Introduction to Electronic Devices

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to Electronic Devices"

Transcription

1 Introduction to Electronic Devices (Course Number ) Fall 2006 Dr. Dietmar Knipp Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering Information: Source: Apple Ref.: Apple Ref.: IBM Critical dimension (m) Ref.: Palo Alto Research Center 1

2 7 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Ideal Inverter Characteristic 7.3 Real Inverter Characteristic 7.4 Noise Margin of inverters 7.5 Classification of inverters Inverter with ohmic load PELS / NELS Inverter PELL / NELL Inverter The CMOS Inverter CMOS Technology Static behavior Static power Dissipation Dynamic behavior of an CMOS inverter Summary of CMOS inverter 7.6 From CMOS inverters to logical gates Complementary Logic Transmission Gate Logic References 2

3 7.1 Introduction In the following we will discuss the electrical characteristic of different MOS inverter circuits. We will discuss the implementation of different types of inverters and its electrical properties. Based on the inverter circuit all other logical gates like OR, AND, NOR, and NAND can be derived. Layout of a CMOS inverter. CMOS inverter and simplified circuit description of a CMOS inverter. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 3

4 7.2 Ideal Inverter Characteristic Different types of inverters can be distinguished depending on the circuit implementation. In the ideal case the static characteristic of an inverter (Voltage transfer curve, VTC) is described by a sharp transition from one state to second state. Voltage transfer characteristic of an ideal inverter. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of Input range Output range 4

5 7.3 Real Inverter Characteristic However, ideal inverters can not be realized. Voltage transfer characteristic of a real inverter. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of Input range Output range 5

6 7.4 Noise Margin of inverters Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 6

7 7.4 Noise Margin of inverters Voltage transfer characteristic of the second inverter of a chain of inverters. Voltage transfer characteristic of the third inverter of a chain of inverters. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 7

8 7.4 Noise Margin of inverters The input and output signal of an inverter have to be within the noise margin of an inverter. Otherwise the input or output signal of an inverter is undefined. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 8

9 7.5 Classification of inverters Inverters can be realized by using different circuit implementations. In the following the different circuit implementations and their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. The output curve of an inverter (Voltage transfer curve, VTC) is determined by the superposition of the load (pmons, nmos, resistor) and the driver (pmos, nmos) component. Inverter type Driver Load Operation (Load) ER E-MOSFET (n- or p-channel) Resistor - NELS & NELL E-MOSFET (nchannel) E-MOSFET (nchannel) Saturation, Linear PELS & PELL E-MOSFET (pchannel) E-MOSFET (pchannel) Saturation, Linear (p) CMOS E-MOSFET (nchannel) E-MOSFET (pchannel) - (n) CMOS E-MOSFET (pchannel) E-MOSFET (nchannel) - 9

10 7.5.1 Inverter with ohmic load An inverter can be realized by combining a resistor (load) with an enhancement type transistor (driver). An inverter with an ohmic load is not of relevance for practical applications, but the discussion of the operating principle allows a better understanding of the operating principle of inverters. Inverter with ohmic load and output characteristic. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 10

11 7.5.1 Inverter with ohmic load The performance of an inverter is described by the voltage transfer curve and the gain of an inverter. The gain, v, is defined as the ratio of the differential input voltage divided by the differential output voltage of the inverter. The gain of an inverter should be maximized. In the case of an inverter with an ohmic load the driver transistor can be described by a current source, so that the gain can be easily derived. V DD V in g m V in V out V th V in V out v v in gain = = vout g m R Inverter with ohmic load. Ref.: Böhm, Lecture on Microelectroics, University Siegen Equivalent circuit of inverter with ohmic load. 11

12 7.5.1 Inverter with ohmic load g m = I V D GS Transconductance in linear region I D g m = µ n VG g m I D = µ n VG C C G G W L Transconductance in saturation region W L V D ( V V ) G T v v = v gain in = out g m R Voltage transfer characteristic of an inverter with resistor load. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 12

13 7.5.1 Inverter with ohmic load The gain of an inverter with ohmic load can be increased by increasing the load resistance and the W/L ratio of the transistor (driver). The W/L ratio can be increased by choosing a short but wide channel. However, the gain is not the only parameter, which has to be optimized when developing an inverter. In addition to the gain (static behavior) the dynamic behavior has to be taken into account. If we assume that the inverter drives another logic gate like an inverter, and the inverter exhibits an input capacitance it is obvious to see that an increase of the load resistance will increase the time constant (switching speed) of the inverter. A similar behavior is observed if the width of the transistor is increased. The increased width leads to a improved gain, but the input capacitance of the inverter is increased as well, so that the switching speed of the inverter is reduced. An inverter with an ohmic load has an additional disadvantage. It is difficult to realized resistors by using classical semiconductor processes. Therefore, the resistor is usually replaced by a transistor which operates as a load. 13

14 7.5.2 PELS / NELS Inverter P/N Channel Enhancement Load Saturation Mode Inverter The resistor loads is replaced by an enhancement type transistor which operates in saturation mode. In order to operate the load in saturation the gate of the load transistor is connected to V DD. (W/L) L (W/L) D Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 14

15 7.5.2 PELS / NELS Inverter P/N Channel Enhancement Load Saturation Mode Inverter The resistor loads is replaced by an enhancement type transistor operates in saturation mode. In order to operate the load in saturation the gate of the load transistor is connected to V DD. v gain = g g md ml = ( W L) D = K R ( W L) L K = R ( W L) D ( W L) L Voltage transfer characteristic of a NELS inverter. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 15

