# Ham Radio Training. Level 1 Technician Level. Presented by Richard Bosch KJ4WBB

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1 Ham Radio Training Level 1 Technician Level Presented by Richard Bosch KJ4WBB

2 In this chapter, you ll learn about: What is a radio signal The characteristics of radio signals How modulation adds information to radio signals Types of modulation Names and types of basic radio equipment 2

3 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Metric prefixes The Language of Radio - the units of measurement employed in radio use the metric system of prefixes the metric system is used because the numbers involved cover such a wide range of value. 3

4 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves Metric Prefixes the Language of radio [T5B01] How many milliamperes is 1.5 amperes? C. 1,500 milliamperes A. 15 milliamperes B. 150 milliamperes C. 1,500 milliamperes D. 15,000 milliamperes 4

5 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B02] What is another way to specify a radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 hertz? A khz B MHz C. 15 GHz D. 150 khz A khz 5

6 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B03] How many volts are equal to one kilovolt? C. One thousand volts A. One one-thousandth of a volt B. One hundred volts C. One thousand volts D. One million volts 6

7 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B04] How many volts are equal to one microvolt? A. One one-millionth of a volt A. One one-millionth of a volt B. One million volts C. One thousand kilovolts D. One one-thousandth of a volt 7

8 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B05] Which of the following is equivalent to 500 milliwatts? B. 0.5 watts A watts B. 0.5 watts C. 5 watts D. 50 watts 8

9 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B06] If an ammeter calibrated in amperes is used to measure a 3000-milliampere current, what reading would it show? A amperes C. 3 amperes B. 0.3 amperes C. 3 amperes D. 3,000,000 amperes 9

10 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages [T5B07] If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a reading of MHz, what would it show if it were calibrated in kilohertz? A khz B khz C khz D. 3,525,000 khz C khz 10

12 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Frequency and Phase pages As a signal oscillates, each complete back-and-forth sequence is called a cycle. The number of cycles per second is the signal s frequency, represented by a lowercase f. The unit of measurement for frequency is hertz, abbreviated Hz. [T5C05] 12

13 [T5C05] What is a unit of frequency? A. Hertz B. Henry C. Farad D. Tesla Technician Chapter Radio Signals and Waves pages Frequency and Phase pages

14 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages The Radio Spectrum pages If connected to a speaker, signals below 20 khz produce sound waves that humans can hear, so we call them audio frequency or AF signals. Signals that have a frequency greater than 20,000 Hz (or 20 khz) are radio frequency or RF signals [T5C06] 14

15 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages The Radio Spectrum pages [T5C06] What is the abbreviation that refers to radio frequency signals of all types? A. AF B. HF C. RF D. VHF C. RF 15

16 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Frequency and Phase pages Table 2-2 shows the RF spectrum ranges. Microwave ovens operate at 2.4 GHz, for example. Hands primarily use frequencies in the end have shoe you HS and microwave ranges. [T3B08 to T3B10] [T3B08 T3B10] Table 2-2 RF Spectrum Ranges Range Name Abbreviation Frequency Range Very Low Frequency VLF 3 khz 30 khz Low Frequency LF 30 khz 300 khz Medium Frequency MF 300 khz 3 MHz High Frequency HF 3 MHZ 30 MHz Very High Frequency VHF 30 MHZ 300 MHz UItra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz 30 GHz Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz GHz

17 Table 2-2 RF Spectrum Ranges [T3B08 T3B10] Range Name Abbreviation Frequency Range Very Low Frequency VLF 3 khz 30 khz Low Frequency LF 30 khz 300 khz Medium Frequency MF 300 khz 3 MHz High Frequency HF 3 MHZ 30 MHz Very High Frequency VHF 30 MHZ 300 MHz UItra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz 30 GHz Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz 300 GHz [T3B08] What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum? A. 30 to 300 khz B. 30 to 300 MHz C. 300 to 3000 khz D. 300 to 3000 MHz B. 30 to 300 MHz 17

