PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection

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1 PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection Current Protection PTC Thermistor Description Ceramic PTC (positive temperature coefficient) thermistors are used instead of conventional fuses to protect load, such as motors, transformers, or electronic circuit, against overcurrent for circuit protection. PTC thermistor protector not only respond to inadmissibly high currents but also if a preset temperature limit is exceeded. PTC thermistor over-current protector limits the power dissipation of the whole circuit by increasing their resistance and thus reducing the current to a harmless residual value. In contrast to conventional fuses, PTC thermistor resettable fuses do not have to be replaced after elimination of the fault but resume their protective function immediately after a short cooling-down time. PTC Thermistor Over-current Protector Application It applies in the over-current overload and short circuit protection of transformers, battery charger, switches, switch power supply, adaptor, meter, instrumentation, apparatus, electronic coils, control panels, air conditioner, automotive electron, etc. Operating Principle of PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection The operating principle is as indicated in the following. When a circuit is in the normal status, the current through PTC is lower than the rated current and PTC thermistor protector is in the normal state with small resistance value, which will not affect the normal operation of the protected circuit. In case of some fault in the circuit and the current is greater than the rated current, the PTC thermistor protector will become hot quickly and present a high resistance state, which sets the circuit relatively "off" to protect the circuit from damage. After the fault is removed, PTC thermistor protector will automatically restore its low resistance state and the circuit will resume normal operation. Normally, when PTC thermistor is used as an overcurrent protection component, it is preferred to select maximum operating current, maximum operating voltage and proper specifications. Furthermore such factors should be taken into consideration as the dimensions of the components, rated zero-power resistance, operating temperature range, etc. Relation between operating temperature, operating current and non-operating current is as shown in Fig.2. Operating current is normally 2~3 times non-operating current, and both of the currents will be reduced as operating temperature increases. Fig. 3 is Voltage-Current Curve and Load Curve in normal operating state. From point A to point B, the voltage on PTC thermistor protector increases gradually, current through PTC thermistor current limiting device also increases linearly, it indicates that PTC thermistor protector resistance keeps almost unchanged, in low resistance state; From point B to F, the voltage increases gradually, PTC thermistor protector resistance increases sharply due to heating, current through PTC thermistor current limiting device decreases rapidly, it indicates that PTC thermistor current limiting device in protection state. Normal load curve lower than point B, PTC thermistor over current protection device won't enter into protection state.

2 Fig.2 PTC thermistor Non-trip current versus ambient temperature Generally PTC Thermistor protector carries 3 types over-current and overload protection. 1. PTC Thermistor for current overload protection(fig. 4):R L1 is the loading current in normal operating state, When overloading resistance decreases, such as transformer short circuit, loading curve changes from R L1 to R L2, exceeding point B, PTC thermistor protector will enter into protection state. 2. PTC Thermistor for voltage overload protection (Fig. 5): Power voltage increases, such as increases abruptly from 220V to 380V, loading curve changes from R L1 to R L2, exceeding point B, PTC thermistor protector will enter into protection state. 3. PTC Thermistor for temperature protection(fig. 6): When ambient temperature increases exceeding certain temperature, PTC thermsitor voltage-resistance curve changes from A-B-E to A-B 1 -F, loading curve R L, exceeding point B 1, PTC thermistor protector will enter into protection state.

3 PTC thermistor current temperature protection PTC Thermistor outline and dimension (mm) Examples of circuit protection using PTC Thermistor over-current protection devices

4 PTC thermistor inrush current limit circuit AMWEI PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection 265V/250V Series Data Part number Non-trip Max. Resistance Trip current Max. Reference Dimension current temperature (mm) Int(mA) voltage R25 It Imax Tref (ma) (A) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd (V) AMZ11-20P2R6H ohm 650mA 500mA 1300mA 265V 4.3A 120C AMZ11-20P3R7H ohm 530mA 430mA 1050mA 265V 4.3A 120C AMZ11-20P5RH ohm 480mA 370mA 970mA 265V 4.3A 120C AMZ11-16P5RH ohm 420mA 320mA 840mA 265V 3.1A 120C AMZ11-16P6RH ohm 390mA 300mA 780mA 265V 3.1A 120C AMZ11-16P7RH ohm 350mA 280mA 700mA 265V 3.1A 120C AMZ11-13P10RH ohm 300mA 200mA 600mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-13P12RH ohm 270mA 180mA 540mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-13P15RH ohm 240mA 160mA 500mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-13P50RH ohm 130mA 100mA 260mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P7RH265 7 ohm 320mA 250mA 640mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P8RH265 8 ohm 300mA 230mA 600mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P9RH265 9 ohm 290mA 220mA 580mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P10RH ohm 250mA 200mA 500mA 265V 1.8A 120C