16 7.5.2 PELS / NELS Inverter P/N Channel Enhancement Load Saturation Mode Inverter PELS or NELS inverters have the disadvantage that the output voltage in the high state is always smaller that operating voltage V DD. The output voltage is reduced by the effective threshold voltage. The effective threshold voltage is the threshold voltage which is influence by the bulk voltage which applied to the substrate. Furthermore, the PELS / NELS inverters are limited by the differential drain source resistance of the load transistor. As the transistor operates in saturation the differential drain source resistance is rather large, which limits the switching speed of the inverter. The differential drain source resistance can be reduced by operating the load transistor in the linear region. This can be achieved by using an additional voltage supply which provides a gate voltage for the load transistors. The reduced differential drain source resistance leads to an decreased switching speed of the inverter. However, the reduced differential drain source resistance leads to an increased power consumption of the inverter. 16

17 7.5.3 PELL / NELL Inverter P/N Channel Enhancement Load Linear Mode Inverter Therefore, the static, the dynamic behavior and the power consumption has to be considered when designing an inverter. Ref.: Hodges & Jackson, Analysis and Design of 17

18 7.5.4 CMOS Inverter CMOS Technology CMOS technology refers to Complementary MOS technology, which means that transistors always exists as a pair of a p-channel and a n-channel transistor. CMOS technology is the driving force behind most of the electronic applications today. All microprocessors and solid state memories use CMOS technology. The main advantage of CMOS technology is the low power dissipation. As a consequence very high integration densities can be achieved. In the following we will discuss the realization of CMOS circuits and its advantages. We will discuss the implementation of a CMOS inverter which is the bases of all digital gates. All other logical gates like OR, AND, NOR, and NAND can be derived from an inverter structure. 18

19 CMOS Technology In order to realize NMOS and PMOS field effect transistors on the same substrate the individual transistors have to be insulated from each other. Different implementation of CMOS technology. Ref.: M. Shur, Introduction to Electronic Devices 19

20 Static behavior A CMOS inverter circuit consist of two matched enhanced type MOSFETs, one transistor with a n- channel and the other transistor with a p-channel. The circuit operation can be discussed based on its extreme cases, meaning V in =0 and V in =V DD is applied to the input of the inverter. V in =0 corresponds to a logic 0, whereas V in =V DD corresponds to a logic 1. As the circuit is symmetric a definition of a load and a driver transistor is not necessary, because the reverse definition would lead to the same results. CMOS inverter and simplified circuit description of a CMOS inverter. 20

21 Static behavior The output curve of an inverter (Voltage transfer curve, VTC) can be derived from the superposition of the output curves of the two (PMOS and NMOS) FETs. The operating point of the inverter corresponds to the interceptions of the two output curves. The interception of the output curves of the two MOSFETs of an inverter represent the output of the inverter. Ref.: M.S. Sze, Semiconductor Devices 21

22 Static behavior The output curve of an inverter (Voltage transfer curve, VTC) can be derived from the superposition of the output curves of the two (PMOS and NMOS) FETs. Voltage transfer curve of an CMOS inverter. The points A, B, C and D correspond to the points A, B, C and D on the previous slide. Ref.: M.S. Sze, Semiconductor Devices 22

23 Static power Dissipation The static power dissipation of a CMOS inverter is negligible as always one of the two transistors is in the off state. The dissipation is independent of the input state of the inverter. The power dissipation of CMOS inverters is distinctly lower than the dissipation of alternative inverter circuits (e.g. NMOS or PMOS FETs in enhanced or depletion mode). However, as the number of gates steadily increases the dynamic power dissipation has become a serious issue Dynamic behavior of an CMOS inverter The dynamic power dissipation can be determined by: P D = f C equi V 2 DD Dynamic power dissipation of an CMOS inverter where f is the switching frequency. C equi is the equivalent input capacitance of a CMOS inverter and V DD is the operating voltage. 23

24 Dynamic behavior of an CMOS inverter As an inverter typically drives another logical gate, the capacitive load of an inverter is determined by the input capacitance of the next inverter stage. The transient response of an inverter is comparable with the transient response of a RC circuit. The capacitance is formed by the input capacitance of an inverter stage. The channel resistance of the transistor in the on state determines the resistor. Schematic illustration of the operation of a CMOS inverter including the voltage transfer curve and the power dissipation. Ref.: M. Shur, Introduction to Electronic Devices 24

25 Summary of CMOS inverter Based on the above described device behavior we can summarize the ideal behavior of an CMOS inverter: The output levels should either be either 0V or V DD. As a consequence the signal swing between the two levels should be maximized. The static power dissipation of an inverter is close to zero, if the leakage current of the transistors can be neglected. As a CMOS inverter is symmetric the power dissipation is independent of the logical output state. A low resistance path exists between the output terminal and ground (in the 0 state) or V DD (in the 1 state). The low resistance path ensures that the output voltage is independent of the transistor dimensions. As we use identical transistors for the driver and the load of the CMOS inverter a change of the dimensions of the FETs has no impact on the output voltage of the inverter. The input resistance of the inverter is infinite, because the input current is close to zero. Thus a large number of similar inverters can be driven with no loss on the signal level. 25

26 7.6 From CMOS inverters to logical gates Inverters are elementary components of digital logic circuits. All circuits can be reduced to inverter circuits. In the following the gained knowledge on CMOS inverters will be used to design simple logical CMOS circuits. We will concentrate here on basic structure, where the output signal is a direct combination of the input signals. Memory elements will not be taken into account. 26

27 7.6.1 Complementary Logic In general, a CMOS inverter can be described by a NMOS pull-down transistor and a PMOS pull-up transistor, which operate in a complementary fashion. We will now apply the pull-up and pull-down concept to logical gates with more than one input signals. Therefore, we define two networks, a pull-down network (PDN) and a pull-up network. The networks operate in a complementary fashion. Let us assume we want to realize a logic gate with three input signals. As a consequence, both networks (pull-up and the pull-down network) will have three input signals. Nevertheless the number of output states is still two (0 and 1). The pulldown network is able to pull down the output signal for the possible low ground states. Opposite applies for the pull-up network. The network is able to pull-up the output signals for all high or positive states. Pull-up and pull-down network. Ref.: B. Jacob, University of Maryland 27

