Test and Measurement for EMC

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1 Test and Measurement for EMC Bogdan Adamczyk, Ph.D., in.c.e. Professor of Engineering Director of the Electromagnetic Compatibility Center Grand Valley State University, Michigan, USA Ottawa, Canada July 25-29, IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 1

2 Test and Measurement for EMC - Overview Description of basic setups for radiated and conducted emissions, radiated and conducted immunity, and electrostatic discharge (ESD). A representative sample of the commercial EMC regulations will be used to explain the basics of the EMC measurements. Pictures of the typical test setups, equipment and facility will be presented. Each test and the equipment required to perform it will be discussed to the extent needed to gain the basic understanding of and interpret the test results. Each test will be supported by the examples of the real test data, many of them illustrating the pass and fail results. This presentation is not intended to review all existing EMC regulations or discuss the details of each test procedure and the required documentation IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 2

3 Basic EMC Tests Presentation Outline 1. Introduction - FCC Part 15 and CISPR 22 Standards 2. Conducted Emissions (CE) FCC/CISPR 22, CISPR Radiated Emissions (RE) FCC/CISPR 22, CISPR Conducted Immunity (CI) ISO Radiated Immunity (RI) ISO , ISO , IEC Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) ISO 10605, IEC IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 3

4 FCC and CISPR Standards EMC standards and regulations have been imposed by various government regulatory bodies and various industries to control allowable emissions from electronic products. In the United States the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the use of radio and wire communications. Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Regulations sets forth technical standards and operational requirements for radio-frequency devices. The most widely outside the United States is CISPR 22 that sets limits on the radiated and conducted emissions of information technology equipment, which basically includes all digital devices in the similar meaning as for the FCC. CISPR - Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques (International Special Committee on Radio Interference) The limits are divided into Class A (commercial devices) and Class B equipment (residential devices) and their meaning is essentially the same as the FCC definitions IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 4

5 Peak vs. Quasi-Peak vs. Average Most radiated and conducted limits in EMC testing are based on quasi-peak detection mode. Quasi-peak detectors weigh signals according to their repetition rate, which is a way of measuring their annoyance factor. As the repetition rate increases, the quasi-peak detector produces a higher voltage output (response on spectrum analyzer or EMI receiver). High amplitude low repetition rate signals could produce the same output as low amplitude high repetition rate signal. Because quasi-peak readings are much slower, (by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude compared with peak) it is very common to scan initially with the peak detection first, and then if this is marginal or fails, switch and run the quasi- peak measurement against the limits IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 5

6 Peak vs. Quasi-Peak vs. Average EMI receiver Quasi-peak detector readings will be less than or equal to the peak detection. Average detector will be less than or equal to the quasi-peak detection IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 6

7 Current Probe Measurements Peak Measurement 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 7

8 Current Probe Measurements Average Measurement 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 8

9 Current Probe Measurements Quasi - Peak Measurement 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 9

10 FCC and CISPR 22 Conducted Emissions Limits Class A Class B 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 10

11 FCC Radiated Emissions Limits Class A (measured at 10 m) Class B (measured at 3 m) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 11

12 CISPR 22 vs. FCC Radiated Emissions Limits CISPR 22 Class A and B (measured at 10 m) FCC Class A (measured at 10 m) CISPR 22 Class A (measured at 10 m) FCC Class A (measured at 10 m) CISPR 22 Class B (measured at 10 m) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 12

13 Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 13

14 Conducted Emissions Conducted emissions are the noise currents generated by the DUT (EUT) that propagate through the power cord or harness to other components/systems or power grid. FCC/CISPR 22 set the limits on the ac conducted emissions. CISPR 25 (automotive standard), MIL-STD-461 (military standard) set the limits on the dc conducted emissions. To measure the conducted emissions an Artificial Network (AN) or the Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) is used. (LISN looks like a 50 Ω resistor to the EUT and basically acts as an LC low pass filter). EUT EMI Receiver 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 14

15 AC and DC LISNs AC LISN DC LISN DC LISN 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 15

16 Conducted Emissions Measurements FCC and CISPR 22 require two conducting planes (horizontal and vertical) and use the voltage method to measure the conducted emissions CISPR 25 requires a screen room and specifies two methods: - Voltage method - Current probe method 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 16

17 FCC/CISPR 22 Conducted Emissions (Voltage Method) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 17

18 FCC/CISPR 22 Conducted Emissions (Voltage Method) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 18

19 Line 150kHz 2 MHz FCC/CISPR 22 Conducted Emissions Class B Line 2 MHz 30 MHz 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 19

20 FCC/CISPR 22 Conducted Emissions Neutral 150kHz 2 MHz Class B Neutral 2 MHz 30 MHz 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 20

