Process Components. Process component

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Process Components. Process component"

Transcription

1 What are PROCESS COMPONENTS? Input Transducer Process component Output Transducer The input transducer circuits are connected to PROCESS COMPONENTS. These components control the action of the OUTPUT components depending on the signal received from the INPUT component. The process will do nothing until it receives information from the INPUT component. INPUT components alone cannot switch on OUTPUT components because they do not have a current driver to be able to operate any OUTPUT device. PROCESS components covered in the syllabus: 37

2 What is a Transistor? It is known as the bi-polar transistor and made from 3 layers of semiconductor material the transistor is an amplifier of current, a current driver, and also as an electronic switch operated by voltage. The semi-conductor material used is N-type and P-type. They are layered together as follows: Collector Each leg performs a different function and therefore is labelled accordingly: Base N P N The symbol for the Transistor: Emitter Collector Base Emitter How does it work? The collector is connected to the OUTPUT component and the Base is connected to the INPUT component. The Emitter emits electrons back to the battery and therefore is connected to the battery 0V or black wire. When a voltage of over 0.7 Volts is applied to the BASE through a limiting resistor, the Transistor connects Base Small Current Collector Emitter Large Current Collector to Emitter and switches ON. In so doing a LARGE current now flows from Collector to Emitter through the Transistor and turns ON the OUTPUT component. To do this only a tiny amount of current is applied at the BASE through a limiting resistor. 38

3 So to connect up an input component to a transistor, the circuit would look like this: OUTPUT GOES HERE +6 10K Collector 1K Base Limiting Resistor Emitter Power Supply INPUT CIRCUIT PROCESS The purpose of the limiting resistor is to limit (control) the amount of current flowing into the base. Without a 1K resistor too much current will flow between BASE and EMITTER and the transistor will fail. Any input sensing circuit can be connected to the transistor as described in the arrangement above. Transistors come in packages such as these, and you will need a key to decipher which legs are the base, collector and emitter and so on. RAPID electronics catalogues include a key. You can see a copy of this key on the next page. Inside a BC

4 Decoding Transistor Legs Identify from the catalogue which can type the transistor is packaged in for example TO92 Hold the transistor with the legs pointing towards you with the flat in the same place as on the diagram. Now you can find the C, B and E. The T092 can type is used for BC184 The X11 can type is used for BCX38B Transistors are given code names that are used to identify their safe operating characteristics. On the next page is an example of the BC184 transistor data sheet. It has much more information than we actually need for GCSE Systems and Control, but the important areas are high lighted. Milliamps or ma It is important to note that: 1 Amp = 1000mA So ½ Amp or 0.5 Amp = 500mA 0.1 Amp = 100mA Likewise 250mA = 0.25 Amps So 20mA (the maximum current allowed to flow through an LED) is 0.02A. The maximum current a transistor can handle between Collector and Emitter is rated in ma 40

5 How can I learn to remember the symbol? LOOK, COVER, REMEMBER and WRITE Use this method to practice drawing and labelling the transistor symbol. Base Collector Emitter hfe or current gain. A transistor also amplifies current, and is known as hfe. To calculate the amplification of a transistor the formula is: hfe = Ic Ib Ic is bigger than Ib Ib is always very small So if Ic = 100mA and Ib = 1mA hfe = Ic = 100 therefore the hfe is 100 Ib 1 41

6 Activity: Connect up the Nightlight Circuit Shown below on a breadboard. Input LDR to sense dark Process BC184 Output LED When the LDR is covered the LED will light. The 100K variable resistor can adjust the threshold of the circuit, so it will operate at different light levels K 1K 330Ω Limiting Resistor OUTPUT Power Supply INPUT CIRCUIT PROCESS In order to make this circuit more responsive change the BC184 transistor for a BCX38B and write down what you see happening. 42

7 Your bread board layout might look like this: REMEMBER THE LED will only light when you cover the LDR 43

8 Darlington Pairs A BCX38B is a Darlington pair transistor. It contains 2 transistors in one. This means it can switch on and off very quickly. This can then provide very clear switching from one state to another. It would be useful for streetlights to switch them on and off, not gradually brighten. 44

9 SAQ Label this transistor with Collector Base and Emitter What Voltage will switch on a Transistor at its base? Use a ruler and draw a potential Divider circuit with Rtop = 100K and Rbot = 200K. Connect to a 9V battery. Use a calculator and calculate Voltage VRb 45

10 The Thyristor A three-legged component very similar to the Transistor, except it can latch on. This means when you apply a voltage to its gate leg it will conduct between Anode and Cathode permanently until the current is interrupted. It is made from four layers of semiconductor material as opposed to three with the transistor, however a small current at the gate will allow a large current to flow between the Anode and Cathode. Anode LARGE current P Type N Type small current gate P Type N Type Cathode The symbol for a Thyristor is : Anode gate Cathode 46

11 Crocodile clips Design a circuit to set off an alarm when some one presses a pressure mat, the circuit should latch on: My Input will be: My Process will be: My Output will be: My system block diagram looks like this: Paste your Crocodile clips model here: 47