28 7.6.1 Complementary Logic Since the PDN comprises of NMOS transistors and the NMOS transistors conduct when the input signals is high, the PDN is active when the input signals are high. In a complementary manner, the PUN comprises PMOS transistors and PMOS transistors conduct when the input signal is low. Therefore the PUN is active for low input signals. Based on this scheme we can deduce the operation of logic gates like NOR, NAND, OR or AND. 28

29 7.6.1 Complementary Logic Implementation of a NOR gate: M2 The output signals get low if one of the input signals gets high. If A or B or both signals gets high one or two of the PMOS transistors pulls the output signal down. At the same time one or both of the NMOS transistors are in their off state, so that the output signal gets low. input A input B A B Out M1 M2 M1 out 0Vdc V Y = A + B = AB Implementation of an NOR logical gate with two inputs based on CMOS technology. 29

30 7.6.2 Transmission gate logic Besides complementary implementations of digital circuits, there is one additional transistor circuit frequently used in CMOS digital electronics. This circuit is called transmission gate (TG). A transmission gate is used as a bidirectional switch. The circuit consists of an n-channel transistor and a p-channel transistor in parallel. The two types of transistor are used as a p-channel FET pass on a 1 and an n-channel FET passes on a 0. Transmission gate. Ref.: Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1997) 30

31 7.6.2 Transmission gate logic Depending on the logic function which has to be implemented it can be advantages to use transmission gate (pass logic) rather than complementray logic. This is particularly true of XOR or multiplexers have to be implemented. Complementary Implementation Implementation of a NOR gate by using a complementary and a transmission gate approach. Ref.: B. Jacob, University of Maryland 31

32 7.6.2 Transmission gate logic Implementation of a XOR gate by using a complementary and a transmission gate approach. Ref.: B. Jacob, University of Maryland 32

33 References Michael Shur, Introduction to Electronic Devices, John Wiley & Sons; (January 1996). (Price: US$100), Audience: under graduate students Simon M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology, John Wiley & Sons; 2 nd Edition (2001). (Price: US$115), Audience: under graduate students R.F. Pierret, G.W. Neudeck, Modular Series on Solid State Devices, Volumes in the Series: Semicondcutor Fundamentals, The pn junction diode, The bipolar junction transistor, Field effect devices, (Price: US$25 per book), Audience: under graduate students Adel S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press (1998), (Price: Euro). 33

Introduction to Electronic Devices

Introduction to Electronic Devices (Course Number 300331) Fall 2006 Instructor: Dr. Dietmar Knipp Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering Information: http://www.faculty.iubremen.de/dknipp/ Source: Apple Ref.: Apple Ref.: IBM Critical

More information

ECE/CoE 0132: FETs and Gates

ECE/CoE 0132: FETs and Gates ECE/CoE 0132: FETs and Gates Kartik Mohanram September 6, 2017 1 Physical properties of gates Over the next 2 lectures, we will discuss some of the physical characteristics of integrated circuits. We will

More information

ECE520 VLSI Design. Lecture 5: Basic CMOS Inverter. Payman Zarkesh-Ha

ECE520 VLSI Design. Lecture 5: Basic CMOS Inverter. Payman Zarkesh-Ha ECE520 VLSI Design Lecture 5: Basic CMOS Inverter Payman Zarkesh-Ha Office: ECE Bldg. 230B Office hours: Wednesday 2:00-3:00PM or by appointment E-mail: pzarkesh@unm.edu Slide: 1 Review of Last Lecture

More information

EEC 118 Lecture #11: CMOS Design Guidelines Alternative Static Logic Families

EEC 118 Lecture #11: CMOS Design Guidelines Alternative Static Logic Families EEC 118 Lecture #11: CMOS Design Guidelines Alternative Static Logic Families Rajeevan Amirtharajah University of California, Davis Jeff Parkhurst Intel Corporation Announcements Homework 5 this week Lab

More information

ELEC 350L Electronics I Laboratory Fall 2012

ELEC 350L Electronics I Laboratory Fall 2012 ELEC 350L Electronics I Laboratory Fall 2012 Lab #9: NMOS and CMOS Inverter Circuits Introduction The inverter, or NOT gate, is the fundamental building block of most digital devices. The circuits used

More information

DIGITAL VLSI LAB ASSIGNMENT 1

DIGITAL VLSI LAB ASSIGNMENT 1 DIGITAL VLSI LAB ASSIGNMENT 1 Problem 1: NMOS and PMOS plots using Cadence. In this exercise, you are required to generate both NMOS and PMOS I-V device characteristics (I/P and O/P) using Cadence (Use

More information

Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) devices PMOS. n-type

Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) devices PMOS. n-type Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS devices Principle of MOS Field Effect Transistor transistor operation Metal (poly gate on oxide between source and drain Source and drain implants of opposite type to substrate.

