CHAPTER 9 FEEDBACK. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-1

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1 CHAPTER 9 FEEDBACK Chapter Outline 9.1 The General Feedback Structure 9.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback 9.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies 9.4 The Feedback Voltage Amplifier (Series-Shunt) 9.5 The Feedback Transconductance Amplifier (Series-Series) 9.6 The Feedback Transresistance Amplifier (Shunt-Shunt) 9.7 The Feedback Current Amplifier (Shunt-Series) 9.9 Determining the Loop Gain 9.10 The Stability Problem 9.11 Effect of Feedback on the Amplifier Poles 9.12 Stability Study Using Bode Plots 9.13 Frequency Compensation NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-1

2 9.1 The General Feedback Structure Feedback amplifier Signal-flow diagram of a feedback amplifier Open-loop gain: A Feedback factor: Loop gain: A Amount of feedback: 1 + A Gain of the feedback amplifier (closed-loop gain): Negative feedback: The feedback signal x f is subtracted from the source signal x s Negative feedback reduces the signal that appears at the input of the basic amplifier The gain of the feedback amplifier A f is smaller than open-loop gain A by a factor of (1+A ) The loop gain A is typically large (A >>1): The gain of the feedback amplifier (closed-loop gain) A f 1/ The closed-loop gain is almost entirely determined by the feedback network better accuracy of A f x f = x s (A )/(1+A ) x s error signal x i = x s x f NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-2

3 Example The feedback amplifier is based on an opamp with infinite input resistance and zero output resistance (a) Find an expression for the feedback factor. (b) Find the condition under which the closed-loop gain A f is almost entirely determined by the feedback network. (c) If the open-loop gain A = V/V, find R 2 /R 1 to obtain a closed-loop gain A f of 10 V/V. (d) What is the amount of feedback in decibel? (e) If V s = 1 V, find V o, V f and V i. (f) If A decreases by 20%, what is the corresponding decrease in A f? NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-3

4 9.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback Gain desensitivity The negative reduces the change in the closed-loop gain due to open-loop gain variation Desensitivity factor: 1+ A Bandwidth extension High-frequency response of a single-pole amplifier: Low-frequency response of an amplifier with a dominant low-frequency pole: Negative feedback: Reduces the gain by a factor of (1+A M ) Extends the bandwidth by a factor of (1+A M ) NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-4

5 Interference reduction The signal-to-noise ratio: The amplifier suffers from interference introduced at the input of the amplifier Signal-to-noise ratio: S/I = V s /V n Enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio: Precede the original amplifier A 1 by a clean amplifier A 2 Use negative feedback to keep the overall gain constant NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-5

6 Reduction in nonlinear distortion The amplifier transfer characteristic is linearized through the application of negative feedback = 0.01 A changes from 1000 to 100 NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-6

7 9.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies Voltage amplifiers The most suitable feedback topologies is voltage-mixing and voltage-sampling one Known as series-shunt feedback Example: NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-7

8 Current amplifiers The most suitable feedback topologies is current-mixing and current-sampling one Known as shunt-series feedback Example: NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-8

9 Transconductance amplifiers The most suitable feedback topologies is voltage-mixing and current-sampling one Known as series-series feedback Example: NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-9

10 Transresistance amplifiers The most suitable feedback topologies is current-mixing and voltage-sampling one Known as shunt-shunt feedback Example: NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-10

11 9.4 The Feedback Voltage Amplifier (Series-Shunt) Ideal case Input resistance of the feedback amplifier Output resistance of the feedback amplifier Voltage gain of the feedback amplifier NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-11

12 The practical case NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-12

13 NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-13

14 Analysis techniques NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-14

15 Example NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-15

16 Example NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-16

17 9.5 The Feedback Transconductance Amplifier (Series-Series) Ideal case Input resistance of the feedback amplifier Output resistance of the feedback amplifier Voltage gain of the feedback amplifier NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-17

18 The practical case NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-18

19 Analysis techniques NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-19

20 9.6 The Feedback Transresistance Amplifier (Shunt-Shunt) Ideal case Input resistance of the feedback amplifier Output resistance of the feedback amplifier Voltage gain of the feedback amplifier NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-20

21 9.7 The Feedback Current Amplifier (Shunt-Series) Ideal case Input resistance of the feedback amplifier Output resistance of the feedback amplifier Voltage gain of the feedback amplifier NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-21

22 9.9 Determining the Loop Gain An Alternative Approach for Finding Loop Gain Open-loop analysis with equivalent loading: Remove the external source Break the loop with equivalent loading Provide test signal V t Loop gain: Equivalent method for determining loop gain: Usually convenient to employ in simulation Remove the external source Break the loop Provide test signal V t Find the open-circuit voltage transfer function T oc Find the short-circuit current transfer function T sc Loop gain: The value of loop gain determined using the method discussed here may differ somewhat from the value determined by the approach studied in the previous session, but the difference is usually limited to a few percent. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-22