12 PIC Chips We will cover PIC chips in more detail in Computer Control, however they are PROGRAMMABLE INTERFACE CONTROLLERS, or Peripheral Interface Controllers. They are self-contained micro controllers that can be programmed and reprogrammed to perform a number of different operations, or sequences. However they still need to be connected into an electronic circuit. In order to connect PIC chips to electronic circuitry you will need to know the PIN Diagram of the PIC chip you are using. PIC chips come in variety of sizes, described by the number of legs they have. In school we use 8 pin or 18 pin PIC chips. We use the PICAXE system of PIC chips. +6V Serial in Pin 4 Pin PICAXE V Pin 0 Pin 1 Pin 2 Each leg has a specific function but in essence Pin 0 to Pin 4 can be used as either inputs or outputs to a system. With the exception Pin 3 is always an input and Pin 0 is always an output. For more information on the PICAXE system see the Chapter on Computer Control or refer to A circuit is drawn below illustrating how a PICAXE chip can be connected PICAXE Activity Study this circuit and suggest values for the resistors. Label the 6V battery, push button switch and LEDs. Label the legs from 1 to 8 from the Pin Diagram above. This circuit will do nothing until the PIC Chip has been programmed. 48

13 PICAXE Pin Diagrams 49

14 OP AMP The Operational Amplifier is a very high gain amplifier that can be used in a variety of modes. It comes in a similar package to the 8-pinned PIC chip, but is not programmable. PIN diagram of Offset Null 2 Inverting Input 3 Non inverting Input 4 0V (-V) 5 Offset Null 6 Output 7 +V 8 Not connected OP AMP symbol V LEG 7 Inverting input - V out Non - Inverting input + -V With any amplifier the gain of the amplifier (A v ) is given using the formula: A v = Ouput Voltage = V out Input Voltage = V in For example if Vin = 0.5 Volts and Vout = 7 Volts A v = Vout Vin Av = Av = 14 50

15 Inverting Amp Rf Input Voltage Rin 0V - + +V -V Vout The gain in this case is given by the ratio of the feedback resistor (Rf) and the input resistor (Ri). Av = Rf Rin The output will always be inverted in respect to the input. If the input is negative the output will be postive and vice versa. Non Inverting amplifier +V Input Voltage - + -V Vout Rin Rf 0V The gain is set by the Rf and Rin. Av can be calculated using the formula: Av = 1+ Rf Rin If the input goes positive the output will go positive and the same of the negative input. The output will be an amplified version of the input 51

16 The Comparator or really sensitive switch. +9V -t - 10kΩ Ref + 4k7Ω 1kΩ In a practical comparator circuit the non-inverting input is set at a reference voltage, and the inverting input is connected to a potential divider circuit. In this way the OP AMP compares one voltage with another. Because there is no feedback resistor the circuit works at its maximum amplification (approximately 10,000) and amplifies the difference between the reference and the input voltage. So the output will swing between one supply voltage and another, in this case 0V and 9V. In practice it will never reach 9V and so a maximum of 7V can be measured. Most IC s can only sink or source 10mA, and so you will see a transistor used as a transducer driver to switch on the buzzer in this case. Sinking current means for an output to receive current, and source means to output current to a device. - + Sourcing current - + Sinking current 52

17 555 Timer The 555 integrated circuit is used as the main component in one of two multivibrator circuits. The monostable multivibrator used to switch something on or off for a certain length of time. The astable multivibrator, can be used as a pulse generator to provide a series of clock pulses for a counter or to turn something on and off continuously. The 555 is an 8 pinned DIL (Dual In Line) Integrated Circuit (IC) which consists of a silicon chip inside a plastic package. The circuit inside the 555 has two comparators, a bistable, resistors and transistors. The output at pin 5 can sink or source up to 300mA. 555 Symbol +V Threshold 6 8 Discharge 7 3 Output Trigger 2 1 0V Monostable mode The output of the 555 will be at 0V until the circuit is triggered. The trigger can come from almost any input transducer that sends a signal to the trigger pin. When the circuit is triggered the output will stay switched on for a set amount of time. +6 to +12 Volts 10kΩ R C

18 Calculating the time delay for a Monostable circuit. T = 1.1 C 1 R 1 Where C is the value of capacitance and R is resistance. Let C 1 = 10µF and R 1 =100K T = 1.1 x ( x ) T = 1.1 x 1 T = 1.1s Astable circuit The number of pulses in one second (the frequency) is set by the values of C1, R1 and R2. +6 to +12 Volts R R2 6 3 C1 2 1 The output frequency can be calculated using this formula: F = 1.44 (R1 +2R2)C1 R1= 10 K R2 = 100K C1 = 1µF F = 1.44 ( ) x F = F = 6.9 Hz (Hertz) (pulses per second) 54

19 Pin Diagram of the 555 Timer IC Ground 1 8 Vcc Trigger 2 7 discharge Output 3 6 threshold Reset 4 5 control 55

20 CROCODILE CLIPS ACTIVITY Using Crocodile clips modelling software draw out the MONOSTABLE circuit and plot a graph of the output. Your circuit should look like this: Pin 5 not connected By placing probes at the output and on the capacitor you can plot the charging rate of the capacitor and the length of time the output can stay on for. Probes Charging trace Output trace 56

