# Path loss Prediction Models for Wireless Communication Channels and its Comparative Analysis

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4 Path loss Prediction Models for Wireless Communication Channels and its Comparative Analysis Parameters for IEEE d type A, B, and C models Parameter Type A Type B Type C and...(12) Figure5 presents the path loss graphs for the three different environments urban, suburban, and open areas. It is clear that the urban area gives the most significant path loss. A B C Mean while, CRX is the correlation coefﬁcient for the receive antenna, given as or...16 Figure 5 Hata Path-Loss model V. IEEE D MODEL IEEE d model is based on the log-norm al shadowing path loss model. There are three different types of models (Type A, B, and C), depending on the density of obstruction between the transmitter and receiver (in terms of tree densities) in a macro-cell suburban area. Referring to [8 11], the IEEE d path loss model is given as The correlation coefficient in Equation (1.15) is based on the measurements by AT&T while the one in Equation (16) is based on the measurements by Okumura. Figure 6 shows the path loss by the IEEE d model at the carrier frequency of 2 GHz, as the height of the transmit antenna is varied and the height of the transmit antenna is fixed at 30m..(13) In Equation (12), d0=100m and γ = a - bhtx + c/htx where a, b, and c are const ants that vary with the types of channel models as given in Table 3, and h TX is the height of transmit antenna (typically, range d from 10 m to 80 m). TABLE-2 Types of IEEE d path loss models Type Description A B C Macro-cell suburban, ART to BRT for hilly terrain with moderate-to-heavy tree densities Macro-cell suburban, ART to BRT for intermediate path loss condition Macro-cell suburban, ART to BRT for ﬂat terrain with light tree densities Furthermore, Cf is the correlation coefficient for the carrier frequency fc [MHz], which is given as Figure 6 IEEE d Path-Loss model Note that when the height of the transmit antenna is changed from 2m to 10m, there is a discontinuity at the distance of 100m, causing some inconsistency in the predict ion of the path loss. It implies that a new reference distance d0` must be defined to modify the existing model [9]. The new reference distance d0` is determined by equating the path loss in Equation (12) to the free-space loss in Equation (3), such that...14 TABLE-3 41

6 Path loss Prediction Models for Wireless Communication Channels and its Comparative Analysis [12] Erceg, V.; Greenstein, L.J.; Tjandra, S.Y.; Parkoff, S.R.; Gupta, A; Kulic, B.; Julius, AA; Bianchi, R., "An empirically based path loss model for wireless channels in suburban environments,", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.17, no.7, pp.1205,1211, Jul 1999 [13] Singh, Y. "Comparison of Okumura, Hata and COST-231 Models on the Basis of Path Loss and Signal Strength." International Journal of Computer Applications ( ) (2012). 43

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