18 Table 2-2 RF Spectrum Ranges [T3B08 T3B10] Range Name Abbreviation Frequency Range Very Low Frequency VLF 3 khz 30 khz Low Frequency LF 30 khz 300 khz Medium Frequency MF 300 khz 3 MHz High Frequency HF 3 MHZ 30 MHz Very High Frequency VHF 30 MHZ 300 MHz UItra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz 30 GHz Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz 300 GHz [T3B09] What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum? A. 30 to 300 khz B. 30 to 300 MHz C. 300 to 3000 khz D. 300 to 3000 MHz D. 300 to 3000 MHz 18

19 Table 2-2 RF Spectrum Ranges [T3B08 T3B10] Range Name Abbreviation Frequency Range Very Low Frequency VLF 3 khz 30 khz Low Frequency LF 30 khz 300 khz Medium Frequency MF 300 khz 3 MHz High Frequency HF 3 MHZ 30 MHz Very High Frequency VHF 30 MHZ 300 MHz UItra High Frequency UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz Super High Frequency SHF 3 GHz 30 GHz Extremely High Frequency EHF 30 GHz 300 GHz [T3B10] What frequency range is referred to as HF? C. 3 to 30 MHz A. 300 to 3000 MHz B. 30 to 300 MHz C. 3 to 30 MHz D. 300 to 3000 khz 19

20 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages The wavelength of a radio wave is a distance that it travels during one complete cycle. [T3B01] Wavelength is represented by the Greek letter lambda λ. Figure 2-5 shows a relationship between the waves frequency, wavelength and speed. 20

21 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B01] What is the name for the distance a radio wave travels during one complete cycle? A. Wave speed B. Waveform C. Wavelength D. Wave spread C. Wavelength 21

22 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages All radio waves travel at the speed of light (represented by the lower case c) in whatever medium they are traveling, such as air. [T3B04] The speed of light in space and air as 300 million meters per second (300,000,000 or 3 X 10 8 meters per second) [T3B11]. In water or glass, along wires, and inside cables, c is lower. 22

23 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B04] How fast does a radio wave travel through free space? A. At the speed of light A. At the speed of light B. At the speed of sound C. Its speed is inversely proportional to its wavelength D. Its speed increases as the frequency increases 23

24 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B11] What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through free space? A kilometers per second B. 300,000,000 meters per second C. 300,000 miles per hour D. 186,000 miles per hour B. 300,000,000 meters per second 24

25 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages A radio waves can be referred to by wavelength or frequency because the two are related by speed of light. The formula λ = c / f also illustrates two important relationships between frequency and wavelength. First as frequency increases, wavelength decreases and vice versa. [T3B05] 25

26 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B05] How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its frequency? A. The wavelength gets longer as the frequency increases B. The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases C. There is no relationship between wavelength and frequency D. The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the signal 26

27 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages If you know the frequency of a radio wave, you automatically know it's wavelength! This means that you can use the most convenient way of referring to a wave and still be accurate. It's very common for the amateur bands to be referred to by wavelength. You'll often hear something like this, I'll call you on 2 meters. Let's try MHz. The frequency band is referred to as "2 meters" because a radio waves are all approximately that long. [T3B07] 27

28 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B07] What property of radio waves is often used to identify the different frequency bands? A. The approximate wavelength A. The approximate wavelength B. The magnetic intensity of waves C. The time it takes for waves to travel one mile D. The voltage standing wave ratio of waves 28

29 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages We often refer to frequencies in terms of megahertz (1,000,000 or 10 6 hertz), so an easier version of this relationship to remember is: λ in meters = 300 f in MHz [T3B06] 29

30 2.1 Radio Signals and Waves pages Wavelength pages [T3B06] What is the formula for converting frequency to wavelength in meters? A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz multiplied by 300 B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz divided by 300 C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in megahertz divided by 300 D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz 30

31 2.2 Modulation pages Technician Chapter 2 The simplest radio signal at one frequency whose strength never change is called a continuous wave, abbreviated CW. Adding information to a signal by modifying it in some way is called modulation. Modulation is what enables us to communicate information using radio signals. Recovering information from a modulated signals called demodulation. A single signal that doesn't carry information is called unmodulated. 31

32 2.2 Modulation pages Single-Sideband (SSB) page 2-8 Technician Chapter 2 From the standpoint of power, an AM signal is inefficient. First the carrier doesn't carry any information, even though it takes up most of the signal power! In addition, each sideband contains an exact copy of the modulating signal. It seems like only a fraction of the signal is really needed and that's just what single sideband or SSB signals are. 32