5 AMZ11-12P12RH ohm 240mA 180mA 480mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P15RH ohm 200mA 160mA 400mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P27RH ohm 120mA 90mA 350mA 270V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-12P101H ohm 50mA 40mA 100mA 265V 1.8A 120C AMZ11-10P12RH ohm 230mA 160mA 460mA 265V 1.2A 120C AMZ11-10P15RH ohm 180mA 140mA 350mA 265V 1.2A 120C AMZ11-10P18RH ohm 170mA 130mA 340mA 265V 1.2A 120C AMZ11-10P39RH ohm 130mA 100mA 250mA 265V 1.2A 120C AMZ11-08P15RH ohm 150mA 120mA 300mA 250V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P22RH ohm 135mA 110mA 270mA 250V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P25RH ohm 130mA 100mA 250mA 265V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P35RH ohm 115mA 90mA 225mA 265V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P39RH ohm 105mA 70mA 210mA 270V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P45RH ohm 105mA 80mA 200mA 265V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P55RH ohm 90mA 70mA 180mA 265V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-08P70RH ohm 75mA 60mA 150mA 265V 0.8A 120C AMZ11-07P82RH ohm 70mA 50mA 140mA 265V 0.6A 120C AMZ11-07P56RH ohm 90mA 60mA 175mA 265V 0.6A 120C AMZ11-06P33RH ohm 110mA 85mA 200mA 250V 0.4A 120C AMZ11-05P70RH ohm 65mA 50mA 130mA 265V 0.3A 120C AMZ11-05P85RH ohm 60mA 45mA 120mA 265V 0.3A 120C AMZ11-05P121H ohm 45mA 35mA 90mA 265V 0.3A 120C AMZ11-05P181H ohm 40mA 30mA 80mA 265V 0.3A 120C AMZ11-04P70RH ohm 50mA 40mA 100mA 250V 0.2A 120C AMZ11-04P121H ohm 40mA 30mA 80mA 265V 0.2A 120C AMZ11-03P151H ohm 40mA 30mA 75mA 250V 0.2A 120C AMZ11-03P221H ohm 30mA 24mA 60mA 265V 0.2A 120C AMZ11-12N12RH ohm 200mA 140mA 400mA 265V 1.8A 100C AMZ11-12N10RH ohm 220mA 180mA 440mA 265V 1.8A 100C AMZ11-12N8RH265 8 ohm 250mA 200mA 500mA 265V 1.8A 100C AMZ11-10N12RH ohm 180mA 130mA 350mA 250V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-10N12RH ohm 210mA 160mA 420mA 265V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-10N15RH ohm 175mA 120mA 320mA 265V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-10N18RH ohm 145mA 110mA 320mA 265V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-10N22RH ohm 140mA 100mA 260mA 265V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-10N27RH ohm 120mA 90mA 240mA 265V 1.2A 100C AMZ11-08N25RH ohm 110mA 80mA 230mA 265V 1.0A 100C AMZ11-08N35RH ohm 95mA 70mA 190mA 265V 1.0A 100C AMZ11-08N45RH ohm 85mA 55mA 170mA 265V 1.0A 100C AMZ11-07N22RH ohm 120mA 80mA 210mA 250V 0.5A 100C AMZ11-07N35RH ohm 95mA 70mA 190mA 265V 0.5A 100C AMZ11-07N50RH ohm 85mA 60mA 170mA 265V 0.5A 100C AMZ11-07N60RH ohm 80mA 50mA 160mA 265V 0.5A 100C AMZ11-05N82RH ohm 55mA 40mA 105mA 265V 0.3A 100C