21 Astable activity Now draw the Astable Circuit and print out your circuit and trace. Paste your work on this page. Make R1 = 10 K, R2 = 100K and C1 = 1µF Circuit Tracing 57

22 LOGIC GATES DIGITAL electronic signals are manipulated inside PIC chips and other microprocessor by a system of LOGIC GATES. Review what is a digital signal? However this is not the only place where digital signals are manipulated. Discrete components can be bought from Rapid Electronics with logic gates built inside and these circuits can be designed to perform a particular control function. The NOT gate The NOT gate inverts any digital signal entering at A and outputs the inversion at B A B Truth table for the NOT gate A B LOGICALLY speaking the gate INVERTS the signal at A. 58

23 The AND Gate The AND gate will only give a 1 output when A AND B are both a digital 1. A B C Truth Table for the AND gate A B C The NAND gate (NOT AND) This gate INVERTS the output of the AND gate and therefore will give a digital 0 output when A AND B are both digital 1. A B C Complete the Truth Table for the NAND gate A B C

24 The OR gate A B C This gate produces a digital 1 ouput when A B are a digital 1. Complete the Truth Table. A B C The NOR gate The NOR gate produces a digital 1 only when A B C Complete the Truth Table A B C

25 EXOR gate (EXclusive OR) A B C Truth Table Describe the action of the EXOR gate. A B C The EXOR gate provides a digital 1 when LOGIC SYSTEMS complete the truth table A B D F C E A B C D E F

26 Logic gates come in packages in integrated circuits. Typical codes are the: 4000 A dual 3 input NOR gate A quad 2 input NOR gate and here is the pin diagram of such a chip. 62

27 SAQ 1. What 5 process components are covered in this section? (5) 2. What material are process components made of? (2) 3. What voltage switches on a transistor? (2) 4. Draw the symbol of a transistor (5) 5. Draw the pin diagram of a PIC AXE 08. (6) 6. What is an Op Amp (3) 7. What are the two modes of a 555 timer? (3) 8. Draw a NOR gate and explain what it does. (4) 63

HIGH LOW Astable multivibrators HIGH LOW 1:1

HIGH LOW Astable multivibrators HIGH LOW 1:1 1. Multivibrators A multivibrator circuit oscillates between a HIGH state and a LOW state producing a continuous output. Astable multivibrators generally have an even 50% duty cycle, that is that 50% of

More information

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 555 TIMER ASTABLE MULTIIBRATOR MONOSTABLE MULTIIBRATOR 555 TIMER PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) 555 TIMER Introduction The 555 timer is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of

More information

LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits

LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits LM555 TIMER INTERNAL CIRCUIT BLOCK DIAGRAM "RESET" And "CONTROL" Input Terminal Notes Most of the circuits at this web site that use the LM555 and LM556 timer chips do not

More information

FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design

FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design OPTION A: ELECTRONIC AND MICROELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEMS 2.14 Timers Astable Learning Outcomes You should be able to: demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the

More information

= V IN. and V CE. = the supply voltage 0.7 V, the transistor is on, V BE. = 0.7 V and V CE. until saturation is reached.

= V IN. and V CE. = the supply voltage 0.7 V, the transistor is on, V BE. = 0.7 V and V CE. until saturation is reached. Switching Circuits Learners should be able to: (a) describe and analyse the operation and use of n-channel enhancement mode MOSFETs and npn transistors in switching circuits, including those which interface

More information

FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design

FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design FACTFILE: GCSE Technology and Design OPTION A: ELECTRONIC AND MICROELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEMS 2.14 Timers Monostable Learning Outcomes You should be able to: demonstrate knowledge and understanding of

More information

LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL

LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL LIC & Communication Lab Manual LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL FOR V SEMESTER B.E (E& ( E&C) (For private circulation only) NAME: DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION SRI SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

More information

Low Voltage, High Current Time Delay Circuit

Low Voltage, High Current Time Delay Circuit Low Voltage, High Current Time Delay Circuit In this circuit a LM339 quad voltage comparator is used to generate a time delay and control a high current output at low voltage. Approximatey 5 amps of current

More information

LAB PROJECT 2. Lab Exercise

LAB PROJECT 2. Lab Exercise LAB PROJECT 2 Objective Investigate photoresistors, infrared light emitting diodes (IRLED), phototransistors, and fiber optic cable. Type a semi-formal lab report as described in the lab manual. Use tables

More information

Electricity and Electronics Constructor Kits

Electricity and Electronics Constructor Kits EEC470 Series The Electricity and Electronics Constructor EEC470 series is a structured practical training programme comprising an unpowered construction deck (EEC470) and a set of educational kits. Each

More information

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department

More information

Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter)

Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter) Experiment No. 1: DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT Transistor Design & Analysis (Inverter) APPARATUS: Transistor Resistors Connecting Wires Bread Board Dc Power Supply THEORY: Digital electronics circuits operate

More information

University of North Carolina, Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 3157 EE Design II Fall 2009

