TanDEM-X: Mission Performance and Product Definition

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1 TanDEM-X: Mission Perforance and Product Definition Gerhard Krieger First TanDEM-X Science Tea Meeting 15-May-2006, Dresden Capabilities of TanDEM-X Cross-Track Interferoetry Along-Track Interferoetry New Techniques r+δr r t+δt t Digital Elevation Models Spatial Coherence (forest, ) Double DInSAR (change aps,..) High Resolution SAR Iages Large Scale Velocity Fields (ocean currents, ice drift, ) Moving Object Detection Teporal Coherence Maps 4 Phase Center MTI (traffic, ) PolInSAR (vegetation height, ) Digital eaforing (HRWS, ) Iaging (classification,..) TanDEM-X is a highly flexible sensor which enables ultiple powerful iaging odes cross-track baselines (0 k to several k) along-track baselines (0 k to several 100 k) interferoetric odes (bistatic, alternating, onostatic) SAR odes (ScanSAR, Stripap, ) bandwidth / resolution ( /300 MHz) incident angles ( ) polarisations (single, dual, quad) Slide 2 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 1

2 TanDEM-X Product Classes Standard DEMs DEM Products - Δh posting (HRTI-3) - also: 25 and 50 6 (on special request) - global access Custoised DEMs - iproved resolution (e.g. 6 ~ HRTI-4) - ultiple DEMs (different seasons/years) - only on local/regional basis Supporting inforation - geocoded SAR iages - coherence aps - height error aps Radar Data Products TanDEM-X provides data for - along-track interferoetry - polarietric SAR interferoetry - four phase centre MTI - digital beaforing, Policy - user is responsible for higher level data production - supporting analysis by DLR Deliverables - SLC SAR iages - auxiliary data (baselines, ) - interferogras (if applicable) - SAR raw data (on special request) Slide 3 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition HRTI-3 DEM Specification Requireent Horizontal Post Spacing Horizontal Accuracy Absolute Vertical Accuracy Relative Vertical Accuracy Specification fixed latitude/longitude raster 90 % circular error 90 % single point error 90 % point-to-point errors Value 0.4 arcsec (~ ) Definition of 90% point-to-point errors: 1 1 relative height error Δh ~ 2 Δh absolute height error Δh single point errors (90% confidence interval) point-to-point errors (90% confidence interval) Δh σ 90% HRTI h Slide 4 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 2

3 TanDEM-X Data Acquisition Modes Pursuit Monostatic Alternating both satellites transit and receive independently susceptible to teporal decorrelation and atospheric disturbances no PRF and phase synchronisation required (backup solution) one satellite transits and both satellites receive siultaneously sall along-track displaceent required for Doppler spectra overlap requires PRF and phase synchronisation transitter alternates between PRF pulses provides three interferogras with two baselines in a single pass enables precise phase synchronisation, calibration & verification Slide 5 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Paraeter Wavelength Relative Height Accuracy ( 500 ) Value Relative Height Accuracy Chirp andwidth Peak Transit Power Duty Cycle Noise Figure TRM Losses (rad., at.,..) Antenna Size (Tx, Rx) Antenna Tapering PRF (swath variant) Processed andwidth Mis-Registration Quantization Siga Nought Model (90% occurence) aseline (perp.) Along-Track Displace. Swath Width Post Spacing 150 MHz 2260 W 18 % 4.3 d 4.1 d 4.8 x 0.7 linear phase ~3500 Hz 2266 Hz 1/10 pixel 4 bit (AQ) Ulaby (X-and, VV, Soil) 500 < 1 k 30 k x strip strip ap ap % point-topoint errors σ (standard deviation) Slide 6 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 3

4 Paraeter Wavelength Relative Height Accuracy ( 1000 ) Value Relative Height Accuracy Chirp andwidth Peak Transit Power Duty Cycle Noise Figure TRM Losses (rad., at.,..) Antenna Size (Tx, Rx) Antenna Tapering PRF (swath variant) Processed andwidth Mis-Registration Quantization Siga Nought Model (90% occurence) aseline (perp.) Along-Track Displace. Swath Width Post Spacing 150 MHz 2260 W 18 % 4.3 d 4.1 d 4.8 x 0.7 linear phase ~3500 Hz 2266 Hz 1/10 pixel 4 bit (AQ) Ulaby (X-and, VV, Soil) 500 < 1 k 30 k x strip strip ap ap Slide 7 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Phase Unwrapping TanDEM-X enables large baselines which allow for ultra high resolution DEMs with height accuracies in the sub-eter range, but Δϕ 2π (height of abiguity) Coproise on Accuracy for Global DEM use reduced baselines additional acquisitions for difficult terrain acquisition scenario for global DEM according to HRTI-3 Local/Regional Ultra High Resolution DEMs ultiple data acquisitions with large and sall baselines regional DEMs with sub-eter resolution (e.g. HRTI-4) Slide 8 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 4

5 TanDEM-X Data Acquisition Strategy Terrain Type Percentage of Total Landass Nuber of Acquistions Required Tie (without RDP) Moderately Sloped Areas 50 % 1 (h ab ~ 35 ) ~ 7 onths Hilly Areas, Tall Forests 30 % 2 (+ different h ab ) ~ 8 onths Mountainous Areas < 20 % 4 (+ asc. / desc.) ~ 11 onths Total 100 % 1-4 ~ 26 onths TanDEM-X Mission Scenario for 3 Years Global HRTI-3 DEM (incl. ultiple acquisitions for difficult terrain) Additional Applications (local HRTI-4, ATI, new techniques,...) ~ 70 % ~ 30 % Total Landass: ~ 150 Mio k 2 TanDEM-X: ~163 Mio k 2 /year (stripap, 140s/orbit) Slide 9 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Ipact of Oscillator Noise Tx τ Tx interferoetric phase errors independent oscillators Rx ainlobe dispersion aziuth displaceent increased sidelobes X τ Rx Major effects: interferoetric phase errors (aziuth odulation of DEM) aziuth displaceent increased aziuth sidelobes range drift (walk of receiving window) Slide 10 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 5