More information

Introduction to the Long Channel MOSFET. Dr. Lynn Fuller

Introduction to the Long Channel MOSFET. Dr. Lynn Fuller ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Introduction to the Long Channel MOSFET Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee Electrical and 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester,

More information

Microelectronics, BSc course

Microelectronics, BSc course Microelectronics, BSc course MOS inverters http://www.eet.bme.hu/~poppe/miel/en/13-mosfet2.pptx http://www.eet.bme.hu Overview of MSOFET types 13-11-2014 Microelectronics BSc course, MOS inverters András

More information

Field Effect Transistors

Field Effect Transistors Chapter 5: Field Effect Transistors Slide 1 FET FET s (Field Effect Transistors) are much like BJT s (Bipolar Junction Transistors). Similarities: Amplifiers Switching devices Impedance matching circuits

More information

Lecture 11 Digital Circuits (I) THE INVERTER

Lecture 11 Digital Circuits (I) THE INVERTER Lecture 11 Digital Circuits (I) THE INVERTER Outline Introduction to digital circuits The inverter NMOS inverter with resistor pull-up Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini; Chapter 5, Sections 5.1-5.3 6.12

More information

MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY

MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY Introduction A MOS transistor is a majority-carrier device, in which the current in a conducting channel between the source and the drain is modulated by a voltage applied to the

More information

BJT Amplifier. Superposition principle (linear amplifier)

BJT Amplifier. Superposition principle (linear amplifier) BJT Amplifier Two types analysis DC analysis Applied DC voltage source AC analysis Time varying signal source Superposition principle (linear amplifier) The response of a linear amplifier circuit excited

More information

Lecture 11 Circuits numériques (I) L'inverseur

Lecture 11 Circuits numériques (I) L'inverseur Lecture 11 Circuits numériques (I) L'inverseur Outline Introduction to digital circuits The inverter NMOS inverter with resistor pull-up 6.12 Spring 24 Lecture 11 1 1. Introduction to digital circuits:

More information

Microelectronics, BSc course

Microelectronics, BSc course Microelectronics, BSc course MOS circuits: CMOS circuits, construction http://www.eet.bme.hu/~poppe/miel/en/14-cmos.pptx http://www.eet.bme.hu The abstraction level of our study: SYSTEM + MODULE GATE CIRCUIT

More information

Radivoje Đurić, 2015, Analogna Integrisana Kola 1

Radivoje Đurić, 2015, Analogna Integrisana Kola 1 OTA-output buffer 1 According to the types of loads, the driving capability of the output stages differs. For switched capacitor circuits which have high impedance capacitive loads, class A output stage

More information

Designing Information Devices and Systems II Fall 2017 Note 1

Designing Information Devices and Systems II Fall 2017 Note 1 EECS 16B Designing Information Devices and Systems II Fall 2017 Note 1 1 Digital Information Processing Electrical circuits manipulate voltages (V ) and currents (I) in order to: 1. Process information

More information

Analysis of Different Topologies of Inverter in 0.18µm CMOS Technology and its Comparision

Analysis of Different Topologies of Inverter in 0.18µm CMOS Technology and its Comparision Analysis of Different Topologies of Inverter in 0.18µm CMOS Technology and its Comparision Ashish Panchal (Senior Lecturer) Electronics & Instrumentation Engg. Department, Shri G.S.Institute of Technology

More information

2-Bit Magnitude Comparator Design Using Different Logic Styles

2-Bit Magnitude Comparator Design Using Different Logic Styles International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 2 Issue 1 ǁ January. 2013 ǁ PP.13-24 2-Bit Magnitude Comparator Design Using Different Logic

More information

VLSI Designed Low Power Based DPDT Switch

VLSI Designed Low Power Based DPDT Switch International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering. ISSN 0974-2166 Volume 8, Number 1 (2015), pp. 81-86 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com VLSI Designed Low

More information

Physics 160 Lecture 11. R. Johnson May 4, 2015

Physics 160 Lecture 11. R. Johnson May 4, 2015 Physics 160 Lecture 11 R. Johnson May 4, 2015 Two Solutions to the Miller Effect Putting a matching resistor on the collector of Q 1 would be a big mistake, as it would give no benefit and would produce

More information

Chapter 5. Operational Amplifiers and Source Followers. 5.1 Operational Amplifier

Chapter 5. Operational Amplifiers and Source Followers. 5.1 Operational Amplifier Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and Source Followers 5.1 Operational Amplifier In single ended operation the output is measured with respect to a fixed potential, usually ground, whereas in double-ended

More information

Chapter 6: Field-Effect Transistors

Chapter 6: Field-Effect Transistors Chapter 6: Field-Effect Transistors FETs vs. BJTs Similarities: Amplifiers Switching devices Impedance matching circuits Differences: FETs are voltage controlled devices. BJTs are current controlled devices.

More information

CPE/EE 427, CPE 527 VLSI Design I CMOS Inverter. CMOS Inverter: A First Look

CPE/EE 427, CPE 527 VLSI Design I CMOS Inverter. CMOS Inverter: A First Look CPE/EE 427, CPE 527 VLSI Design I CMOS Inverter Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Alabama in Huntsville Aleksandar Milenkovic CMOS Inverter: A First Look C L 9/11/26 VLSI

More information

MOSFET & IC Basics - GATE Problems (Part - I)

MOSFET & IC Basics - GATE Problems (Part - I) MOSFET & IC Basics - GATE Problems (Part - I) 1. Channel current is reduced on application of a more positive voltage to the GATE of the depletion mode n channel MOSFET. (True/False) [GATE 1994: 1 Mark]

More information

Design and Simulation of Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode Class-D Power Amplifiers for 2.4 GHz Applications

Design and Simulation of Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode Class-D Power Amplifiers for 2.4 GHz Applications Design and Simulation of Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode Class-D Power Amplifiers for 2.4 GHz Applications Armindo António Barão da Silva Pontes Abstract This paper presents the design and simulations of

More information

The Common Source JFET Amplifier

The Common Source JFET Amplifier The Common Source JFET Amplifier Small signal amplifiers can also be made using Field Effect Transistors or FET's for short. These devices have the advantage over bipolar transistors of having an extremely

More information

6.976 High Speed Communication Circuits and Systems Lecture 5 High Speed, Broadband Amplifiers

6.976 High Speed Communication Circuits and Systems Lecture 5 High Speed, Broadband Amplifiers 6.976 High Speed Communication Circuits and Systems Lecture 5 High Speed, Broadband Amplifiers Michael Perrott Massachusetts Institute of Technology Copyright 2003 by Michael H. Perrott Broadband Communication