University of North Carolina, Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 3157 EE Design II Fall 2009 University of North Carolina, Charlotte Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECGR 3157 EE Design II Fall 2009 Lab 1 Power Amplifier Circuits Issued August 25, 2009 Due: September 11, 2009

More information

EE-110 Introduction to Engineering & Laboratory Experience Saeid Rahimi, Ph.D. Lab Timer: Blinking LED Lights and Pulse Generator

EE-110 Introduction to Engineering & Laboratory Experience Saeid Rahimi, Ph.D. Lab Timer: Blinking LED Lights and Pulse Generator EE-110 Introduction to Engineering & Laboratory Experience Saeid Rahimi, Ph.D. Lab 9 555 Timer: Blinking LED Lights and Pulse Generator In many digital and analog circuits it is necessary to create a clock

More information

For input: Peak to peak amplitude of the input = volts. Time period for 1 full cycle = sec

For input: Peak to peak amplitude of the input = volts. Time period for 1 full cycle = sec Inverting amplifier: [Closed Loop Configuration] Design: A CL = V o /V in = - R f / R in ; Assume R in = ; Gain = ; Circuit Diagram: RF +10V F.G ~ + Rin 2 3 7 IC741 + 4 6 v0-10v CRO Model Graph Inverting

More information

Data Conversion and Lab Lab 1 Fall Operational Amplifiers

Data Conversion and Lab Lab 1 Fall Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Lab Report Objectives Materials See separate report form located on the course webpage. This form should be completed during the performance of this lab. 1) To construct and operate

More information

Police Siren Circuit using NE555 Timer

Police Siren Circuit using NE555 Timer Police Siren Circuit using NE555 Timer Multivibrator: Multivibrator discover their own space in lots of applications as they are among the most broadly used circuits. The application can be anyone either

More information

Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Real Time Wireless Electrocardiogram (ECG) Monitoring System Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Guilherme K. Kolotelo, Rogers G. Reichert Cambridge, MA

More information

Light activated switch

Light activated switch Build instructions, circuit explanation and example applications Issue 1.6 Product information: www.kitronik.co.uk/quicklinks/2112/ TEACHER Light activated switch Introduction About the project kit This

More information

CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component

CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits, both analog and digital. The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is

More information

ENGR 210 Lab 12: Analog to Digital Conversion

ENGR 210 Lab 12: Analog to Digital Conversion ENGR 210 Lab 12: Analog to Digital Conversion In this lab you will investigate the operation and quantization effects of an A/D and D/A converter. A. BACKGROUND 1. LED Displays We have been using LEDs

More information

ELR 4202C Project: Finger Pulse Display Module

ELR 4202C Project: Finger Pulse Display Module EEE 4202 Project: Finger Pulse Display Module Page 1 ELR 4202C Project: Finger Pulse Display Module Overview: The project will use an LED light source and a phototransistor light receiver to create an

More information

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139 Spring 2017 V2 6.101 Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Laboratory

More information

Electronic Instrumentation ENGR-4300 Fall 2004 Section Experiment 7 Introduction to the 555 Timer, LEDs and Photodiodes

Electronic Instrumentation ENGR-4300 Fall 2004 Section Experiment 7 Introduction to the 555 Timer, LEDs and Photodiodes Experiment 7 Introduction to the 555 Timer, LEDs and Photodiodes Purpose: In this experiment, we learn a little about some of the new components which we will use in future projects. The first is the 555

More information

Supply Voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series. Author: Eilhard Haseloff

Supply Voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series. Author: Eilhard Haseloff Supply Voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series Author: Eilhard Haseloff Literature Number: SLVAE04 March 1997 i IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to

More information

High Current MOSFET Toggle Switch with Debounced Push Button

High Current MOSFET Toggle Switch with Debounced Push Button Set/Reset Flip Flop This is an example of a set/reset flip flop using discrete components. When power is applied, only one of the transistors will conduct causing the other to remain off. The conducting

More information

Figure 1: Basic Relationships for a Comparator. For example: Figure 2: Example of Basic Relationships for a Comparator

Figure 1: Basic Relationships for a Comparator. For example: Figure 2: Example of Basic Relationships for a Comparator Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 16 Voltage Comparators Administration: o Prayer Robot Building for Beginners, Chapter 15, Voltage Comparators: o Review of Sandwich s Circuit: To

More information

Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317. Medical Electronics Lab

Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317. Medical Electronics Lab Department of Biomedical Engineering BME 317 Medical Electronics Lab Modified by Dr.Husam AL.Hamad and Eng.Roba AL.Omari Summer 2009 Exp # Title Page 1 2 3 4 An Introduction To Basic Laboratory Equipments

More information

Chapter 13: Comparators

Chapter 13: Comparators Chapter 13: Comparators So far, we have used op amps in their normal, linear mode, where they follow the op amp Golden Rules (no input current to either input, no voltage difference between the inputs).

More information

St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE

St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE Dhulapally, Kompally, Secunderabad-500014. Branch Year&Sem Subject Name : Electrical and Electronics Engineering : III B. Tech I Semester : IC Applications OBJECTIVES QUESTION

More information

Power Line Carrier Communication

Power Line Carrier Communication IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE) e-issn: 2278-2834,p- ISSN: 2278-8735.Volume 9, Issue 2, Ver. II (Mar - Apr. 2014), PP 50-55 Power Line Carrier Communication Dorathe.

