. 5, it is evident that the slope of the plot increases as M increases. This means that the penalty for increasing M can be minimized by decreasing N and can also be optimized to minimize the BER. There is a minimum BER for the plot of input fiber, N, versus BER for different R gate. For a particular R gate (for which the corresponding T F had been determined from Fig. 5), N should be chosen from the minimum point of Fig. 6. The corresponding N versus cross talk plot shows a maximum at around N=4. The plot of cross talk versus input fibers, N, is shown in Fig. 7. It is found that for N larger than 4, cross talk in the OXC decreases; this does not reflect improvement in the BER because the BER is not only influenced by cross talk in the OXC but also on the signal power compared to the cross talk power, noise power, and variance of signal cross-talk noise. Figure 8 shows the plot of the BER versus input power, P in, for different values of filter transmission factor, T F. From the plot, we found that the input power, P in, corresponding to the minimum BER is approximately 10 to 8 dbm for the filter transmission factor T F that is approximately 80 to 30 db. Increasing the input power P in reduces the requirement for better suppression ratio T F 1 and vice versa. The plot of cross talk versus input power P in is depicted in Fig. 5. Plot of number of wavelength, M, versus filter transmission factor, T F.
7 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 301 Fig. 6. Plot of the BER versus gate extinction ratio, R gate, with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, T f = 37 db, P in = 6.88 dbm). Fig. 7. Plot of cross talk versus input fibers, N, with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, T f = 37 db, P in = 6.88 dbm). Fig. 8. Plot of the BER versus input power, P in, with optimized parameters. (N=13, M=16, T f = 37 db, R gate = 46.6 db).
8 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 302 Fig. 9. Plot of cross talk versus input power P in. (N=13, M=16, T f = 37 db, R gate = 46.6 db). Table 1. Optimized Parameters Parameters Values Unit Number of wavelength M 16 Unitless Filter transmission T f 37 db Number of input fiber N 13 Unitless Gate extinction ratio R gate 46.6 db Input power per gate Pin 6.88 dbm Gate cross talk X gate 0.1 mw Table 2. Assumptions Parameters Values Unit Temperature T 300 K Bandwidth B 10 GHz Receiver load R L 50 Ohm Receiver responsivity R d 1 A/W Inversion factor F Unitless Amplifier gain G 250 Unitless Operating frequency f Hz Fig. 9. It is found that cross talk decreases tremendously at high P in after achieving maximum point at approximately 10 dbm. From the above discussion, we observed that to operate the OXC at minimum input power, the values of the filter transmission factor, T F, and gate extinction ratio, R gate, should be slightly better than the optimized value. This is to take into account of possible variation of input power P in. The optimized parameters for M=16 and N=13 are as shown in Table 1. The assumptions used in computing the optimized parameters are as shown in Table Conclusion In this paper cross talk and the BER performance of a WDM network with an OXC with a WC are analytically determined, and different factors that affect the magnitude of cross talk and the BER in the OXC are investigated in detail. The OXC parameters that play an important role in determining the magnitude of cross talk and the BER are identified, and parameters that result in minimum BER in the OXC are evaluated.
9 Vol. 6, No. 3 / March 2007 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 303 References 1. T. Gyselings, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, Crosstalk analysis of multiwavelength optical cross connect, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, (1999). 2. S. P. Majumder and S. Dey, BER performance degradation due to component crosstalk of an arrayed waveguide grating and FBG-OC based WDM cross-connect, in IEEE, INDICON 2005 International Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp T. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, and X. Zheng, Statistical study of crosstalk accumulation in WDM optical network with different topology, in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers, Communications, Control and Power Engineering (TENCON 02) (IEEE, 2002), pp E. Iannone and R. Sabella, Optical path technologies: A comparison among different cross-connect architectures, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, (1996). 5. R. Ramaswami, Using all-optical crossconnect in the transport network, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC 2001), (IEEE, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. WZ1 WZ1. 6. Y. W. Song, Z. Pan, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, E. Salik, S. A. Havstad, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, All-optical cross connect using ultrastrong widely tunable FBGs, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, (2001). 7. R. D. Feldman, Crosstalk and loss in wavelength division multiplexed systems employing spectral slicing, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, (1997). 8. Y. Shen, K. Lu, and W. Gu, Coherent and incoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, (1999). 9. T. Y. Chai, H. Chen, S. K. Bose, and C. Lu, Crosstalk analysis for limited wavelength interchanging cross connects, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, (2002). 10. J. Zhou, E. Casaccia Cavazzoni, and M. J. O Mahony, Crosstalk in multiwavelength OXC networks, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, (1996). 11. Y. S. Jang, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, Effects of crosstalk in WDM systems using spectrum-sliced light sources, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, (1999).
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