More information

Design of basic digital circuit blocks based on an OFET device charge model

Design of basic digital circuit blocks based on an OFET device charge model Vol. 34, No. 5 Journal of Semiconductors May 2013 Design of basic digital circuit blocks based on an OFET device charge model Shen Shu( 沈澍 ) School of Computer Science & Technology, Nanjing University

More information

Course Outline. 4. Chapter 5: MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) 5. Chapter 6: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

Course Outline. 4. Chapter 5: MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) 5. Chapter 6: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Course Outline 1. Chapter 1: Signals and Amplifiers 1 2. Chapter 3: Semiconductors 3. Chapter 4: Diodes 4. Chapter 5: MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) 5. Chapter 6: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

More information

Low Voltage Standard CMOS Opamp Design Techniques

Low Voltage Standard CMOS Opamp Design Techniques Low Voltage Standard CMOS Opamp Design Techniques Student name: Eliyahu Zamir Student number: 961339780 Course: ECE1352F Proffessor: Khoman Phang Page 1 of 18 1.Abstract In a never-ending effort to reduce

More information

Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Midterm Exam

Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Midterm Exam Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Midterm Exam ECE-3400 Fall 2013 Tue, September 24, 2013 Duration: 80min First name Solutions Last name Solutions ID number

More information

Lecture 9 Transistors

Lecture 9 Transistors Lecture 9 Transistors Physics Transistor/transistor logic CMOS logic CA 1947 http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/164301-graphenetransistors-based-on-negative-resistance-could-spell-theend-of-silicon-and-semiconductors

More information

CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design

CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design Chapter 8 Sequential MOS Logic Circuits 1 Introduction Combinational logic circuit Lack the capability of storing any previous events Non-regenerative

More information

ECEN 474/704 Lab 5: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifiers

ECEN 474/704 Lab 5: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifiers ECEN 474/704 Lab 5: Frequency Response of Inverting Amplifiers Objective Design, simulate and layout various inverting amplifiers. Introduction Inverting amplifiers are fundamental building blocks of electronic

More information

An introduction to Depletion-mode MOSFETs By Linden Harrison

An introduction to Depletion-mode MOSFETs By Linden Harrison An introduction to Depletion-mode MOSFETs By Linden Harrison Since the mid-nineteen seventies the enhancement-mode MOSFET has been the subject of almost continuous global research, development, and refinement

More information

UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency

UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency Jamie E. Reinhold December 15, 2011 Abstract The design, simulation and layout of a UMAINE ECE Morse code Read Only Memory and transmitter

More information

MOS Field Effect Transistors

MOS Field Effect Transistors MOS Field Effect Transistors A gate contact gate interconnect n polysilicon gate source contacts W active area (thin oxide area) polysilicon gate contact metal interconnect drain contacts A bulk contact

More information

Device Technology( Part 2 ): CMOS IC Technologies

Device Technology( Part 2 ): CMOS IC Technologies 1 Device Technology( Part 2 ): CMOS IC Technologies Chapter 3 : Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology by M. Quirk & J. Serda Saroj Kumar Patra, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian

More information

Q.1: Power factor of a linear circuit is defined as the:

Q.1: Power factor of a linear circuit is defined as the: Q.1: Power factor of a linear circuit is defined as the: a. Ratio of real power to reactive power b. Ratio of real power to apparent power c. Ratio of reactive power to apparent power d. Ratio of resistance

More information

Laboratory #9 MOSFET Biasing and Current Mirror

Laboratory #9 MOSFET Biasing and Current Mirror Laboratory #9 MOSFET Biasing and Current Mirror. Objectives 1. Review the MOSFET characteristics and transfer function. 2. Understand the relationship between the bias, the input signal and the output

More information

Lecture 20: Passive Mixers

Lecture 20: Passive Mixers EECS 142 Lecture 20: Passive Mixers Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley Copyright c 2005 by Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 20 p.

More information

Field - Effect Transistor

Field - Effect Transistor Page 1 of 6 Field - Effect Transistor Aim :- To draw and study the out put and transfer characteristics of the given FET and to determine its parameters. Apparatus :- FET, two variable power supplies,

More information

Field-Effect Transistors

Field-Effect Transistors R L 2 Field-Effect Transistors 2.1 BAIC PRINCIPLE OF JFET The eld-effect transistor (FET) is an electric- eld (voltage) operated transistor, developed as a semiconductor equivalent of the vacuum-tube device,

More information

Abu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department. Logic Families

Abu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department. Logic Families bu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department Logic Families There are several different families of logic gates. Each family has its capabilities and limitations, its advantages and disadvantages. The

More information

Static Random Access Memory - SRAM Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage:

Static Random Access Memory - SRAM Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Static Random Access Memory - SRAM Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Email:

More information

Lecture 7. July 24, Detecting light (converting light to electrical signal)

Lecture 7. July 24, Detecting light (converting light to electrical signal) Lecture 7 July 24, 2017 Detecting light (converting light to electrical signal) Photoconductor Photodiode Managing electrical signal Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor Charge coupled device (CCD)

More information

An Analytical model of the Bulk-DTMOS transistor

An Analytical model of the Bulk-DTMOS transistor Journal of Electron Devices, Vol. 8, 2010, pp. 329-338 JED [ISSN: 1682-3427 ] Journal of Electron Devices www.jeldev.org An Analytical model of the Bulk-DTMOS transistor Vandana Niranjan Indira Gandhi

More information

Chapter 8. Field Effect Transistor

Chapter 8. Field Effect Transistor Chapter 8. Field Effect Transistor Field Effect Transistor: The field effect transistor is a semiconductor device, which depends for its operation on the control of current by an electric field. There

More information

Basic digital logic functions and gates

Basic digital logic functions and gates Basic digital logic functions and gates Digital logic functions and gates are the main blocks behind digital logic design. s and 1s combine to produce values that are generated by basic gates such as NOT,