More information

The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit

The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit In the Bipolar Transistor tutorial, we saw that the most common circuit configuration for an NPN transistor is that of the Common Emitter Amplifier circuit and that

More information

Exam Booklet. Pulse Circuits

Exam Booklet. Pulse Circuits Exam Booklet Pulse Circuits Pulse Circuits STUDY ASSIGNMENT This booklet contains two examinations for the six lessons entitled Pulse Circuits. The material is intended to provide the last training sought

More information

LAB MANUAL EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY. Dharmapuri Regulation : 2013 Branch : B.E. ECE

LAB MANUAL EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY. Dharmapuri Regulation : 2013 Branch : B.E. ECE EC6412 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY 1 Dharmapuri 636 703 LAB MANUAL Regulation : 2013 Branch Year & Semester : B.E. ECE : II Year / IV Semester EC6412- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LABORATORY EC6412

More information

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms

Facility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department

More information

EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #2. Basic Op-Amp Circuits. Angsuman Roy. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #2. Basic Op-Amp Circuits. Angsuman Roy. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #2 Basic Op-Amp Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of

More information

HIGH COLLECTOR TO EMITTER VOLTAGE DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI PHOTOCOUPLER SERIES

HIGH COLLECTOR TO EMITTER VOLTAGE DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI PHOTOCOUPLER SERIES HIGH COLLECTOR TO EMITTER VOLTAGE DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI PHOTOCOUPLER SERIES PS2532-, -2, -4 PS2532L-, -2, -4 FEATURES HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE BV: 5 k Vr.m.s. MIN HIGH COLLECTOR TO EMITTER VOLTAGE

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. EE40: Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Lab 1. Introduction to Circuits and Instruments Guide

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. EE40: Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Lab 1. Introduction to Circuits and Instruments Guide UNERSTY OF CALFORNA, BERKELEY EE40: ntroduction to Microelectronic Circuits Lab 1 ntroduction to Circuits and nstruments Guide 1. Objectives The electronic circuit is the basis for all branches of electrical

More information

Digital Applications of the Operational Amplifier

Digital Applications of the Operational Amplifier Lab Procedure 1. Objective This project will show the versatile operation of an operational amplifier in a voltage comparator (Schmitt Trigger) circuit and a sample and hold circuit. 2. Components Qty

More information

Pb-free lead plating; RoHS compliant

Pb-free lead plating; RoHS compliant Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Pb-free lead plating; RoHS compliant SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone,

More information

AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA

AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA AND ITS APPLICATIONS M.C.SHARMA 555 TIMER AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY M. C. SHARMA, M. Sc. PUBLISHERS: BUSINESS PROMOTION PUBLICATIONS 376, Lajpat Rai Market, Delhi-110006 By the same author Transistor Novelties

More information

University of Utah Electrical & Computer Engineering Department ECE 1250 Lab 4 Pulse Width Modulation Circuit

University of Utah Electrical & Computer Engineering Department ECE 1250 Lab 4 Pulse Width Modulation Circuit University of Utah Electrical & Computer Engineering Department ECE 1250 Lab 4 Pulse Width Modulation Circuit Note: Bring textbook & parts used last time to lab. A. Stolp, 1/8/12 rev, Objective Build a

More information

Lab 4 : Transistor Oscillators

Lab 4 : Transistor Oscillators Objective: Lab 4 : Transistor Oscillators In this lab, you will learn how to design and implement a colpitts oscillator. In part II you will implement a RC phase shift oscillator Hardware Required : Pre

More information

Home Map Projects Construction Soldering Study Components 555 Symbols FAQ Links

Home Map Projects Construction Soldering Study Components 555 Symbols FAQ Links 1 of 7 7/3/2010 10:15 μμ Home Map Projects Construction Soldering Study Components 555 Symbols FAQ Links This page explains the operation of transistors in circuits. Practical matters such as testing,

More information

Maintenance Manual ERICSSONZ LBI-31552E

Maintenance Manual ERICSSONZ LBI-31552E E Maintenance Manual TONE REMOTE CONTROL BOARD 19A704686P4 (1-Frequency Transmit Receive with Channel Guard) 19A704686P6 (4-Frequency Transmit Receive with Channel Guard) ERICSSONZ Ericsson Inc. Private

More information

Abu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department. Logic Families

Abu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department. Logic Families bu Dhabi Men s College, Electronics Department Logic Families There are several different families of logic gates. Each family has its capabilities and limitations, its advantages and disadvantages. The

More information

EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS

EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS EG572EX: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS I 555 TIMERS Prepared By: Ajay Kumar Kadel, Kathmandu Engineering College 1) PIN DESCRIPTIONS Fig.1 555 timer Pin Configurations Pin 1 (Ground):- All voltages are measured

More information

Chapter 3-2 Semiconductor devices Transistors and Amplifiers-BJT Department of Mechanical Engineering

