Motomatic Servo Control

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1 Exercise 2 Motomatic Servo Control This exercise will take two weeks. You will work in teams of two. 2.0 Prelab Read through this exercise in the lab manual. Using Appendix B as a reference, create a block diagram of a simple motor system. The system should have the following components: The input is a voltage V A from an electronic amplifier. Themotor is a first-orderdynamicsystem whoseinputis V A and whose output is motor speed ω (in radians per second). The motor s transfer function should include a gain K m (in radians per second per volt) and a time constant T m (in seconds). The output of the system is motor shaft position angle θ. You know how to get θ from ω. Turnin a page with the equations of motion and block diagram for the motor system at the beginning of the first lab session. 2.1 Introduction This lab utilizes the Motomatic motor control system. This system has been a favorite in the controls lab for a (very) long time. The Motomatic can be configured to work with either a position control or velocity control feedback loop. We will study position control. Electromechanical position control systems are the basis of most motion control systems used in industry. The movement of a robot s joints or a machine tool s positioning axes are examples of electromechanically controlled motions. Modern aircraft, spacecraft, and many ships operate on the fly-by-wire principle, in which computers control the motion

2 Introduction 2-2 of the vehicle in response to requests from the pilot of where to go. When the Motomatic is wired as a servo, or position control system, a twist oftheinputknobonthelower leftcornerofthecontrol panelproducesarotation of the motor which is connected to the control box. The larger the input twist, the larger the angular displacement of the motor. It s a little like power steering. However, power steering is a system which boosts your steering energy, but you still have a direct mechanical connection to the wheels. With the Motomatic servo control, there is no direct mechanical connection between the input knob and the output motor. Instead, the connection is made electronically through the control system. In order to understand and control this system, you will begin by modeling the Motomatic piece by piece. This modeling is done with the control loop open, which means that the feedback path in the closed control loop is broken, disabling the feedback control. The model will be used to create a simulation in Simulinkç. You will then wire all the components into a closed-loop servo system and run a step response test. If your model has been constructed properly, the Simulinkç output will closely resemble the Motomatic s actual behavior. You may need to refine your model somewhat in order to ensure that the model predicts the performance of the Motomatic system as accurately as possible. This type of modeling and simulation is commonly used in industry to design controllers for automated systems. The process is also used to troubleshoot problems with the dynamic response of existing systems. Figure 2.1: Motomatic System Diagram Equipment The position control system configuration for this experiment is shown in Figure 2.1. In order to simulate the closed-loop system, you must first measure the characteristics of the following individual components: The operational amplifier (op-amp) is connected as an inverting, summing amplifier. You could vary the gain of this amplifier by changing the value of the op-amp resistor R F, but leave it at 5kΩ. A diagram of the summing

3 2-3 Motomatic Servo Control Figure 2.2: Summing Amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 2.2. For this circuit, the relationship between the inputs and output is as follows: V O = R F R S V STEP R F R B V FEEDBACK Note that the diagram on the Motomatic controller box does not show the grounded (non-inverting) input but it s still there, connected internally. The power amplifier has a fixed gain. It also has a light which flashes red to indicate that the amplifier is saturated, which means that the amplifier cannot produce as much voltage as it is being asked to. This occurs when the size of a step change in voltage is too great, and it is seen as a brief red flash from the normally green amplifier light. You should try to prevent saturation during measurements, as in that condition the amplifier will act as a nonlinear element. The motor is a permanent magnet, brusheddc motor. It produces torque as a function of input current. We will model motors later in class, but for now treat the motor as a black-box element. Theposition sensor potentiometer producesavoltage which varies linearly with angle over 340 o of rotation. The other 20 o are a dead zone within which the reading is not useful. Thespeedreductionunit sbeltscanbeconfiguredtoprovidespeedchanges in the following approximate ratios: 1 : 1, 3 : 1, 3 3 : 1, and 9 : 1. The goal of this lab is to find the transfer function of the angular positioning system. The input is the knob angle, θ i ; and the output is the angle of the motor shaft as measured by the potentiometer, θ o Component Testing Yourfirstgoal istomeasurethepropertiesofthecomponentsofthesystem. You will set up the system in open loop mode, which means that the feedback path from the position sensing potentiometer to the op-amp will not be connected.