More information

Lecture Summary Module 1 Switching Algebra and CMOS Logic Gates

Lecture Summary Module 1 Switching Algebra and CMOS Logic Gates Lecture Summary Module 1 Switching Algebra and CMOS Logic Gates Learning Outcome: an ability to analyze and design CMOS logic gates Learning Objectives: 1-1. convert numbers from one base (radix) to another:

More information

Common-Source Amplifiers

Common-Source Amplifiers Lab 2: Common-Source Amplifiers Introduction The common-source stage is the most basic amplifier stage encountered in CMOS analog circuits. Because of its very high input impedance, moderate-to-high gain,

More information

Chapter 13: Introduction to Switched- Capacitor Circuits

Chapter 13: Introduction to Switched- Capacitor Circuits Chapter 13: Introduction to Switched- Capacitor Circuits 13.1 General Considerations 13.2 Sampling Switches 13.3 Switched-Capacitor Amplifiers 13.4 Switched-Capacitor Integrator 13.5 Switched-Capacitor

More information

5. CMOS Gates: DC and Transient Behavior

5. CMOS Gates: DC and Transient Behavior 5. CMOS Gates: DC and Transient Behavior Jacob Abraham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin VLSI Design Fall 2017 September 18, 2017 ECE Department, University

More information

MOS Logic and Gate Circuits. Wired OR

MOS Logic and Gate Circuits. Wired OR MOS Logic and Gate Circuits A A A B A AB Y Wired OR Contents Introduction NMOS Logic Resistive Load Saturated Enhancement Load Linear Enhancement Load Depletion Load Some Gates Transient in NMOS Circuit

More information

EECE2412 Final Exam. with Solutions

EECE2412 Final Exam. with Solutions EECE2412 Final Exam with Solutions Prof. Charles A. DiMarzio Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Northeastern University Fall Semester 2010 My file 11480/exams/final General Instructions:

More information

Design & Analysis of Low Power Full Adder

Design & Analysis of Low Power Full Adder 1174 Design & Analysis of Low Power Full Adder Sana Fazal 1, Mohd Ahmer 2 1 Electronics & communication Engineering Integral University, Lucknow 2 Electronics & communication Engineering Integral University,

More information

CMOS Operational Amplifier

CMOS Operational Amplifier The George Washington University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Course: ECE218 Instructor: Mona E. Zaghloul Students: Shunping Wang Yiping (Neil) Tsai Data: 05/14/07 Introduction In

More information

MOS Inverters Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage:

MOS Inverters Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING MOS Inverters Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (585) 475-2035 Email: Lynn.Fuller@rit.edu

More information

A perspective on low-power, low-voltage supervisory circuits implemented with SOI technology.

A perspective on low-power, low-voltage supervisory circuits implemented with SOI technology. Silicon-On-Insulator A perspective on low-power, low-voltage supervisory circuits implemented with SOI technology. By Ondrej Subrt The magic term of SOI is attracting a lot of attention in the design of

More information

An Overview of Static Power Dissipation

An Overview of Static Power Dissipation An Overview of Static Power Dissipation Jayanth Srinivasan 1 Introduction Power consumption is an increasingly important issue in general purpose processors, particularly in the mobile computing segment.

More information

An energy efficient full adder cell for low voltage

An energy efficient full adder cell for low voltage An energy efficient full adder cell for low voltage Keivan Navi 1a), Mehrdad Maeen 2, and Omid Hashemipour 1 1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran,

More information

Lecture 26 Differential Amplifiers (I) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS

Lecture 26 Differential Amplifiers (I) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS Lecture 6 Differential Amplifiers (I) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS Outline 1. Introduction. Incremental analysis of differential amplifier 3. Common-source differential amplifier Reading Assignment: Howe and

More information

PSPICE tutorial: MOSFETs

PSPICE tutorial: MOSFETs PSPICE tutorial: MOSFETs In this tutorial, we will examine MOSFETs using a simple DC circuit and a CMOS inverter with DC sweep analysis. This tutorial is written with the assumption that you know how to

More information

Design and Layout of Two Stage High Bandwidth Operational Amplifier

Design and Layout of Two Stage High Bandwidth Operational Amplifier Design and Layout of Two Stage High Bandwidth Operational Amplifier Yasir Mahmood Qureshi Abstract This paper presents the design and layout of a two stage, high speed operational amplifiers using standard

More information

CHAPTER 6 GDI BASED LOW POWER FULL ADDER CELL FOR DSP DATA PATH BLOCKS

CHAPTER 6 GDI BASED LOW POWER FULL ADDER CELL FOR DSP DATA PATH BLOCKS 87 CHAPTER 6 GDI BASED LOW POWER FULL ADDER CELL FOR DSP DATA PATH BLOCKS 6.1 INTRODUCTION In this approach, the four types of full adders conventional, 16T, 14T and 10T have been analyzed in terms of

More information

Low Power 8-Bit ALU Design Using Full Adder and Multiplexer

Low Power 8-Bit ALU Design Using Full Adder and Multiplexer Low Power 8-Bit ALU Design Using Full Adder and Multiplexer Gaddam Sushil Raj B.Tech, Vardhaman College of Engineering. ABSTRACT: Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of microprocessor. In

More information

Propagation Delay, Circuit Timing & Adder Design. ECE 152A Winter 2012

Propagation Delay, Circuit Timing & Adder Design. ECE 152A Winter 2012 Propagation Delay, Circuit Timing & Adder Design ECE 152A Winter 2012 Reading Assignment Brown and Vranesic 2 Introduction to Logic Circuits 2.9 Introduction to CAD Tools 2.9.1 Design Entry 2.9.2 Synthesis

More information

Designing of a 8-bits DAC in 0.35µm CMOS Technology For High Speed Communication Systems Application

Designing of a 8-bits DAC in 0.35µm CMOS Technology For High Speed Communication Systems Application Designing of a 8-bits DAC in 035µm CMOS Technology For High Speed Communication Systems Application Veronica Ernita Kristianti, Hamzah Afandi, Eri Prasetyo ibowo, Brahmantyo Heruseto and shinta Kisriani

More information

Performance Comparison of CMOS and Finfet Based Circuits At 45nm Technology Using SPICE

Performance Comparison of CMOS and Finfet Based Circuits At 45nm Technology Using SPICE RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Performance Comparison of CMOS and Finfet Based Circuits At 45nm Technology Using SPICE Mugdha Sathe*, Dr. Nisha Sarwade** *(Department of Electrical Engineering, VJTI, Mumbai-19)

More information

Improved Inverter: Current-Source Pull-Up. MOS Inverter with Current-Source Pull-Up. What else could be connected between the drain and V DD?