Chapter 3-2 Semiconductor devices Transistors and Amplifiers-BJT Department of Mechanical Engineering MEMS1082 Chapter 3-2 Semiconductor devices Transistors and Amplifiers-BJT Bipolar Transistor Construction npn BJT Transistor Structure npn BJT I = I + E C I B V V BE CE = V = V B C V V E E Base-to-emitter

More information

Analog I/O. ECE 153B Sensor & Peripheral Interface Design Winter 2016

Analog I/O. ECE 153B Sensor & Peripheral Interface Design Winter 2016 Analog I/O ECE 153B Sensor & Peripheral Interface Design Introduction Anytime we need to monitor or control analog signals with a digital system, we require analogto-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analog

More information

Electronic Instrumentation. Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link

Electronic Instrumentation. Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link Electronic Instrumentation Experiment 8: Diodes (continued) Project 4: Optical Communications Link Agenda Brief Review: Diodes Zener Diodes Project 4: Optical Communication Link Why optics? Understanding

More information

PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach

PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach PRESENTATION ON 555 TIMER A Practical Approach By Nagaraj Vannal Assistant Professor School of Electronics Engineering, K.L.E Technological University, Hubballi-31 nagaraj_vannal@bvb.edu 555 Timer The

More information

Battery Charger Circuit Using SCR

Battery Charger Circuit Using SCR Battery Charger Circuit Using SCR Introduction to SCR: SCR is abbreviation for Silicon Controlled Rectifier. SCR has three pins anode, cathode and gate as shown in the below figure. It is made up of there

More information

Gechstudentszone.wordpress.com

Gechstudentszone.wordpress.com Unit 1: Transistor, UJT s, and Thyristors In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction

More information

UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency

UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency UMAINE ECE Morse Code ROM and Transmitter at ISM Band Frequency Jamie E. Reinhold December 15, 2011 Abstract The design, simulation and layout of a UMAINE ECE Morse code Read Only Memory and transmitter

More information

Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator. Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce

Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator. Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce Table of Contents Introduction Capacitive Sensing Overview Reference Oscillator Capacitive Grid Phase Detector Signal Transformer

More information

COMBINATIONAL and SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Hardware implementation and software design

COMBINATIONAL and SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Hardware implementation and software design PH-315 COMINATIONAL and SEUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Hardware implementation and software design A La Rosa I PURPOSE: To familiarize with combinational and sequential logic circuits Combinational circuits

More information

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam Emma Ideal, University of California at Los Angeles Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, REU 2008 Abstract A schematic design

More information

Design and Analysis of Automatic Car Park System with Capacity Control

Design and Analysis of Automatic Car Park System with Capacity Control Design and Analysis of Automatic Car Park System with Capacity Control Musa Mohammed Gujja & Umar Abubakar Wakta Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri Abstract:The

More information

LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters

LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters LM231A/LM231/LM331A/LM331 Precision Voltage-to-Frequency Converters General Description The LM231/LM331 family of voltage-to-frequency converters are ideally suited for use in simple low-cost circuits

More information

Copyright 2003 by Elenco TM Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by REV-B Revised 2004 any means;

Copyright 2003 by Elenco TM Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by REV-B Revised 2004 any means; Copyright 2003 by Elenco TM Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by REV-B Revised 2004 753104 any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written

More information

Lab 11: 555 Timer/Oscillator Circuits

Lab 11: 555 Timer/Oscillator Circuits Page 1 of 6 Laboratory Goals Familiarize students with the 555 IC and its uses Design a free-running oscillator Design a triggered one-shot circuit Compare actual to theoretical values for the circuits

More information

555 Morse Code Practice Oscillator Kit (draft 1.1)

555 Morse Code Practice Oscillator Kit (draft 1.1) This kit was designed to be assembled in about 30 minutes and accomplish the following learning goals: 1. Learn to associate schematic symbols with actual electronic components; 2. Provide a little experience

More information

Field Effect Transistors

Field Effect Transistors Field Effect Transistors Purpose In this experiment we introduce field effect transistors (FETs). We will measure the output characteristics of a FET, and then construct a common-source amplifier stage,

More information

Experiment No. 9 DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON BASE AND COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIERS

Experiment No. 9 DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON BASE AND COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIERS Experiment No. 9 DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON BASE AND COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIERS 1. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to explore the basic applications of the bipolar junction transistor

More information

Laboratory 4: Amplification, Impedance, and Frequency Response

Laboratory 4: Amplification, Impedance, and Frequency Response ES 3: Introduction to Electrical Systems Laboratory 4: Amplification, Impedance, and Frequency Response I. GOALS: In this laboratory, you will build an audio amplifier using an LM386 integrated circuit.