6 AMZ11-05N101H ohm 50mA 35mA 100mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-05N121H ohm 45mA 32mA 90mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-05N151H ohm 38mA 30mA 80mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-05N201H ohm 30mA 25mA 65mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-05N301H ohm 27mA 20mA 55mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-05N601H ohm 20mA 12mA 40mA 265V 0.2A 100C AMZ11-04N151H ohm 36mA 28mA 80mA 265V 0.3A 100C AMZ11-03N151H ohm 33mA 25mA 65mA 265V 0.2A 100C AMZ11-03N101H ohm 40mA 30mA 80mA 250V 0.2A 100C AMZ11-03N70RH ohm 45mA 35mA 90mA 250V 0.1A 100C AMZ11-08M25RH ohm 90mA 50mA 180mA 265V 0.8A 80C AMZ11-08M35RH ohm 80mA 45mA 160mA 265V 0.8A 80C AMZ11-08M40RH ohm 75mA 40mA 150mA 265V 0.8A 80C AMZ11-08M50RH ohm 60mA 35mA 120mA 265V 0.8A 80C AMZ11-07M101H ohm 40mA 25mA 80mA 265V 0.6A 80C AMZ11-05M70RH ohm 50mA 30mA 100mA 250V 0.3A 80C AMZ11-05M121H ohm 30mA 20mA 60mA 265V 0.3A 80C AMZ11-03M101H ohm 25mA 18mA 55mA 250V 0.2A 80C AMZ11-03M151H ohm 22mA 15mA 45mA 265V 0.2A 80C Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-25%. AMWEI PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection 140V Series Part Number Non-trip Trip Max. Resistance Max. Reference Dimension current current 25C current temperature (mm) voltage R 25 Imax Tref It (A) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd (ma) (V) AMZ12-20P1R5H ohm 850mA 680mA 1700mA 140V 4.3A 120C AMZ12-20P2R6H ohm 650mA 500mA 1300mA 140V 4.3A 120C AMZ12-16P4R7H ohm 425mA 330mA 850mA 140V 3.1A 120C AMZ12-16P5R6H ohm 400mA 310mA 800mA 140V 3.1A 120C AMZ12-13P6R8H ohm 325mA 250mA 650mA 140V 1.8A 120C AMZ12-12P5R6H ohm 325mA 250mA 650mA 140V 1.8A 120C AMZ12-12P6R8H ohm 300mA 230mA 600mA 140V 1.8A 120C AMZ12-10P10RH ohm 225mA 170mA 450mA 140V 1.2A 120C AMZ12-10P6R8H ohm 275mA 200mA 550mA 140V 1.2A 120C AMZ12-08P22RH ohm 135mA 110mA 270mA 140V 0.8A 120C AMZ12-06P25RH ohm 125mA 90mA 250mA 140V 0.5A 120C AMZ12-16R2RIH ohm 710mA 570mA 1420mA 140V 3.1A 140C AMZ12-13R3R8H ohm 500mA 400mA 1000mA 140V 1.8A 140C AMZ12-10R15RH ohm 210mA 170mA 420mA 140V 1.2A 140C AMZ12-10R6R7H ohm 300mA 230mA 600mA 140V 1.2A 140C AMZ12-10R10RH ohm 250mA 200mA 500mA 140V 1.2A 140C AMZ12-08R12RH ohm 200mA 160mA 400mA 140V 0.6A 140C