6 Phase Referencing in TanDEM-X Synchronisation Link Analysis of Residual Errors phase referencing can achieve a short ter rse below 1 in standard DEM acquisition ode by integrating ultiple sync pulses (for < 1 k) Slide 11 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition aseline Estiation and DEM Calibration oth satellites are exposed to alost identical orbit perturbations - negligible aziuth odulation / twisting of DEM swath (Δ < 0.25 for 500 k swath and unodelled δa < 100 n/s 2 ) - vertical bias and tilt of raw DEM swaths due to initial baseline estiation errors Precise baseline estiation by - double-difference GPS carrier-phase easureents - accurate orbit propagation odel - several studies predict a 3-D accuracy in the order of 1-2 DEM h 1/ h 3/k x Δ 1 calibration with overlapping swaths, crossing orbits, external references, etc. j j ρ A GPS satellites j ρ baseline vector ~ 1-2 k ρ A k ρ k Slide > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 6

7 Relative Height Accuracy (h ab 35 ) Strip Strip ap ap h h ab ab % point-topoint errors σ (standard deviation) Slide 13 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Derivation of Absolute Height Accuracy Error Source Assued Error Major Ipact on Raw DEM Swath Height Accuracy (90% confidence level, h ab 35) SNR/AQ/ < 7 stdv. additive white noise in range and aziuth < 1.5 Interferoetric aseline Estiation (Stability) < 2 LOS (stdv.) low frequency height odulation in aziuth + DEM tilt in range < 3.7 SAR Instruent < ±5 ax. ediu frequency height odulation in aziuth + systeatic height rap in aziuth < 1.0 Synchronisation Link < ±3 ax. ediu frequency height odulation in aziuth + systeatic height rap in aziuth < 0.6 DEM Calibration (incl. accuracy of reference targets) < 5.0 (90%) depends on calibration approach, in general high spatial correlation < 5.0 Total no correlation between individual error sources high spatial correlation + white noise socket < 6.6 Slide 14 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 7

8 C 0 A T s 0 0 C A C t SIREV Raw Data LO S-C orrection and First Order M otion C o pensation Azi uth Sidelob e Su pression Aziuth FFT A Range FFT Range IFFT C hirp S caling RCM Correction Range Copression Secondary Range Copression Phase Correction Azi uth IFFT Second Order M otion Copensation Azi uth FFT Azi uth IFFT Aziuth FFT Integer Resapling SIREV I age Secondary Mission Goals & New Techniques Pol-InSAR (fully polarietric!) Along-Track Interferoetry (HELIX foration!) τ Digital eaforing τ f r f a f a Multi aseline InSAR (4 phase centres!) (flexible baselines!) Super Resolution Observations (large bandwidth!) (bistatic angle!) Slide 15 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Along-Track Interferoetry HELIX r+δr r t+δt HELIX foration enables: short along-track baselines (arbitray satellite shifts along the orbits) vanishing cross-track baselines (for specified latitude/incident angle cobinations) t Exaple (bistatic ode): along 100 posting 10 σ 0 - d 2 / 2 θ inc 45 v ab 11 k/h dv ~ 0.15 k/h (stdv.) Slide 16 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 8

9 Along-Track Interferoetry with Four Phase Centres short baseline (Δt 0.2 s) long baseline (Δt s) split antenna sensitive to fast oveents sensitive to slow oveents SAR iaging with four phase centres enables highly accurate velocity estiates for slow and fast object oveents Interferoetric Perforance Exaple Along-Track aseline Signal-to-Noise Ratio Split Antenna d TanDEM-X d Accuracy (stdv., 45 incident angle) 32 k/h 0.8 k/h Slide 17 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Digital eaforing with Four Phase Centres Ch. 1 Ch. 2 Ch. 3 Ch. 4 P 1 (f) P 2 (f) P 3 (f) P 4 (f) without reconstruction SAR Proc. Abiguity Suppression with reconstruction Enables High Resolution Wide Swath Iaging Slide 18 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 9

10 Polarietric SAR Interferoetry polarisations pdf(μ in ) Paraeters Paraeters h β d/ d/ μ in -7.0 d in -7.0 d μ ax 3.0 d ax 3.0 d k 4 k θ inc 35 inc pdf(μ ax ) Slide 19 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition Double Differential SAR Interferoetry e.g. difference between two single-pass cross-track interferogras Strip Strip ap ap h(t 1 ) pass 1 pass 2 ϕ 1 ϕ 2 Δh < 10 c h(t 2 ) Δh ~ ϕ 2 - ϕ 1 coherence between passes not andatory Grounding line detection, vegetation growth, snow/ice accuulation,? Slide 20 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 10

11 Conclusions The DEM perforance analysis deonstrates the feasibility to acquire with TanDEM-X a global DEM according to the eerging HRTI-3 standard. DEMs with higher resolution can be generated on a local/regional scale by additional TanDEM-X data acquisitions. Exeplary perforance investigations show the great potential of TanDEM-X to develop and deonstrate new reote sensing techniques and applications. Slide 21 > TanDEM-X Mission Perforance and Product Definition 11

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