Improved Inverter: Current-Source Pull-Up. MOS Inverter with Current-Source Pull-Up. What else could be connected between the drain and V DD? Improved Inverter: Current-Source Pull-Up MOS Inverter with Current-Source Pull-Up What else could be connected between the drain and? Replace resistor with current source I SUP roc i D v IN v OUT Find

More information

MODULE-2: Field Effect Transistors (FET)

MODULE-2: Field Effect Transistors (FET) FORMAT-1B Definition: MODULE-2: Field Effect Transistors (FET) FET is a three terminal electronic device used for variety of applications that match with BJT. In FET, an electric field is established by

More information

6.776 High Speed Communication Circuits Lecture 6 MOS Transistors, Passive Components, Gain- Bandwidth Issue for Broadband Amplifiers

6.776 High Speed Communication Circuits Lecture 6 MOS Transistors, Passive Components, Gain- Bandwidth Issue for Broadband Amplifiers 6.776 High Speed Communication Circuits Lecture 6 MOS Transistors, Passive Components, Gain- Bandwidth Issue for Broadband Amplifiers Massachusetts Institute of Technology February 17, 2005 Copyright 2005

More information

EE105 Fall 2015 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

EE105 Fall 2015 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits EE105 Fall 2015 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 11-1 Transistor Operating Mode in Amplifiers Transistors are biased in flat part of

More information

MOS IC Amplifiers. Token Ring LAN JSSC 12/89

MOS IC Amplifiers. Token Ring LAN JSSC 12/89 MO IC Amplifiers MOFETs are inferior to BJTs for analog design in terms of quality per silicon area But MO is the technology of choice for digital applications Therefore, most analog portions of mixed-signal

More information

LOW POWER CMOS CELL STRUCTURES BASED ON ADIABATIC SWITCHING

LOW POWER CMOS CELL STRUCTURES BASED ON ADIABATIC SWITCHING LOW POWER CMOS CELL STRUCTURES BASED ON ADIABATIC SWITCHING Uday Kumar Rajak Electronics & Telecommunication Dept. Columbia Institute of Engineering and Technology,Raipur (India) ABSTRACT The dynamic power

More information

Design Simulation and Analysis of NMOS Characteristics for Varying Oxide Thickness

Design Simulation and Analysis of NMOS Characteristics for Varying Oxide Thickness MIT International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, August 2014, pp. 81 85 81 Design Simulation and Analysis of NMOS Characteristics for Varying Oxide Thickness Alpana

More information

EDC UNIT IV- Transistor and FET Characteristics EDC Lesson 9- ", Raj Kamal, 1

EDC UNIT IV- Transistor and FET Characteristics EDC Lesson 9- , Raj Kamal, 1 EDC UNIT IV- Transistor and FET Characteristics Lesson-9: JFET and Construction of JFET 2008 EDC Lesson 9- ", Raj Kamal, 1 1. Transistor 2008 EDC Lesson 9- ", Raj Kamal, 2 Transistor Definition The transferred-resistance

More information

DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A DESIGN PERSPECTIVE 2 N D E D I T I O N

DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A DESIGN PERSPECTIVE 2 N D E D I T I O N DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A DESIGN PERSPECTIVE 2 N D E D I T I O N Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Borivoje Nikolic CONTENTS PART I: THE FABRICS Chapter 1: Introduction (32 pages) 1.1 A Historical

More information

CMOS Inverter & Ring Oscillator

CMOS Inverter & Ring Oscillator CMOS Inverter & Ring Oscillator Theory: In this Lab we will implement a CMOS inverter and then use it as a building block for a Ring Oscillator. MOSfets (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors)

More information

NMOS Inverter Lab ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING. NMOS Inverter Lab

NMOS Inverter Lab ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING. NMOS Inverter Lab ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING NMOS Inverter Lab Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee/ 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (585) 475-2035

More information

USER MANUAL FOR THE SN74LS04 HEX INVERTER AND THE DM7407 HEX BUFFER FUNCTIONAL MODULE

USER MANUAL FOR THE SN74LS04 HEX INVERTER AND THE DM7407 HEX BUFFER FUNCTIONAL MODULE USER MANUAL FOR THE SN74LS04 HEX INVERTER AND THE DM7407 HEX BUFFER FUNCTIONAL MODULE SN74LS04 Hex Inverter And DM7407 Hex Buffer 1 5/24/04 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Index of Figures...3 2. Index of Tables...

