2. Single Stage OpAmps

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1 /74 2. Single Stage OpAmps Francesc Serra Graells Departament de Microelectrònica i Sistemes Electrònics Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Integrated Circuits and Systems IMB-CNM(CSIC)

2 2/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

3 3/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

4 4/74 Single-Transistor Topologies Operational voltage amplifier (OpAmp)? Current-driven bias point to control circuit power Supposing forward saturation, drain is selected as output port due to its high impedance (CLM): Common source Common gate Back gate

5 5/74 Single-Transistor Topologies Operational voltage amplifier (OpAmp)? Current-driven bias point to control circuit power Supposing forward saturation, drain is selected as output port due to its high impedance (CLM): Power efficiency Common source Common gate Back gate Moderate G m /I D Highest G m /I D Lowest G m /I D High input impedance Low input impedance Low input impedance Inverting amplifier Easier feedback Non-inverting amplifier p+ n+ n+ Inverting amplifier Latchup Triple-well required

6 6/74 Voltage Transfer Curve Large signal analysis of common source amplifier: e.g. autobiasing operating in strong inversion and forward saturation: V B =0 unless specified CLM negligible in large signal in saturation in conduction

7 7/74 Gain and Frequency Response Common source small signal analysis: Incremental equivalent circuit: G D strong inversion and forward saturation bias point B S G D B S

8 8/74 Gain and Frequency Response Incremental equivalent circuit: DC voltage gain 3dB/oct 6dB/oct 3dB/oct In general, for CMOS amplifiers: strong inversion and forward saturation bias point input transconductance output resistance

9 9/74 Gain and Frequency Response Incremental equivalent circuit: Spectral bandwidth open-loop closed-loop -20dB/dec max. closed-loop (i.e. follower) Frequency 0.5oct/oct strong inversion and forward saturation bias point 0.5oct/oct

10 0/74 Dynamic Range Noise equivalent circuit: Thermal noise contribution only (f > flicker corner): x0 (20dB) x (0dB) Time Uncorrelated phenomena and low-frequency: Equivalent input noise:

11 /74 Dynamic Range Noise equivalent circuit: Thermal noise contribution only (f > flicker corner): x0 (20dB) x (0dB) Time Bandwidth Temperature Supply Power Dynamic Range.5dB/oct 3dB/oct

12 2/74 Full CMOS Circuit Similar performance analysis: Large signal VTC: in conduction in saturation All operating in strong inversion and forward saturation bias points: in saturation in conduction

13 3/74 Full CMOS Circuit Similar performance analysis: Small signal gain and bandwidth: 3dB/oct 6dB/oct 3dB/oct All operating in strong inversion and forward saturation bias points: 0.5oct/oct 0.5oct/oct

14 4/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

15 5/74 Fully-Differential vs Single-Ended Single-ended OpAmps: Power rails resistive parasitics Digital Compact area and power Poor signal integrity Capacitive/inductive coupling parasitics Dynamic sources of interference: Large signals (e.g. digital states) Power supply currents EM fields Temperature gradients Mechanical stress

16 6/74 Fully-Differential vs Single-Ended Pseudo-differential OpAmps: Signal true info Digital Signal baseline only Interference rejection Area and power overheads (x2)

17 7/74 Fully-Differential vs Single-Ended Pseudo-differential OpAmps: Signal true info Digital Signal baseline only Interference rejection Area and power overheads (x2) Full-scale extension (+6dB) Noise increase (+3dB) SNR (+3dB) Time

18 8/74 Fully-Differential vs Single-Ended Pseudo-differential OpAmps: Signal true info Digital Signal baseline only Interference rejection Area and power overheads (x2) Full-scale extension (+6dB) Noise increase (+3dB) SNR (+3dB) Distortion cancellation (even harm.) Limited by device matching Time

19 9/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: : : M7 : 2 device multiplicity same aspect ratio

20 20/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Differential input only: : : M7?? : 2 device multiplicity same aspect ratio

21 2/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Differential input only: : : M7 : 2 device multiplicity -6 current mirror asymmetry Not full cancellation of unwanted terms same aspect ratio Mostly used for single-ended signaling

22 22/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Basic CMOS topology: Large signal VTC: : : M7 in conduction M7 M7 in saturation : 2 in saturation in conduction

23 23/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Basic CMOS topology: Large signal VTC: : : M7 in conduction in saturation : 2 Reduced output range in saturation in conduction

24 24/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Basic CMOS topology: Large signal VTC: : : M7 : 2 Reduced output range