21 CISPR 25 Voltage Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 21

22 CISPR 25 Voltage Method - Conducted Emissions Service /Band Frequency MHz Levels (dbµv) Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 PK QP PK QP PK QP PK QP PK QP LW MW SW FM TV Band CB VHF VHF Service /Band Frequency MHz Levels (dbµv) Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 AVG AVG AVG AVG AVG LW MW SW FM TV Band CB VHF VHF IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 22

23 CISPR 25 Voltage Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 23

24 CISPR 25 Voltage Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 24

25 CISPR 25 Current Probe Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 25

26 CISPR 25 Current Probe Method - Conducted Emissions Service /Band Frequency MHz Levels (dbµa) Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 PK QP PK QP PK QP PK QP PK QP LW MW SW FM TV Band CB VHF VHF Service /Band Frequency MHz Levels (dbµa) Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 AVG AVG AVG AVG AVG LW MW SW FM TV Band CB VHF VHF IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1)

27 CISPR 25 Current Probe Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 27

28 CISPR 25 Current Probe Method - Conducted Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 28

29 Radiated Emissions 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 29

30 Radiated Emissions EMC standards specify that that the measurement of emissions from products be performed in the OATS (Open Area Test Site) or in the semi-anechoic test chamber. Open Area Test Site (OATS) CISPR 22 Semi-Anechoic Chamber CISPR IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 30

31 Open Area Test Site (OATS) The ideal OATS is a flat piece of land, free of overhead wires and nearby reflective structures, away from any and all external signals, with a perfectly reflective ground plane. Weather protection is usually needed, but the structure should not contain any metallic material (beams, nails, door hinges, etc.). Since the OATS should be away from all reflective structures, this requires the control room to be remotely located or located underneath the ground plane. The measurements should be made with a quasi-peak measuring receiver in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1GHz (peak measurements are permitted) IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 31

32 Open Area Test Site (OATS) The test site should be sufficiently large to permit antenna placing at the specified distance. Ground plane should extend at least 1 m beyond the periphery of EUT and the largest measuring antenna, and cover the entire area between the EUT and the antenna. The boundary of the area is defined by an ellipse IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 32

33 Open Area Test Site (OATS) Measurements Ambient measurement DUT emissions measurement 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 33

34 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Semi anechoic chamber (not CISPR 25 chamber) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 34

35 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Monopole Antenna 1500 ±75 Rod antenna with counterpoise Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure Shielded enclosure 1000 min Ground plane Power supply LISN EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) Test harness Load simulator 200 ± ± ± min Grounding connection (full width) RF absorber Measuring instrument Simulation and Monitoring System Dimensions in mm not to scale 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 35

36 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Monopole Antenna 50 ± 5 1m vertical monopole 0.15 MHz 30 MHz Load simulator EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) 900 ± 100 Antenna matching unit h + +10/ 20 Front view Side view 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 36

37 CISPR 25 Monopole Antenna Measurements 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 37

38 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Biconical Antenna 1500 ±75 Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure 1000 min Ground plane LISN EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) Test harness 200 ± 10 Biconical antenna 1000 min Measuring instrument Shielded enclosure Power supply Load simulator 1000 ± ± 10 RF absorber Simulation and Monitoring System Dimensions in mm not to scale IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1)

39 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Biconical Antenna 50 ± ± Biconical antenna 30 MHz 300 MHz Load simulator EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) 900 ± 100 Front view 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) Side view 39

40 CISPR 25 Biconical Antenna Measurements 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 40

41 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Log-Periodic Antenna 1500 ±75 Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure 1000 min Ground plane LISN EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) Test harness 200 ± 10 Log-periodic antenna 1000 min Measuring instrument Shielded enclosure Power supply Load simulator 1000 ± ± 10 RF absorber Simulation and Monitoring System Dimensions in mm not to scale 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 41

42 CISPR 25 - Radiated Emissions Log-Periodic Antenna 50 ± ± Log-periodic antenna 300 MHz 1000 MHz Load simulator EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) 900 ± 100 Front view 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) Side view 42

43 CISPR 25 Log-Periodic Antenna Measurements 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 43

44 Conducted Immunity 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 44

45 Conducted Immunity ISO Bulk Current Injection (BCI) is a method of carrying out immunity tests by inducing disturbance signals directly into the wiring harness by means of a current injection probe. The injection probe is a current transformer through which the wiring harness of the device under test (DUT) is passed. Immunity tests are carried out by varying the test severity level and frequency (1 MHz 400 MHz) of the induced disturbance. Two BCI tests methods are specified: - Substitution Method - Closed-Loop Method with Power Limitation 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 45

46 Screen Room Conducted Immunity ISO Power Meters (measure forward and reverse power) Directional Coupler (connected to power meters) Signal Generator (connected to the power amplifier) Power Amplifier 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 46

47 Conducted Immunity ISO Power Meters Power Sensors Signal Generator Power Amplifier Directional Coupler 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 47