More information

Gdi Technique Based Carry Look Ahead Adder Design

Gdi Technique Based Carry Look Ahead Adder Design IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP) Volume 4, Issue 6, Ver. I (Nov - Dec. 2014), PP 01-09 e-issn: 2319 4200, p-issn No. : 2319 4197 Gdi Technique Based Carry Look Ahead Adder Design

More information

4.5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuits

4.5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuits 4.5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuits Biasing: establishing an appropriate DC operating point for the MOSFET - A fundamental step in the design of a MOSFET amplifier circuit An appropriate DC operating

More information

Field-Effect Transistor

Field-Effect Transistor Module: Electronics Module Number: 610/6501- Philadelphia University Faculty of Engineering Communication and Electronics Engineering Field-Effect Transistor ntroduction FETs (Field-Effect Transistors)

More information

Analog and Telecommunication Electronics

Analog and Telecommunication Electronics Politecnico di Torino - ICT School Analog and Telecommunication Electronics F2 Active power devices»mos»bjt» IGBT, TRIAC» Safe Operating Area» Thermal analysis 30/05/2012-1 ATLCE - F2-2011 DDC Lesson F2:

More information

Due to the absence of internal nodes, inverter-based Gm-C filters [1,2] allow achieving bandwidths beyond what is possible

Due to the absence of internal nodes, inverter-based Gm-C filters [1,2] allow achieving bandwidths beyond what is possible A Forward-Body-Bias Tuned 450MHz Gm-C 3 rd -Order Low-Pass Filter in 28nm UTBB FD-SOI with >1dBVp IIP3 over a 0.7-to-1V Supply Joeri Lechevallier 1,2, Remko Struiksma 1, Hani Sherry 2, Andreia Cathelin

More information

HW#3 Solution. Dr. Parker. Spring 2014

HW#3 Solution. Dr. Parker. Spring 2014 HW#3 olution r. Parker pring 2014 Assume for the problems below that V dd = 1.8 V, V tp0 is -.7 V. and V tn0 is.7 V. V tpbodyeffect is -.9 V. and V tnbodyeffect is.9 V. Assume ß n (k n )= 219.4 W/L µ A(microamps)/V

More information

Technology-Independent CMOS Op Amp in Minimum Channel Length

Technology-Independent CMOS Op Amp in Minimum Channel Length Technology-Independent CMOS Op Amp in Minimum Channel Length A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by Susanta Sengupta In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

More information

Design Analysis of 1-bit Comparator using 45nm Technology

Design Analysis of 1-bit Comparator using 45nm Technology Design Analysis of 1-bit Comparator using 45nm Technology Pardeep Sharma 1, Rajesh Mehra 2 1,2 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute for Technical Teachers Training

More information

Comparative Study of Different Low Power Design Techniques for Reduction of Leakage Power in CMOS VLSI Circuits

Comparative Study of Different Low Power Design Techniques for Reduction of Leakage Power in CMOS VLSI Circuits Comparative Study of Different Low Power Design Techniques for Reduction of Leakage Power in CMOS VLSI Circuits P. S. Aswale M. E. VLSI & Embedded Systems Department of E & TC Engineering SITRC, Nashik,

More information

Lecture 24 - The Si surface and the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure (cont.) The Long Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor

Lecture 24 - The Si surface and the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure (cont.) The Long Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor 6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Spring 2007 Lecture 24-1 Lecture 24 - The Si surface and the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure (cont.) The Long Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect

More information

Electronics I. Last Time

Electronics I. Last Time (Rev. 1.0) Electronics I Lecture 28 Introduction to Field Effect Transistors (FET s) Muhammad Tilal Department of Electrical Engineering CIIT Attock Campus The logo and is the property of CIIT, Pakistan

More information

CMPEN 411 VLSI Digital Circuits Spring Lecture 24: Peripheral Memory Circuits

CMPEN 411 VLSI Digital Circuits Spring Lecture 24: Peripheral Memory Circuits CMPEN 411 VLSI Digital Circuits Spring 2011 Lecture 24: Peripheral Memory Circuits [Adapted from Rabaey s Digital Integrated Circuits, Second Edition, 2003 J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic] Sp11

More information

A Low Power and Area Efficient Full Adder Design Using GDI Multiplexer

A Low Power and Area Efficient Full Adder Design Using GDI Multiplexer A Low Power and Area Efficient Full Adder Design Using GDI Multiplexer G.Bramhini M.Tech (VLSI), Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology. G.Ravi Kumar, M.Tech Assistant Professor, Vidya Jyothi Institute of

More information

Dynamic Threshold MOS transistor for Low Voltage Analog Circuits

Dynamic Threshold MOS transistor for Low Voltage Analog Circuits 26 Dynamic Threshold MOS transistor for Low Voltage Analog Circuits Vandana Niranjan, Akanksha Singh, Ashwani Kumar Electronics and Communication Engineering Department Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University

More information

Electronic Devices. Floyd. Chapter 9. Ninth Edition. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd

Electronic Devices. Floyd. Chapter 9. Ninth Edition. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices Ninth Edition Floyd Chapter 9 The Common-Source Amplifier In a CS amplifier, the input signal is applied to the gate and the output signal is taken from the drain. The amplifier has

More information

55:041 Electronic Circuits

55:041 Electronic Circuits 55:041 Electronic Circuits Output Stages and Power Amplifiers Sections of Chapter 8 A. Kruger Power + Output Stages1 Power Amplifiers, Power FETS & BJTs Audio (stereo) MP3 Players Motor controllers Servo

More information

Lecture 26 - Design Problems & Wrap-Up. May 15, 2003

Lecture 26 - Design Problems & Wrap-Up. May 15, 2003 6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - Spring 2003 Lecture 26-1 Lecture 26 - Design Problems & 6.012 Wrap-Up May 15, 2003 Contents: 1. Design process 2. Design project pitfalls 3. Lessons learned

More information

A NEW APPROACH TO DESIGN LOW POWER CMOS FLASH A/D CONVERTER

A NEW APPROACH TO DESIGN LOW POWER CMOS FLASH A/D CONVERTER A NEW APPROACH TO DESIGN LOW POWER CMOS FLASH A/D CONVERTER C Mohan¹ and T Ravisekhar 2 ¹M. Tech (VLSI) Student, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College (Autonomous), Tirupati, India 2 Assistant Professor,

More information