4 Introduction 2-4 (1) Input Signal Turn the step input knob all the way counterclockwise. Set the test meter selection switch to position 3, step input; this allows you to measure the step input voltage. Hint: You can connect a voltmeter or oscilloscope to the banana jacks just below the meter for a more precise measurement. Set the toggle switch above the step input knob to the (+) setting. Now when you turn the knob through a given angle, you control the voltage from the step input source. Turning the switch on and off is what produces the step, or nearly instant change in voltage. Record the voltage at several angles (for example 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees) from the zero voltage point, then plot the results and find the relationship between step voltage and angle. The value should be in volts per radian. (2) Op-Amp Summing Circuit Rather than measuring the op-amp gain, we can use the values of its resistors to compute the gain; for this type of circuit, such a computation is generally accurate to within 1 5%. Use the diagram and formula in Section to compute the op-amp s gain. Note that the gain may be a negative number (meaning if the input voltage is positive, the output is negative); it may also be less than one. (3) Power Amplifier The power amplifier s output voltage is some constant number times its input voltage. Look at Figure2.1 to see that the power amplifier s input is the op-amp s output. Connect the power amplifier to the op-amp, and make sure that the feedback loop is disconnected. Also disconnect the motor leads for this measurement. (This does not mean to disconnect the op-amp resistor R F ; it must always be connected.) Also disconnect the motor leads for this measurement. Measure the input and output voltages and plot a graph of output vs. input. Determine the power amplifier s voltage gain K A, in volts per volt. Is this a positive or negative gain? (4) Motor The motor will be modeled as a first-order transfer function, G m (s) = K m T m s+1 where K m is the steady-state gain and T m is the time constant. This linear model is somewhat imprecise, and it will be improved by modeling the nonlinear sticking friction in Simulinkç. First determine the steady-state gain K m of the motor for speeds less than 1000 rpm. This will require a plot of the motor s steady-state speed against the amplifier output voltage, or ω m vs. V A. The slope is K m = ω m /V A. Be sure to take 5-10 readings at different voltages and speeds. Remember that a handheld voltmeter must be used to measure V A. When you look at the motor speed vs. voltage graph, you should notice that a first-order fit to the data does not go through the origin. As shown in Figure 2.3, the motor has zero speed at a substantial voltage. This is

7 2-7 Motomatic Servo Control 0.35 Simulated 2nd order Step Response Output [units] Time (sec) Figure 2.4: Response of a Generic Second-Order System should look similar to (but not exactly the same as) the underdamped second-order response shown in Figure Week 1 Deliverables At the beginning of the lab session for the second week, you should turn in a package of three items: A printout of your Simulinkç model for the non-linear system (including the Dead Zone block). On each signal line connecting two blocks, write the units of that signal. A photocopy of the parameter sheet s front side, filled in with values for all system parameters such as gains and time constants needed to model the system. Transient performance and feedback gains do not need to be filled in yet. Graphs showing the expected closed-loop response of the Motomatic, with the linear model s and nonlinear model s graphs on the same axes. These graphs should be created using Matlabç, not a spreadsheet program; see Appendix B, Section B.3 for instructions. There must be graph titles and axis labels, but these may be handwritten if convenient. 2.2 Week 2: Closed-Loop Testing and Tuning You have completed your simulations of the closed-loop Motomatic system. Now it s time to test those simulations against reality by performing step response tests of the closed-loop system. You will be able to see what was different between the model and the physical system and then tune the model so that it reflects the behavior of the real system as closely as possible.

8 Week 2: Closed-Loop Testing and Tuning 2-8 (9) Closed-Loop Transient Response Tests Connect the Motomatic as a closed-loop position controller. The connections are shown schematically in Figure 2.1. First connect the feedback path so that it sends a position feedback signal to the summing amplifier. Note the toggle switch marked Feedback. This switch turns the feedback signal on and off and controls the signal s polarity. When the switch is set to (+), the±15v voltages will be connected to the position sensing pot in such a way that the feedback voltage increases as the shaft angle increases. We will use the system with the switch set to (-), which connects the ±15V voltages the other way providing negative feedback which produces the correct error signal for controlling the shaft s position. Do not connect the velocity feedback signal in this lab. Make sure the potentiometer, speed reducer, and motor are all connected properly. Also make sure the op-amp resistor R F is set to 5 kω. Apply a step input voltage to the system. In order to get the clearest signal and minimize the effects of stiction and other nonlinearities in the system, you must use the largest step input you can without causing the power amplifier to saturate. Saturation causes a red flash from the power amp indicator light just after you apply the input step. Adjust the step voltage until you have found the largest voltage which won t saturate the amplifier. Connect the oscilloscope so that it measures the output of the position sensing potentiometer as a function of time. Adjust the triggering, voltage scale, and time scale so that you get a clear graph of position vs. time. The graph should look something like the underdamped response shown in Figure 2.4. It won t look exactly the same; one reason is that the Motomatic system is nonlinear due to stiction and other effects. Stiction will cause the response graph to look somewhat different, and it will also cause the steady-state output θ o,ss to be slightly different each time you do a step response test. This is because the friction can cause the output shaft to become stuck at different locations for each test. You can minimize this problem by doing several tests, say around ten, and measuring the change in output angle θ ss θ 0 for each. The average value should be a good representation of the properties of the system. You need an accurate value for θ o,ss because it is used to calculate the percent overshoot, an important parameter for experimentally determining second-order system equations. Measure and record the percent overshoot %OS, rise time T r, and settling time T s for the system with a 5 kω op-amp resistor R F Gain Response Tests Now it s time to look at one of the most important differences between open-loop and closed-loop systems. If you change the gain of an amplifier in an open-loop system, the result is just what you d expect: the output

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