48 DUT Conducted Immunity ISO Calibration fixture LISNs Battery Styrofoam Ground Plane Current Injection Probe Wiring Harness Current Measuring Probe 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 48

49 Monitor 500 Computer Conducted Immunity Substitution Method ISO Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure Power supply Power amplifier Signal generator Ground plane Wiring harness Power meter LISN Load simulator EUT Directional coupler Power meter Table top Current injection probe Styrofoam (low ε r ) Camera Fiber optic link Simulation and Monitoring System Shielded enclosure In the substitution method a calibration fixture is used to record power needed to produce required current in the 50 Ω. Then during the testing that power is applied over the frequency range IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 49

50 Conducted Immunity Substitution Method ISO ± min 1700( ) 750 ± 50 Load simulator 450 ± ± 50 EUT 1000 min Styrofoam (low ε r ) 900 ± 100 Front view Side view Injection probe is placed in three different locations IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 50

51 Computer Conducted Immunity Closed-Loop Method with Power Limitations ISO Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure Power supply Shielded enclosure Power amplifier Signal generator Ground plane Wiring harness Power meter LISN Load simulator EUT Directional coupler Power meter Spectrum analyzer Table top Current injection probe Current measurement probe Camera Fiber optic link Simulation and Monitoring System Monitor In this method a calibration fixture is used to record power needed to produce required current in the 50 Ω environment. Then during the testing power is applied until the required current is measured or the power limit is reached (P limit = 4 X P calibration ) IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 51

52 Conducted Immunity Closed-Loop Method with Power Limitations ISO ± min 1000( ) 900 ± 10 Load simulator 50 ± 10 EUT 1000 min Styrofoam (low ε r ) 900 ± 100 Front view Side view Injection probe is placed 900 mm form the DUT. Measurement probe is placed 50 mm for the DUT IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 52

53 Conducted Immunity ISO Test Severity Levels (BCI) Frequency band MHz Test level I ma Test level II ma Test level III ma Test level IV ma Test level V ma x f (MHz) /3 100 x f (MHz) /3 150 x f (MHz) /3 200 x f (MHz) /3 Specific values agreed between x 200/ f(mhz) 100 x 200/ f(mhz) 150 x 200/ f(mhz) 200 x 200/ f(mhz) the users of this part of ISO IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 53

54 Conducted Immunity Substitution Method ISO Level 4 Level 1 Failures 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 54

55 Conducted Immunity Substitution Method ISO Level 4 Pass Level IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 55

56 Radiated Immunity 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 56

57 Radiated Immunity Semi-Anechoic Chamber ISO Reverberation Chamber ISO IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 57

58 ISO Radiated Immunity Reverberation Chamber λ 4 min EUT λ 4 min Computer Monitor Motor controller Motor Power amplifier Signal generator Horizontal tuner/stirrer Volume of uniform field Transmitting antenna Power meter min λ 4 min λ 4 Directional coupler Power meter E field probe Table Receiving antenna E field Probe monitor Shielded enclosure Camera Attenuator Spectrum analyzer Fiber optic link 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 58

59 ISO Radiated Immunity Reverberation Chamber E-field probe monitor Signal generator Power meter Power amplifier 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 59

60 Radiated Immunity Reverberation Chamber Reverberation chamber is a shielded highly conductive enclosure. Reverberation chamber dimensions should be large compared to the wavelength. Mechanical tuner/stirrer: Should have one dimension that is at least one quarter wavelength at the lowest frequency. Should be also as large as possible with respect to the overall chamber size in that one dimension and should be at least three-quarters of the smallest chamber dimension. Should be shaped asymmetrically (so a non-repetitive pattern is obtained over one revolution) IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 60

61 ISO Radiated Immunity Biconical Antenna 1500 ±75 Computer 1000 Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure RF absorber Power amplifier Signal generator EUT 200 ± 10 Ground plane 2000 Styrofoam (low ε r ) Biconical antenna Directional coupler Power meter Power meter 1000 ± ± 10 Power supply LISN Load simulator Camera Fiber optic link Monitor Simulation and Monitoring System Dimensions in mm not to scale Shielded enclosure IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1)

62 1500 ±75 Computer ISO Radiated Immunity Log-Periodic Antenna 1000 Ground plane bonded to shielded enclosure RF absorber Power amplifier Signal generator Ground plane EUT Styrofoam (low ε r ) 200 ± 10 Log-periodic antenna 1500 Power meter Directional coupler Power meter 1000 ± ± 10 Power supply LISN Load simulator Camera Fiber optic link Monitor Simulation and Monitoring System Dimensions in mm not to scale Shielded enclosure IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1)