23 Example NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-23

24 Characteristic Equation The gain of a feedback amplifier can be expressed as a transfer function (function of s) by taking the frequency-dependent properties into consideration. The denominator determines the poles of the system and the numerator defines the zeros. From the study of circuit theory that the poles of a circuit are independent of the external excitation. The poles or the natural modes can be determined by setting the external excitation to zero. The characteristic equation and the poles are completely determined by the loop gain. A given feedback loop may be used to general a number of circuits having the same poles but different transmission zeros. the closed-loop gain and the transmission zeros depend on how and where the input signal is injected into the loop. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-24

25 9.10 The Stability Problem Transfer function of the feedback amplifier Transfer functions: Open-loop transfer function: A(s) Feedback transfer function: (s) Closed-loop transfer function: A f (s) For physical frequencies s = j Loop gain: Stability of the closed-loop transfer function: For loop gain smaller than unity at 180 : Becomes positive feedback Closed-loop gain becomes larger than open-loop gain The feedback amplifier is still stable For loop gain equal to unity at 180 : The amplifier will have an output for zero input (oscillation) For loop gain larger than unity at 180 : Oscillation with a growing amplitude at the output NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-25

26 The Nyquist plot A plot used to evaluate the stability of a feedback amplifier Plot the loop gain versus frequency on the complex plane Stability: The plot does not encircle the point (-1, 0) NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-26

27 9.11 Effect of Feedback on the Amplifier Poles Stability and pole location Consider an amplifier with a pole pair at The transient response contains the terms of the form NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-27

28 Poles of the feedback amplifier Characteristic equation: 1+A(s) (s) = 0 The feedback amplifier poles are obtained by solving the characteristic equation Amplifier with single-pole response The feedback amplifier is still a single-pole system The pole moves away from origin in the s-plane as feedback ( ) increases The bandwidth is extended by feedback at the cost of a reduction in gain Unconditionally stable system (the pole never enters the right-half plane) NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-28

29 Amplifier with two-pole response Feedback amplifier Still a two-pole system Characteristic equation The closed-loop poles are given by The plot of poles versus is called a root-locus diagram Unconditionally stable system (the pole never enters the right-half plane) NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-29

30 Amplifier with three or more poles Root-locus diagram As A 0 increases, the two poles become coincident and then become complex and conjugate. A value of A 0 exists at which this pair of complex-conjugate poles enters the right half of the s plane. The feedback amplifier is stable only if does not exceed a maximum value. Frequency compensation is adopted to ensure the stability. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-30

31 9.12 Stability Study Using Bode Plots Gain and phase margin The stability of a feedback amplifier is determined by examining its loop gain as a function of frequency. One of the simplest means is through the use of Bode plot for A. Stability is ensured if the magnitude of the loop gain is less than unity at a frequency shift of 180. Gain margin: The difference between the value A of at 180 and unity. Gain margin represents the amount by which the loop gain can be increased while maintaining stability. Phase margin: A feedback amplifier is stable if the phase is less than 180 at a frequency for which A =1. A feedback amplifier is unstable if the phase is in excess of 180 at a frequency for which A =1. The difference between the a frequency for which A =1 and 180. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-31

32 Effect of phase margin on closed-loop response Consider a feedback amplifier with a large low-frequency loop gain (A 0 >> 1). The closed-loop gain at low frequencies is approximately 1/. Denoting the frequency at which A =1 by 1 : The closed-loop gain at 1 peaks by a factor of 1.3 above the low-frequency gain for a phase margin of 45. This peaking increases as the phase margin is reduced, eventually reaching infinite when the phase margin is zero (sustained oscillations). NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-32

33 An alternative approach for investigating stability In a Bode plot, the difference between 20 log A(j ) and 20 log(1/ ) is 20 log A. Example: NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-33

34 9.13 Frequency Compensation Theory Modify the open-loop transfer function A(s) having three or more poles so that the closed-loop amplifier is stable for a given desirable value of closed-loop gain. The simplest method for frequency compensation is to introduce a new pole at sufficiently low frequency f D. The disadvantage of introducing a new pole at lower frequency is the significant bandwidth reduction. Alternatively, the dominant pole can be shifted to a lower frequency f D such that the amplifier is compensated without introducing a new pole. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-34

35 Increase the time-constant of the dominant pole by adding additional capacitance Add external capacitance C C at the node which contributes to a dominant pole. The required value of C C is usually quite large, making it unsuitable for IC implementation. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-35

36 Miller compensation and pole splitting Miller effect equivalently increase the capacitance by a factor of voltage gain. Use miller capacitance for compensation can reduce the need for large capacitance. Pole splitting: As C f increases, P1 reduces and P2 increases. It is beneficial for phase margin. NTUEE Electronics L.H. Lu 9-36

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