7 Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-25%. AMWEI PTC Thermistor for Overload Over-current Protection 60V Series Part Number 25C R25 (Ω) Non-trip AMZ13-16P2R3H ohm 550mA 450mA 1100mA 60V 8.0A Trip Max. Max. Reference Dimension current operating current temperature voltage Imax Tref It Vmax (A) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd (ma) (V) AMZ13-12P3R7H ohm 380mA 320mA 750mA 60V AMZ13-10P5R6H ohm 300mA 250mA 600mA 60V 4.3A C AMZ13-08P9R4H ohm 180mA 150mA 360mA 60V 3.0A AMZ13-05P25RH60 25 ohm 100mA 85mA 200mA 60V 1.0A AMZ13-03P55RH60 55 ohm 60mA 50mA 120mA 60V 0.7A AMZ13-08M4R7H ohm 180mA 120mA 360mA 60V 3.0A 80C Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-25%. AMWEI PTC Thermistor Current Limiting Devices for Transformer Over-current Overload Protection 265V, 100C (For application of PTC thermistor protector installation inside transformer windings coil) Part number R25 (OHM) Non-trip current AMZ11-05N121H ohm 45mA 25mA 90mA 265V 0.4A Trip Max. Max. Reference Dimension current operating current temperature voltage Imax Tref It Vmax (A) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd (ma) (V) AMZ11-05N151H ohm 38mA 20mA 80mA 265V 0.4A AMZ11-07N22RH ohm 110mA 60mA 220mA 265V 0.7A AMZ11-07N32RH ohm 95mA 50mA 190mA 265V 0.7A AMZ11-07N55RH ohm 70mA 40mA 140mA 265V 0.7A AMZ11-08N30RH ohm 100mA 55mA 200mA 265V 1.0A AMZ11-08N35RH ohm 90mA 50mA 180mA 265V 1.0A AMZ11-08N40RH ohm 85mA 45mA 170mA 265V 1.0A 100C AMZ11-08N39RH ohm 95mA 50mA 180mA 265V 1.2A AMZ11-08N25RH ohm 110mA 60mA 220mA 265V 1.2A AMZ11-10N22RH ohm 125mA 70mA 250mA 265V 1.5A AMZ11-10N18RH ohm 145mA 80mA 290mA 265V 1.5A AMZ11-10N12RH ohm 170mA 95mA 340mA 265V 1.5A AMZ11-12N18RH ohm 180mA 100mA 360mA 265V 2.0A AMZ11-12N12RH ohm 210mA 120mA 420mA 265V 2.0A Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-25%. AMWEI PTC Thermistor Current Limiting Devices for Transformer Over-current Overload Protection 265V 120C (For application of PTC thermistor protector installation outside transformer windings coil)

8 Part number R25 (OHM) Non-trip AMZ11-16P6R0H ohm 390mA 300mA 780mA 265V 3.1A Trip Max. Max. Reference Dimension current operating current temperature voltage I max Tref It Vmax (A) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd (ma) (V) AMZ11-13P10RH ohm 260mA 200mA 520mA 265V 1.8A AMZ11-12P10RH ohm 250mA 200mA 500mA 265V 1.8A AMZ11-10P15RH ohm 180mA 140mA 350mA 265V 1.2A AMZ11-08P25RH ohm 130mA 100mA 250mA 265V 0.8A C AMZ11-08P35RH ohm 115mA 90mA 225mA 265V 0.8A AMZ11-08P45RH ohm 105mA 80mA 200mA 265V 0.8A AMZ11-08P55RH ohm 90mA 70mA 180mA 265V 0.8A AMZ11-05P70RH ohm 65mA 50mA 130mA 265V 0.3A AMZ11-03P151H ohm 40mA 30mA 75mA 250V 0.2A Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-25%. PTC Thermistor current limiting devices for measuring instrumentation and meter overload and short circuit protection, Voltage 265V/420V/550V, Reference Temperature 80C, 100C, 120C Part number Resistance Non-trip Max. operating Reference Trip current Max. current current voltage It Imax (mm) R25 Int(mA) Vmax Tref (ma) (V) (Centigrade) Dmax Tmax Φd AMZ11-03M151N ohm 20mA 15mA 50mA 265V 0.2A AMZ11-03M102N ohm 10mA 7mA 20mA 265V 0.1A AMZ11-03M152N ohm 7mA 5mA 15mA 265V 0.1A AMZ11-04M45RN ohm 40mA 30mA 80mA 265V 0.3A AMZ11-05M601N ohm 20mA 16mA 40mA 420V 0.2A C AMZ11-05M232N ohm 8mA 6mA 17mA 420V 0.1A AMZ11-05M312N ohm 5mA 4mA 13mA 420V 0.1A AMZ11-07M251N ohm 25mA 20mA 50mA 265V 0.5A AMZ11-07M112M ohm 15mA 10mA 30mA 550V 0.5A AMZ11-08M12RN ohm 120mA 70mA 220mA 265V 0.8A AMZ11-03N151N ohm 30mA 25mA 60mA 265V 0.2A AMZ11-03N401N ohm 25mA 20mA 45mA 265V 0.2A 100C AMZ11-05N751N ohm 25mA 20mA 45mA 420V 0.2A AMZ11-05P39RN ohm 85mA 70mA 170mA 265V 0.4A AMZ11-05P65RN ohm 70mA 60mA 140mA 265V 0.4A AMZ11-05P601N ohm 20mA 16mA 39mA 420V 0.2A AMZ11-05P122N ohm 15mA 10mA 30mA 550V 0.1A C AMZ11-05P152N ohm 12mA 9mA 24mA 550V 0.1A AMZ11A-08P70RN ohm 64mA 50mA 127mA 420V 1.4A AMZ11A-08P121N ohm 49mA 40mA 97mA 420V 1.4A AMZ11A-08P151N ohm 43mA 35mA 86mA 420V 1.4A