25 25/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Basic CMOS topology: Large signal VTC: : : M7 : 2 Reduced output range

26 26/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Basic CMOS topology: Large signal VTC: : : M7 : 2 Prob. Reduced output range More offset contributions Pelgrom's Law Threshold voltage mismatching only

27 27/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Small signal differential and common DC gains: : : M7 : 2

28 28/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Small signal differential and common DC gains: : : M7 : 2 differential output common output differential input common input

29 29/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Small signal differential and common DC gains: : : M7 Perfect matching (= and =M7): : 2 differential output differential input

30 30/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Small signal differential and common DC gains: : : M7 Perfect matching (= and =M7): : 2 Real matching (e.g. V TH =V TH2 ): Neglecting common output

31 3/74 Fully-Differential OpAmps Basic CMOS topology: Summary of design guidelines: : : M7 : 2 Reduced output range Matching is critical performance resources

32 32/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

33 33/74 Common-Mode Output Issue Single-ended differential OpAmps: Fully-differential OpAmps: e.g. max. feedback M7 High sensitivity to technology mismatching (- 7 and -)! Well-defined and stable common-mode level Specific auxiliary control circuitry is needed in practice...

34 34/74 Common-Mode Output Issue Common-mode feedback (CMFB) loop: Behaviorally equivalent... CMFB control functionality: Sensing common-mode output Computing error according to reference level Applying needed common-mode correction Not to be confused with CMRR! Multi-stage OpAmps require one CMFB loops for each stage CMFB control design? gain bandwidth accuracy stability

35 35/74 Continuous-Time CMFB Resistive-based sensing: Passive common-mode output estimation R R2

36 36/74 Continuous-Time CMFB Resistive-based sensing: Passive common-mode output estimation R R2 OpAmp original OR is preserved Resistive extra loading......or limited CMFB bandwidth

37 37/74 Continuous-Time CMFB Resistive-based sensing: M7 M8 R R2 Resistive loading is avoided OR severe reduction Power consumption overhead Common-mode output level is technology dependent!

38 38/74 Continuous-Time CMFB Resistive-based sensing: M7 M8 Master-slave automatic tuning R R2 M9 Resistive loading is avoided OR severe reduction Power consumption overhead Common-mode output level is technology dependent!

39 39/74 Continuous-Time CMFB Resistive-based sensing: Low-pass CMFB filtering C R R2 : 2 Compact circuit solution No power consumption overhead Common-mode output defined by technology Strong OR reduction

40 40/74 Continuous-Time CMFB MOS-based sensing: Supposing, and M7 working in deep conduction: M8 M9 0 By CMFB symmetry (=): x x2 M7 By bias symmetry ( 6=M7 and =): Master-slave tuning

41 4/74 Continuous-Time CMFB MOS-based sensing: Supposing, and M7 working in deep conduction: M8 M9 0 By CMFB symmetry (=): x x2 M7 By bias symmetry ( 6=M7 and =): Master-slave tuning Resistive loading is avoided No power consumption overhead Negligible OR reduction Technology compensation Gain non-linearity

42 42/74 Discrete-Time CMFB Switched-capacitor (SC) implementation: e.g. fully-differential integrator stage clock C2P CP CN C2N

43 43/74 Discrete-Time CMFB Switched-capacitor (SC) implementation: e.g. fully-differential integrator stage clock M7 C2P CP CFP CFN CN C2N Capacitive CMFB sensing Reduced power overheads Low loop-gain

44 44/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

45 45/74 Output Range Issue Basic fully-differential topology (not showing CMFB): : : M7 : 2 Time OR improvement requires very large aspect ratios! Not compatible with other optimization rules (e.g. CMRR)

46 46/74 Folded Topologies Fully-differential folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): : :?? M7 M8 M9 0 : : 2 :

47 47/74 Folded Topologies All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Fully-differential folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): Still a single stage Opamp! low-impedance nodes : : M7 M8 M9 0 : : 2 : Static power consumption (x2) Device silicon area (x2)

48 48/74 Folded Topologies All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Fully-differential folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): Still a single stage Opamp! low-impedance nodes : : M7 M8 M9 0 : : 2 : Static power consumption (x2) Full-scale OR optimization Device silicon area (x2)

49 49/74 Folded Topologies All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Fully-differential folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): : : M7 M8 M9 0 : : 2 : Static power consumption (x2) Device silicon area (x2) Full-scale OR optimization High supply voltage needed...