33 2.2 Modulation pages Single-Sideband (SSB) page 2-8 Technician Chapter 2 Figure 2-8 shows a single sideband signal and AM signal with the carrier and one sideband removed. [T8A01] All of the SSB signal s power can then be devoted to the remaining sideband. The upper sideband (USB) is used on VHF and UHF. Both USB and LSB are used on the MF and HF bands. 33

34 2.2 Modulation pages Single-Sideband (SSB) page 2-8 Technician Chapter 2 [T8A01] Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation? A. Spread-spectrum B. Packet radio C. Single sideband D. Phase shift keying C. Single sideband 34

35 2.2 Modulation pages Single-Sideband (SSB) page 2-8 Technician Chapter 2 Watch That Band Edge! Amateurs are allowed to use any frequency within a band, but you have to be careful when operating near the edge of the band. The rule is that all of your signal must remain within the band. Since your radio displays the carrier frequency, you have to remember to leave room for the signals side bands. For example, if your FM voice signal is 15 khz wide, your carrier frequency (in the center of the signal) should never be less than 7.5 khz from the band edge. To give yourself a bit of margin, 10 khz from the edge would be even better.[t1b09] 35

36 2.2 Modulation pages Single-Sideband (SSB) page 2-8 Technician Chapter 2 [T1B09] Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band? D. All of these choices are correct A. To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display B. So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond the band edge C. To allow for transmitter frequency drift D. All of these choices are correct 36

37 2.2 Modulation pages Frequency & Phase Modulation page 2-9 The remaining two signal characteristics they can be varied to carry information are frequency and phase. Modes that vary the frequency of the signal to add speech or data information are called frequency modulation or FM. The frequency of an FM signal varies with the amplitude of the modulating signal as shown in figure

38 2.2 Modulation pages Frequency & Phase Modulation page 2-9 The amount of variation is called carrier deviation or just deviation.[t2b05] Speaking louder and the microphone of an FM transmitter increases deviation. As deviation increases, so does the signals bandwidth, so excessive deviation can cause interference to nearby signals.[t2b06] 38

39 2.2 Modulation pages Frequency & Phase Modulation page 2-9 C. The amplitude of the modulating signal [T2B05] What determines the amount of deviation of an FM signal? A. Both the frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal B. The frequency of the modulating signal C. The amplitude of the modulating signal D. The relative phase of the modulating signal and the carrier 39

40 2.2 Modulation pages Frequency & Phase Modulation page 2-9 [T2B06] What happens when the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased? A. Its signal occupies more bandwidth A. Its signal occupies more bandwidth B. Its output power increases C. Its output power and bandwidth increases D. Asymmetric modulation occurs 40

41 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages With all the different types of modulation signals available, how do you choose one over the other? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? What makes one better than another? All these are excellent questions. Luckily, a lot of experimenting has only been done. As a result hams know which kind of modulation provides the best results for the desired use. 41

42 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages If FM signals occupy more bandwidth than SSB, why is FM used for VHF and UHF voice?[t8a04] FM can be used for data signals, such as those for packet radio on VHF and UHF.[T8A02] This data as sent as audio tones by using the FM radios speech input and audio output. This allows inexpensive FM voice radios to be used. 42

43 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A04] Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters? A. AM B. SSB C. PSK D. FM D. FM 43

44 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A02] What type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions? A. FM B. SSB C. AM D. Spread Spectrum A. FM 44

45 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages Even though FM may provide better fidelity, SSB is often used were signals are weaker and where available spectrum space is not sufficient to support a large number of FM users. SSB signals use much less bandwidth than FM as described in table 2-3. [T8A05, T8A08 to T8A11] 45

46 [T8A05] Which of the following types of emission has the narrowest bandwidth? Technician Chapter Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages A. FM voice B. SSB voice C. CW D. Slow-scan TV C. CW 46

47 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A08] What is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal? A. 1 khz B. 3 khz C. 6 khz D. 15 khz B. 3 khz 47

48 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A09] What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal? C. Between 5 and 15 khz A. Less than 500 Hz B. About 150 khz C. Between 5 and 15 khz D. Between 50 and 125 khz 48