63 ISO Radiated Immunity - Fail 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 63

64 ISO Radiated Immunity - Pass 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 64

65 Electrostatic Discharge 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 65

66 Electrostatic Discharge IEC Testing and measurement techniques Electrostatic discharge immunity test ISO Road Vehicles Test methods for electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge Contact discharge method a method of testing, in which the electrode of the test generator is held in contact with the EUT, and the discharge actuated by the discharge switch within the generator. Air discharge method a method of testing, in which the charged electrode of the test generator is brought close to the EUT, and the discharge actuated by a spark to the EUT. Direct application application of the discharge directly to the EUT. Indirect application application of the discharge to a coupling plane in the vicinity of the EUT IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 66

67 Human Body Model for ESD C HB 50 pf absolute capacitance of the human body Because of the proximity of other objects, in addition to the absolute capacitance, an additional capacitance must be taken into account when determining the total capacitance of an object. To create the human body model for ESD, we start with the absolute capacitance of 50 pf. In addition to this capacitance we have an additional capacitance between each foot and ground; 50 pf per foot (total of 100 pf). Because of the presence of the adjacent objects, an additional capacitance of 50 to 100 pf may also exist. Thus, the human body capacitance can vary from about 50 pf to about 250 pf IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 67

68 Human Body Model for ESD Human body model simulates the ESD event when a charged body directly transfers an electrostatic charge to the ESD sensitive device. ESD Gun Human Body Circuit Model Typical R and C combinations: RC Cartridge R R R R 330, 330, 2000, 2000, C 150 pf C 330 pf C 150 pf C 330 pf 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 68

69 ESD Gun Cartridge 330 pf 2 kω 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 69

70 Electrostatic Discharge ISO ESD generator parameters Parameter Characteristic Output voltage range contact discharge mode 2 kv to 15 kv Output voltage range air discharge mode Output polarity Storage capacitances Storage resistance 2 kv to 25 kv Positive and negative 150 pf, 330 pf 330 Ω, 2000 Ω IEC Test Levels and ESD generator parameters Contact discharge Air discharge Level Test voltage (kv) Level Test voltage (kv) Storage capacitance Storage resistance 150 pf 330 Ω 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 70

71 Electrostatic Discharge IEC Testing and measurement techniques Electrostatic discharge immunity test The testing shall be performed by direct and indirect application of discharges to the EUT according to a test plan. This should include: 1. Representative operating conditions of the EUT; 2. Whether the EUT should be tested as table-top or floor-standing; 3. The points at which discharges are to be applied; 4. At each point, whether contact or air discharges are to be applied; 5. The test level to be applied; 6. The number of discharges to be applied at each point for compliance testing; The test results shall be classified on the basis of the operating conditions and the functional specifications of the EUT, as in the following, unless different specifications are given by the product committees or product specifications: 1. Normal performance within the specification limits; 2. Temporary degradation or loss of function or performance which is self-recoverable; 3. Temporary degradation or loss of function or performance which requires operator intervention or system reset; 4. Degradation or loss of function which is not recoverable due to damage to equipment (components) or software, or loss of data IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 71

72 Vertical Ground Plane (IEC ) 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) Battery (ISO 10605) 72

73 ISO Powered DUT Direct ESD DUT remotely accessible parts Ground point (connected to facility ground) Periphery Dissipative mat DUT ESD gun + _ Battery Nonconductive table (80 cm above ground) HCP (Horizontal Coupling Plane 1.6 x 0.8 m) Styrofoam (low ε r ) 470 kω resistors AC Power ESD Gun Power Generator Ground plane 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 73

74 ISO Powered DUT Indirect ESD DUT remotely accessible parts Ground point (connected to facility ground) Periphery Dissipative mat DUT + _ Battery Nonconductive table (80 cm above ground) HCP (Horizontal Coupling Plane, 1.6 x 0.8 m) Styrofoam (low ε r ) 470 kω resistors AC Power ESD Gun Power Generator ESD gun Ground plane 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 74

75 ISO Packaging and Handling Ground point (connected to facility ground) Nonconductive table (80 cm above ground) Dissipative mat DUT HCP (Horizontal Coupling Plane 1.6 x 0.8 m) ESD gun AC Power ESD Gun Power Generator 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 75

76 IEC Test Set-Up for Table-Top Equipment 0.1 m Nonconductive table (80 cm above ground) HCP (Horizontal Coupling Plane 1.6 x 0.8 m) AC Power Insulation Direct discharge Indirect discharge ESD Gun Power Generator DUT ESD gun Indirect discharge 0.1 m Ground plane DUT remotely accessible parts VCP (Vertical Coupling Plane 0.5m x 0.5 m) 470 kω resistors 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 76

77 References EMC Regulations: FCC Part 15 CISPR 22 CISPR 25 ISO ISO ISO IEC IEC Special thanks to Jim Teune and Scott Mee of E3 Compliance LLC for their technical expertise 2016 IEEE EMC Symposium (MO-PM-1) 77

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