CSE 577 Spring Insoo Kim, Kyusun Choi Mixed Signal CHIP Design Lab. Department of Computer Science & Engineering The Penn State University

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1 CSE 577 Spring 2011 Basic Amplifiers and Differential Amplifier, Kyusun Choi Mixed Signal CHIP Design Lab. Department of Computer Science & Engineering The Penn State University

2 Don t let the computer think for you In today s analog design, simulation of circuits is essential because the behavior of short-channel MOSFETs cannot be predicted accurately by hand calculations. Nonetheless, if the designer avoids a simple and intuitive analysis of the circuits and hence skips the task of gaining insight, then he/she cannot interpret the simulation results intelligently. For this reason, we say, Don t let the computer think for you. - Behzad Razavi

3 Contents Fundamentals Basic Amplifiers: Low Frequency Analysis Basic Amplifiers: High Frequency Analysis Differential Amplifier Feedback

4 Fundamentals Definitions DC Operating Point & Load line Large Signal Analysis vs. Small Signal Analysis MOSFET intrinsic Capacitances

5 Definitions mb

6 DC Operating Point & Load Line

7 Large Signal Analysis vs. Small Signal Analysis Large Signal Analysis

8 Large Signal Analysis vs. Small Signal Analysis Small Signal Analysis How convenient!!

9 MOSFET Intrinsic Capacitances

10 (cont d) MOSFET Intrinsic Capacitances

11 Basic Amplifiers: Low Frequency Analysis Single Stage Amplifiers Multi Stage Amplifiers

12 Single Stage Amplifiers: CS, CD, and CG Stage

13 Common Source Stage : Voltage Gain

14 Common Drain Stage: Output Resistance

15 Common Gate Stage : Input Resistance

16 Summary

17 Quiz CD stage amplifier is suitable for output stage of OPAmp due to its low output impedance and large bandwidth. However, in CMOS analog IC, CS stage is more widely used for output stage OPAmp than CD stage. Why?

18 Loads for basic amplifiers

19 (cont d) Loads for basic amplifiers Diode Connected Load V I X X = 1 gm+ gmb+ r o g m 1 + g 1 mb 1 g m = g m 1 + g mb r o R X A v = g m1 1 g m 2 ( W / L) ( W / L) 1 2

20 (cont d) Loads for basic amplifiers Source degeneration G m g 1+ g m m R S R out = R r o S [( g [ R S m2 ( g + g m2 mb2 + g ) r o mb2 + 1] + r ) + 1] o

21 Cascode Stage Small Signal Analysis V A out v = ( Rout RD ) gm 1Vin = g ( R R ) m 1 out D Rout R out = r o1 r o2 [( g [ r o1 m2 ( g + g m2 mb2 + ) r g o2 mb2 + 1] + r ) + 1] o2

22 Folded Cascode Stage A= g R m1 o R = R R ω D t o = = o2c ω = Aω [ gm2cro2c( ro2 ro7) ] [ gm4cro4cro3] 1/ ( C R ) D L SR= 2I/C L o = g o4c m1 /C L

23 (cont d) Folded Cascode Stage What are the advantages of folded cascode amplifier? Disadvantages: Limited Output swing Large Voltage Headroom Large Power Consumption

24 Basic Amplifiers: High Frequency Analysis Frequency Analysis Dominant Pole Approach

25 Frequency Analysis

26 (cont d) Frequency Analysis Bode Plot

27 Dominant Pole Approach

28 BW Estimation by Dominant Pole Approach

29 Bandwidth Comparison

30 Quiz Design an amplifier which satisfy following features using basic single-stage amplifiers. High gain Large Bandwidth High input impedance Low output impedance

31 Differential Amplifier Single Stage Amplifiers Multi Stage Amplifiers

32 Why differential Amplifier? Single Ended Signal can be easily contaminated A Differential Signal can be cleaned up Power Supply noise can be reduced

33 Differential Amplifier Analysis Classic Diff Amp

34 (cont d) Differential Amplifier Analysis

35 Diff Amp with Current Mirror Load G R A m out v = = g r g m2,4 o2 m2,4 r o4 ( r o2 r o4 ) CMRR= (2g r m1 o5 = CMRR( R ) g m3 ( r o1 r load) g o3 m3 ) ( r Common Mode Input Voltage Range V SS +V TN1 +V DSAT5 +V DSAT1 < V IC < V DD V DSAT3 V TP3 + V TN1 o1 r o3 ) 1. What is CM Input Voltage? 2. How do we prove this equation?

36 (Std. Library) Design Exercise Design Flow Determine Specifications Power Consumption (ex. 1mW) Voltage Gain (ex. >30) Active Common Mode Input range (as large as possible) Others: slew rate, CMRR, PSRR, etc. Determine minimum channel length Determine channel width Determine W 1,2 from voltage gain spec. Determine W 5 & Bias Voltage from power consumption & CM min. Determine W 3,4 from CM max. Determine Bias Level of current source tr. Check other specifications

37 Feedback Feedback & Stability Voltage Amplifier Model Common Mode Feedback

38 Feedback & Stability

39 Voltage Amplifier Model Models

40 (cont d) Voltage Amplifier Model 1 st Order Model

41 (cont d) Voltage Amplifier Model 2 nd Order Model

42 (cont d) Voltage Amplifier Model Time Response of the 2 nd Order Model

43 (cont d) Voltage Amplifier Model

44 Feedback Characteristics Gain desensitization A f da da A f x x f f o s A = 1+ βa da = (1+ βa) 2 1 da = 1+ βa A Band width extension AM A(s) = 1+ s/ ω A f H A(s) (s) = 1+ βa(s) AM /(1+ βam ) = 1+ s / ω (1+ βa H M ) Noise Reduction S = N V o S N V V s n A1A2 = Vs 1+ βa A Vs = V n A V n A1 1+ βa A Non-linearity Reduction (a) (b) w/o feedback w feedback 1 2

45 Common Mode Feedback Why is CMFB circuit needed? Due to TR mismatch, TRs may not be in saturation region at operating point. DM Gain decreases and CM gain increases Since output CM level is sensitive to device properties and mismatches, it cannot be stabilized by means of differential feedback. General Topology of CMFB Circuit

46 (cont d) Common Mode Feedback Examples of CMFB Folded cascode amplifier with CMFB Useful for low gain applications A v = g ( ro 1,2 ro 3, 4 R m1,2 F )

47 References Joongho Choi, CMOS analog IC Design, IDEC Lecture Note, Mar B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, Hongjun Park, CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits Design, Sigma Press, 1999.

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