# Polarization. Contents. Polarization. Types of Polarization

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1 Contents By Kamran Ahmed Lecture # 7 Antenna polarization of satellite signals Cross polarization discrimination Ionospheric depolarization, rain & ice depolarization The polarization of an electromagnetic wave is defined as the orientation of the electric field vector. Recall that the electric field vector is perpendicular to both the direction of travel and the magnetic field vector. The polarization is described by the geometric figure traced by the electric field vector upon a stationary plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation, as the wave travels through that plane. is also describe as the "direction of vibration" on the radio wave. It depends the orientation of elements of an antenna, when you set elements vertical, it generates vertical-polarized radio wave similarly when you set as horizontal, it generates horizontal-polarized. In the case of YAGI antenna, the direction of Electronic-Field is same as the direction of its elements. Radio stations have to set as a same direction of polarization for communication each other. Types of An electromagnetic wave is frequently composed of (or can be broken down into) two orthogonal. This may be due to the arrangement of power input leads to various points on a flat antenna, or due to an interaction of active elements in an array, or many other reasons. The geometric figure traced by the sum of the electric field vectors over time is, in general, an ellipse as shown in Figure 2. Under certain conditions the ellipse may collapse into a straight line, in which case the polarization is called linear.

2 In the other extreme, when the two components are of equal magnitude and 90 0 out of phase, the ellipse will become circular as shown in Figure 3. Thus linear and circular polarization are the two special cases of elliptical polarization. Linear polarization may be further classified as being vertical, horizontal, or slant. and its types makes the beam more concentrated FSS satellites use horizontal and vertical polarization, whereas DBS satellites use leftand right-hand circular polarization To use the channels that are available for satellite broadcast as efficiently as possible, both horizontal and vertical polarization (and left- and right-hand circular polarization) can be applied simultaneously per channel or frequency. In such cases the frequency of one of the two is slightly altered, to prevent possible interference Horizontal and vertical transmissions will therefore not interfere with each another because they are differently polarized. This means twice as many programs can be transmitted per satellite Consequently, via one and (almost) the same frequency the satellite can broadcast both a horizontal and a vertical polarized signal (H and V), or a left- and right-hand circular polarized signal (LH and RH).

3 Radio stations have to set as a same direction of polarization for communication each other. When you try to hear the vertical-polarized wave with horizontal- polarized antenna, what will be happened? A theory tells it is impossible to receive. In fact, although it is possible, It becomes very difficult (very weak less than -20dB ). This is due to:- The radio waves do not travels with pure-polarized condition, and There is no real antenna that has pure-polarized character. Anyway, you should to adjust the polarization for better communication. Is Circular better choice for satellite? Circular-polarization (CP) is another choice when you could not decide the polarization of your choice. CP is the special style of polarization, the direction of Electric-Field rotates one times par one cycle. The CP antenna can receive both horizontal and vertical polarized radio wave, even in the direction of slant-polarized. CP is very popular technique for satellite communication both commercial and amateur satellite systems. Antenna Table 1 shows the theoretical ratio of power transmitted between antennas of different polarization. These ratios are seldom fully achieved due to effects such as reflection, refraction, and other wave interactions, so some practical ratios are also included. The sense of antenna polarization is defined from a viewer positioned behind an antenna looking in the direction of propagation. The polarization is specified as a transmitting, not receiving antenna regardless of intended use. We frequently use "hand rules" to describe the sense of polarization. The sense is defined by which hand would be used in order to point that thumb in the direction of propagation and point the fingers of the same hand in the direction of rotation of the E field vector.

4 For example, referring to Figure 4, if your thumb is pointed in the direction of propagation and the rotation is counterclockwise looking in the direction of travel, then you have left hand circular polarization. The polarization of a linearly polarized horn antenna can be directly determined by the orientation of the feed probe, which is in the direction of the E-field. In general, a flat surface or sphere will reflect a linearly polarized wave with the same polarization as received. A horizontally polarized wave may get extended range because of water and land surface reflections, but signal cancellation will probably result in "holes" in coverage. Reflections will reverse the sense of circular polarization. For a linearly polarized antenna, the radiation pattern is taken both for a co-polarized and cross polarized response. The polarization quality is expressed by the ratio of these two responses. The ratio between the responses must typically be great (30 db or greater) for an application such as cross polarized jamming For general applications, the ratio indicates system power loss due to polarization mismatch. For circularly polarized antennas, radiation patterns are usually taken with a rotating linearly polarized reference antenna.

5 Manual Switching The CP antenna reduces QSB so it might be better for comfortable operation, but the CP antenna is bigger and more complicated than the simple linear-polarized antenna. Also the big and complicated antenna will be expensive. 3dB loss will be a problem with some limited conditions. There is another choice. Setup a pair of vertical/horizontal polarized independent antenna and switch them at your shack. You select where either is better during its pass. This is the theory of "Divercity" reception of satellite signal Applied for geo-stationary satellites Horizontal polarization = parallel to the equatorial plane Vertical polarization = parallel to the Earth's axis angle at earth station r = local gravity direction k = the direction of the wave propagation p = unit polarization vector f = k x r, normal to the reference plane x = the angle between the reference plane (r and k) and the polarization vector Depolarization The electric field E 1 is depolarized after going through a depolarizing medium. The result is, as shown in the figure, an orthogonal (E 12 ) component may be generated. E 11 is called the co-polar component and E 12 is called the cross-polar component. This phenomenon can cause interference. Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) One measure to quantify the effects of polarization is called the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) Cross-polarization discrimination observations - rain depolarization Looking at XPD as a function of the co-polar attenuation (A), it can be concluded that: XPD degrades at a given co-polar attenuation as the frequency decreases XPD degrades with increasing co-polar attenuation XPD for the Vertical wave is better than that for Horizontal XPD for the Vertical and the Horizontal waves are better that the Circular

6 XPD and co-polar attenuation A θ -> the elevation angle in degrees τ > the polarization tilt angle τ = 45 for circular polarization Ionospheric effects Faraday s effects The rotation of a linearly polarized wave due to the earth s magnetic field is called the Faraday s effect. It is proportional to the 1/f2 factor. Ionospheric scintillation Due to the refractive index variations in the ionosphere caused by local concentrations of ionization. It is also proportional to the 1/f2 factor.

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