More information

Electronic Devices. Floyd. Chapter 7. Ninth Edition. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd

Electronic Devices. Floyd. Chapter 7. Ninth Edition. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices Ninth Edition Floyd Chapter 7 Power Amplifiers A power amplifier is a large signal amplifier that produces a replica of the input signal on its output. In the case shown here, the output

More information

M328 version ESR inductance capacitance meter multifunctional tester DIY

M328 version ESR inductance capacitance meter multifunctional tester DIY M328 version ESR inductance capacitance meter multifunctional tester DIY About transistor Multifunction Tester: The tester uses 3.7V rechargeable lithium battery (battery model: 14500) powered portable

More information

Temperature activated switch

Temperature activated switch Build instructions, circuit explanation and example applications Issue 1.5 Product information: www.kitronik.co.uk/quicklinks/2113/ TEACHER Temperature activated switch Introduction About the project kit

More information

BAP1551 Gate Drive Board

BAP1551 Gate Drive Board Application Note and Datasheet for Half Bridge Inverters Figure 1: BAP1551 IGBT Gate Driver Board Patent Pending Introduction The BAP1551 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Gate Drive Board (GDB)

More information

Laboratory Project 1: Design of a Myogram Circuit

Laboratory Project 1: Design of a Myogram Circuit 1270 Laboratory Project 1: Design of a Myogram Circuit Abstract-You will design and build a circuit to measure the small voltages generated by your biceps muscle. Using your circuit and an oscilloscope,

More information

LAB 1 AN EXAMPLE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM: THE FURBY

LAB 1 AN EXAMPLE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM: THE FURBY LAB 1 AN EXAMPLE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM: THE FURBY Objectives Preparation Tools To see the inner workings of a commercial mechatronic system and to construct a simple manual motor speed controller and current

More information

Current Amplifying using a Line Driver

Current Amplifying using a Line Driver Current Amplifying using a Line Driver Jarred Davis November 13, 2009 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In electronics it is sometimes necessary to drive an entire system using a microcontroller. However, since a microcontroller

More information

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD TL594

UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD TL594 UNISONIC TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD TL594 PULSE-WIDTH-MODULATION CONTROL CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The UTC TL594 is a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control circuit, incorporating two error amplifiers, an on-chip adjustable

More information

press light hot wet not press dark cold wet

press light hot wet not press dark cold wet Present sensor Light sensor Hot sensor Moisture sensor PTM switch LD Thermistor Matrix grid When the switch is press it closes the circuit and the output goes to. When the switch is not pressed the output

More information

Low Cost 10-Bit Monolithic D/A Converter AD561

Low Cost 10-Bit Monolithic D/A Converter AD561 a FEATURES Complete Current Output Converter High Stability Buried Zener Reference Laser Trimmed to High Accuracy (1/4 LSB Max Error, AD561K, T) Trimmed Output Application Resistors for 0 V to +10 V, 5

More information

HMC4069LP4E FREQUENCY DIVIDERS AND DETECTORS - SMT. Typical Applications. General Description. Functional Diagram

HMC4069LP4E FREQUENCY DIVIDERS AND DETECTORS - SMT. Typical Applications. General Description. Functional Diagram Typical Applications The HMC4069LPE is ideal for: Point-to-Point Radios Satellite Communication Systems Military Applications Sonet Clock Generation General Description Functional Diagram Features Ultra

More information

OBSOLETE. Low Cost Quad Voltage Controlled Amplifier SSM2164 REV. 0

OBSOLETE. Low Cost Quad Voltage Controlled Amplifier SSM2164 REV. 0 a FEATURES Four High Performance VCAs in a Single Package.2% THD No External Trimming 12 db Gain Range.7 db Gain Matching (Unity Gain) Class A or AB Operation APPLICATIONS Remote, Automatic, or Computer

More information

Wireless Infrared Data Communications Using the IRM3XXX Family of IrDA Compatible Infrared Transceivers. Appnote 68

Wireless Infrared Data Communications Using the IRM3XXX Family of IrDA Compatible Infrared Transceivers. Appnote 68 Wireless Infrared Data Communications Using the IRMXXX Family of IrDA Compatible Infrared Transceivers Appnote 68 Introduction Data interchange, computer to computer and computer to peripherals, requires

More information

Bend Sensor Technology Electronic Interface Design Guide

Bend Sensor Technology Electronic Interface Design Guide Technology Electronic Interface Design Guide Copyright 2015 Flexpoint Sensor Systems Page 1 of 15 www.flexpoint.com Contents Page Description.... 3 Voltage Divider... 4 Adjustable Buffers.. 5 LED Display

More information

700 SERIES 20V BIPOLAR ARRAY FAMILY

700 SERIES 20V BIPOLAR ARRAY FAMILY Device Engineering Incorporated 385 East Alamo Drive Chandler, AZ 85225 Phone: (480) 303-0822 Fax: (480) 303-0824 E-mail: admin@deiaz.com 700 SERIES 20V BIPOLAR ARRAY FAMILY FEATURES 20V bipolar analog

More information

INTRODUCTION. Figure 1 Three-terminal op amp symbol.