50 50/74 Folded Topologies Fully-differential dual folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): : : 2 : 2 : M9 0 M7 M8 2 3 : 2 Static power consumption (x3) Device silicon area (x3)

51 5/74 Folded Topologies All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Fully-differential dual folded OpAmp (not showing CMFB): : : 2 : 2 : Still a single stage Opamp! M9 low-impedance nodes 0 Suposing: M7 M8 2 3 : 2 Static power consumption (x3) Device silicon area (x3) Same OR optimization Compatible with low supply voltage

52 52/74 Folded Topologies : : Single-ended folded OpAmp counterparts: M7 M8 M9 0 : : : : 2 : M7 M8 : M9 2 0 :

53 53/74 Folded Topologies Single-ended folded OpAmp counterparts: : : M9 2 : 2 : 0 M7 M8 2 3 : 2 : M9 : 2 : 2 0 M7 M8 2 3 : 2

54 54/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

55 55/74 Principle Basis CMOS OpAmp general linear model: input transconductance output resistance Enhancement by increasing MOSFET output impedance?

56 56/74 Principle Basis CMOS OpAmp general linear model: -20dB/dec Frequency input transconductance output resistance Gain improvement: Enhancement by increasing MOSFET output impedance? Accurate feedback functions Lower equivalent input noise No speed enhancement (GBW)

57 57/74 Principle of Operation Output impedance multiplier: Introducing cascoding in OpAmps: DC voltage biasing level cascode device transconductor device my device cascode device Aplicable to most analog basic building blocks (e.g. current mirror, voltage differential pair) voltage attenuation

58 58/74 Basic Cascode OpAmp Low-frequency small-signal analysis: CMOS OpAmp model:

59 59/74 Basic Cascode OpAmp Low-frequency small-signal analysis: CMOS OpAmp model:

60 60/74 Basic Cascode OpAmp Low-frequency small-signal analysis: CMOS OpAmp model: voltage gain factor! similar transconductance series combination voltage gain factor! higher output impedance output impedance of cascode device output impedance of transconductor device

61 6/74 Regulated Cascode OpAmp?? even larger attenuation factors!

62 62/74 Regulated Cascode OpAmp Low-frequency small-signal analysis: CMOS OpAmp model: even larger attenuation factors!

63 63/74 Regulated Cascode OpAmp Low-frequency small-signal analysis: CMOS OpAmp model: even larger attenuation factors! Minimalist implementation:

64 64/74 Output Range Optimization Basic cascode DC biasing: All operating in strong inversion saturation + neglecting CLM Regulated cascode DC biasing: supposing =: alternative low-voltage approach: operating in strong inversion conduction

65 65/74 Practical Cascode OpAmps Fully differential + folded + cascode topology example: cascoding not needed here... optimized DC biasing M7 M8 M9 low-impedance nodes dual cascoding required! 4 5 6

66 66/74 The Mono-Transistor Amplifier 2 Differential Topologies 3 Common Mode Feedback 4 Folded Amplifiers 5 Cascode Topologies 6 Gain Enhancement Techniques

67 67/74 Principle Basis CMOS OpAmp general linear model: input transconductance output resistance Enhancement by increasing MOSFET input transconductance?

68 68/74 Principle Basis CMOS OpAmp general linear model: -20dB/dec Frequency input transconductance output resistance Gain improvement: Enhancement by increasing MOSFET input transconductance? Accurate feedback functions Lower equivalent input noise Speed enhancement (GBW)

69 69/74 Partial Positive Feedback Basic differential transconductor:

70 70/74 Partial Positive Feedback Basic differential transconductor: Introducing local positive feedback: Folded structure Cross-coupled pair Partial feedback design by sizing ratio keeping same large signal range : cross-coupled devices : /N /N : : M7 M8 low-impedance nodes still a single stage transconductor...

71 7/74 Partial Positive Feedback Small signal transconductance: : : /N /N : : M7 M8

72 72/74 Partial Positive Feedback Small signal transconductance: Half-circuit analysis: : : /N /N : : Perfect symmetry (no mismatching) Infinite tail sink resistance M7 M8 Purely differential input common-mode = virtual ground

73 73/74 Partial Positive Feedback Small signal transconductance: Half-circuit analysis: : : /N /N : : Perfect symmetry (no mismatching) Infinite tail sink resistance M7 M8 Purely differential input

74 74/74 Practical Gain Enhanced OpAmp Single-ended + folded + cross-coupled example: M7 M8 Larger gain and GBW Compatible with folding and cascoding M9 0 Local positive feedback vs global negative feedback: Prone to instability It can generate hysteresis

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