49 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A10] What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band? B. About 6 MHz A. More than 10 MHz B. About 6 MHz C. About 3 MHz D. About 1 MHz 49

50 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A11] What is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal? A. 2.4 khz B. 150 Hz C Hz D. 15 khz B. 150 Hz 50

51 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages Because the SSB signals power is concentrated into a narrow bandwidth, it is possible to communicate with SSB over much longer ranges and in poorer conditions than with FM or AM, particularly on VHF and UHF bands. That is why the VHF and UHF the Dxers and contest operators use SSB signals. [T8A03, T8A07] 51

52 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A03] Which type of voice modulation is most often used for long-distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands? A. FM B. AM C. SSB D. PM C. SSB 52

53 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A07] What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions? C. SSB signals have narrower bandwidth A. SSB signals are easier to tune B. SSB signals are less susceptible to interference C. SSB signals have narrower bandwidth D. All of these choices are correct 53

54 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages If an SSB signal can use either an upper or lower sideband - which one should you use? There is no technical reason for choosing USB over LSB. However, in order to make communications easier, ham radio has standardize on the following conventions: Below 10 MHz, LSB is used Above 10 MHz, USB is used - including all of the VHF and UHF bands [T8A06] 54

55 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages [T8A06] Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF singlesideband communications? A. Upper sideband B. Lower sideband C. Suppressed sideband D. Inverted sideband A. Upper sideband 55

56 2.2 Modulation pages Comparing types of modulation pages This convention is even programmed into radio equipment as a normal operating mode! There is one exception: amateurs are required to use USB on the five 60-meter band (5 MHz) channels. 56

57 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Basic Station Organization 2-11 The three basic elements of a radio station, big or small, are the transmitter, receiver, and antenna as shown in figure A transmitter (abbreviated XMTR) generates a signal that carries speech, Morris code, or data information. A receiver (abbreviated RCVR) recovers the speech, Morris code or data information from a signal. An antenna turns the radio signals from a transmitter into energy that travels through space as a radio wave. An antenna also captures radio waves and turns them into signals for the receiver to work with. A feed line connects the antenna to the transmitter or receiver. Feed lines are also called transmission lines, just like power lines, because they are used to transfer energy - radio signals in this case. 57

58 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Basic Station Organization 2-11 Most amateur equipment combines the transmitter and receiver into a single piece of equipment called a transceiver (abbreviated XCVR). A transceiver shares a single antenna between the transmitter and receiver circuits by using a transmit-receive (TR) switch. [T7A07] 58

59 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Basic Station Organization 2-11 [T7A07] If figure T5 represents a transceiver in which block 1 is the transmitter portion and block 3 is the receiver portion, what is the function of block 2? A. A balanced modulator B. A transmit-receive switch C. A power amplifier D. A high-pass filter B. A transmit-receive switch 59

60 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Repeaters Repeaters are stations that transmit a received signal simultaneously on another frequency or channel. [T1F09] Repeaters provide local and regional communications between low-power mobile and portable stations. See Fig on the left. 60

61 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Repeaters [T1F09] What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the signal of another amateur station on a different channel or channels? A. Beacon station B. Earth station C. Repeater station D. Message forwarding station C. Repeater station 61

62 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Accessory Radio Equipment With the basic equipment accounted for, now add the accessory equipment for the operator to generate and understand the information transmitted is radio signals figure 2-12 shows the most common assessors used with the base station. 62

63 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Accessory Radio Equipment Headphones are often used instead of a speaker to make it easier to understand the audio in the presence of noise or interference and to avoid disturbing others. [T4A02] 63

64 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Accessory Radio Equipment [T4A02] What could be used in place of a regular speaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area? A. A video display B. A low pass filter C. A set of headphones D. A boom microphone C. A set of headphones 64

65 2.3 Radio Equipment Basics pages Accessory Radio Equipment Amplifiers are circuits or equipment that increase the strength of the signal. Preamplifiers (or preamps not shown in the diagram) increase the strength of the signal before it is applied to a receiver. Power amplifiers increase the strength of the transmitted signal before it is sent to the antenna. 65

66 This is the end of Chapter 2 All information in this presentation has been obtained from the a ARRL Ham Radio License Manual Technician Level 1, dated July 1, 2010 through June 30,

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