INTRODUCTION. Figure 1 Three-terminal op amp symbol. Page 1/6 Revision 0 16-Jun-10 OBJECTIVES To reinforce the concepts behind operational amplifier analysis. Verification of operational amplifier theory and analysis. To successfully interpret and implement

More information

Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers

Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational

More information

NEC's HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE SINGLE TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI OPTOCOUPLER SERIES

NEC's HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE SINGLE TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI OPTOCOUPLER SERIES NEC's HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE SINGLE TRANSISTOR TYPE MULTI OPTOCOUPLER SERIES PS26-, -2, -4 PS26L-, -2, -4 FEATURES HIGH ISOLATION VOLTAGE (BV) Vr.m.s.: normal specification products HIGH COLLECTOR TO EMITTER

More information

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators Experiment 4 Introductory Electronics Laboratory Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators THE SCHMITT TIGGE AND POSITIVE FEEDBACK 4-2 The op-amp as a comparator... 4-2 Using positive

More information

AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Amplifier Design Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017

AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Amplifier Design Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017 AN-1106 Custom Instrumentation Author: Craig Cary Date: January 16, 2017 Abstract This application note describes some of the fine points of designing an instrumentation amplifier with op-amps. We will

More information

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ANALOG ELECTRONICS

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ANALOG ELECTRONICS DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 1. N10 4 Bit Binary Universal shift register. 2. N22- Random Access Memory (16*4). 3. N23- Read Only Memory. 4. N4-R-S/D-T Flip flop, characteristic and comparison. 5. Master Slave

More information

Multiple Instrument Station Module

Multiple Instrument Station Module Multiple Instrument Station Module Digital Storage Oscilloscope Vertical Channels Sampling rate Bandwidth Coupling Input impedance Vertical sensitivity Vertical resolution Max. input voltage Horizontal

More information

Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop

Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop Speed Control of DC Motor Using Phase-Locked Loop Authors Shaunak Vyas Darshit Shah Affiliations B.Tech. Electrical, Nirma University, Ahmedabad E-mail shaunak_vyas1@yahoo.co.in darshit_shah1@yahoo.co.in

More information

ECE3204 D2015 Lab 1. See suggested breadboard configuration on following page!

ECE3204 D2015 Lab 1. See suggested breadboard configuration on following page! ECE3204 D2015 Lab 1 The Operational Amplifier: Inverting and Non-inverting Gain Configurations Gain-Bandwidth Product Relationship Frequency Response Limitation Transfer Function Measurement DC Errors

More information

Spec. Instructor: Center

Spec. Instructor: Center PDHonline Course E379 (5 PDH) Digital Logic Circuits Volume III Spec ial Logic Circuits Instructor: Lee Layton, P.E 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estatess Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone &

More information

Logic signal voltage levels

Logic signal voltage levels Logic signal voltage levels Logic gate circuits are designed to input and output only two types of signals: "high" (1) and "low" (0), as represented by a variable voltage: full power supply voltage for

More information

TransistorTester with AVR microcontroller and a little more Version 1.12k. Karl-Heinz Kübbeler kh

TransistorTester with AVR microcontroller and a little more Version 1.12k. Karl-Heinz Kübbeler kh TransistorTester with AVR microcontroller and a little more Version 1.12k Karl-Heinz Kübbeler kh kuebbeler@web.de August 29, 2016 Chapter 3 Instructions for use 3.1 The measurement operation Using of the

More information

Using LME49810 to Build a High-Performance Power Amplifier Part I

Using LME49810 to Build a High-Performance Power Amplifier Part I Using LME49810 to Build a High-Performance Power Amplifier Part I Panson Poon Introduction Although switching or Class-D amplifiers are gaining acceptance to audiophile community, linear amplification

More information

The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)

The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) Shockley diodes are curious devices, but rather limited in application. Their usefulness may be expanded, however, by equipping them with another means of latching.

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Reading Horowitz & Hill handout Notes, Chapter 9 Introduction and Objective In this lab we will examine op-amps. We will look at a few of their vast number of uses and also investigate

More information

DM Segment Decoder/Driver/Latch with Constant Current Sink Outputs

DM Segment Decoder/Driver/Latch with Constant Current Sink Outputs DM9374 7-Segment Decoder/Driver/Latch with Constant Current Sink Outputs General Description The DM74 is a 7-segment decoder driver incorporating input latches and output circuits to directly drive common

More information

ECE 3274 Common-Emitter Amplifier Project

ECE 3274 Common-Emitter Amplifier Project ECE 3274 Common-Emitter Amplifier Project 1. Objective The objective of this lab is to design and build three variations of the common- emitter amplifier. 2. Components Qty Device 1 2N2222 BJT Transistor

More information

Electronics Fundamentals Courseware

Electronics Fundamentals Courseware Innovative Training Solutions Student Lab Manual Electronics Fundamentals Courseware Comprehensive Course in AC / DC Electronics Second Edition Electronics Fundamentals Student Lab Manual Innovative Training

More information

COMPARATOR CHARACTERISTICS The important characteristics of a comparator are these: 1. Speed of operation 2. Accuracy 3. Compatibility of output

COMPARATOR CHARACTERISTICS The important characteristics of a comparator are these: 1. Speed of operation 2. Accuracy 3. Compatibility of output SCHMITT TRIGGER (regenerative comparator) Schmitt trigger is an inverting comparator with positive feedback. It converts an irregular-shaped waveform to a square wave or pulse, also called as squaring

More information

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam

An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam An Audio Integrator Box: Indication of Spill at the Fermilab Test Beam Emma Ideal, University of California at Los Angeles Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, REU 2008 Abstract A schematic design

More information