# Experiment 6: Biasing Circuitry

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1 1 Objective UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE105 Lab Experiments Experiment 6: Biasing Circuitry Setting up a biasing network for amplifiers often involves using transistors to build voltage and current sources to deliver the right amount of biasing goodness to the main amplifier components. In this lab, we will be exploring how to build these sources and adjust their components to exactly achieve the optimal biasing environment. 2 Materials Component Quantity 2N4401 NPN BJT 1 2N4403 PNP BJT 2 10 kω resistor Ω resistor kω resistor 1 10 kω potentiometer 1 Table 1: Components used in this lab 3 Procedure 3.1 Voltage Sources In this part of the lab, we will use a BJT as a voltage source. In this case, we want to set up a voltage source to supply 650 mv, a typical common emitter base bias. Figure 1: Potentiometer 1

3 3 PROCEDURE 3 V BIAS I OUT Figure 3: Transistor current source V BIAS I OUT Figure 4: Current source using transistors in parallel 3. Roughly sketch the theoretical relationship between I OUT and. In terms of the small-signal characteristics (g m, r o, β, etc.), what is the output resistance of this current source? 4. Sweep from 0 V to 5 V and plot I OUT using ICS. What happens to the output impedance as nears 5 V? Why? 5. Find the output impedance at = 2.5 V. 6. Now let s try putting transistors in parallel to increase current! Set up the circuit shown in Figure 4 using the same bias voltage as before (V BIAS = 4.35 V). 7. What is the resulting short circuit output current? 8. Measure the output impedance using ICS. Explain the effect of the second transistor on the output impedance. 3.3 Current Mirror Bias of a Common Emitter Amplifier A current mirror is nothing more than biasing a series of transistor current sources with a transistor voltage source, as shown in Figure 5. This setup is useful for injecting the same current in many places in your

4 3 PROCEDURE 4 circuit, and also for automatically correcting itself with temperature. Referring to Figure 6, we will use a current mirror to bias a common emitter amplifier.... Figure 5: General PNP current mirror 1. Set up the circuit in Figure 6 using = 12 V, = 10 kω, and R E = 100 Ω. Q2 Q3 v in V IN R E Q1 V out Figure 6: Biasing a CE amplifier with a current mirror 2. Sweep V IN vs. and determine the point of maximum gain. What is V IN at this point? 3. Measure the currents I C2 and I C3. Do they match? 4. What is the gain at this point? 5. Bias V IN for maximum gain and measure the input impedance of the amplifier. 6. Because of the huge gain, the output waveform could be clipped. Attach a 100 kω load resistor at the output (which should make the output no longer clipped) and measure the peak-to-peak voltage across it. Using the gain you found from the sweep and the voltage across the load, find the output impedance. 7. How do the impedances and gain compare with a common emitter biased with a resistor instead? 8. Now let s check out the temperature effects.

5 3 PROCEDURE 5 (a) Apply a small signal sine wave v in of amplitude 10 mv at 1 khz. View the output waveform on the oscilloscope. (b) (CAUTION: First check that the transistors are not hot before doing this.) Heat up only one of the transistors in the current mirror by putting your finger on the transistor. Observe the effect on the output waveform. (c) Now put the other transistor in the current mirror between your other two fingers, thus heating both transistors up, and watch the effect on the output waveform. (d) Explain your observations using what you know about BJT temperature effects. How may this be an advantage of BJT biasing over resistive biasing (as shown in the prelab)?

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