9 AMZ11A-08P501N ohm 24mA 19mA 48mA 550V 1.0A Note: If not specified, (R25) tolerance shall be +/-30%. PTC Thermistor Protector Reliability data Test Standard Test conditions ΔR25/R25 Switching test at room temperature IEC Imax, Vmax, 50 cycles. <25% Rapid change of temperature in air Endurance at max. operating temperature and max. operating voltage IEC , Test Na IEC T=T LCT, T=T UCT 5 cycles, 30minutes. Ambient temperature: +60, Maximum Operating Voltage, Current limited to Imax. Time: 24 hours Storage in damp heat IEC Temperature of air: 40, Relative humidity of air: 93%, Duration: 56 days Lead wire tensile GB Test Ua: pull strength 10N, 10 seconds, Test Ub: bending 90, pull strength 5N, successively twice. Test Uc: revolving 180, successively twice. <10% <25% <10% 20% Reference information in selecting PTC thermistor over-current protection devices for overcurrent and overload protection. 1) Maximum operating voltage PTC Thermistor over-current protection device is connected in series in the circuit, In normal operating state, only a small portion voltage is on PTC thermistor protector. When PTC thermistor

10 current limiting devices is in high resistance state, it must bear almost all the power voltage. Therefore in PTC thermistor protector model selection, it must have sufficient high operating voltage, and also power voltage fluctuation must be taken into consideration. 2) Rated current ( Non-trip current) and Switching current (Trip current) The PTC thermistor over-current protection device should have sufficient high rated current (that current at which the PTC thermistor protector will under no circumstances turn off) within the suitable voltage class. Consider whether the overall layout of the circuit can handle the increased power for the short time until the PTC thermistor protector reduces it. Here a worst case estimate is necessary. Rated current ( Non-trip current) and Switching current (Trip current) depend on the ambient temperature. So, as the worst case for the rated current, the maximum permissible temperature for the application should be taken, and for the switching current the lowest possible ambient temperature. In order to get reliable switching function, tripping current should be at least twice of non-trip current. 3) Maximum current permissible in maximum operating voltage When PTC Thermistor over-current protection device is required for protective function, it needs to check whether there is the case that the maximum permissible current, which has been listed in data sheet, has been exceeded. Overloading the PTC thermistor protector by too high a switching current must be avoided, it may lead to PTC thermistor protector destroyed, or early failure. 4)Selection of Reference temperature (also called Switch temperature or Curie temperature) We can offer PTC thermistor for over-current protection with reference temperature 80, 100, 120, 140. The rated current (non-trip current) depends on reference temperature and ceramic body diameter. In consideration of cutting down cost, high reference temperature and small dimension PTC Thermistor current limiting devices shall be more economical, but it may leads to higher PTC thermistor surface temperature, and need to check whether it will cause undesired unfavorable effects. Generally, reference temperature should be higher than maximum operating ambient temperature. 5) Application environmental effects If there is any contact with chemicals or use of potting or sealing compounds, all due care should be taken. The reduction of the titanate ceramic that can be caused by chemical effects on the surface of the thermistor and the resulting formation of low-resistance conducting paths. And the altered thermal relations in the sealant can lead to local overheating of the PTC thermistor protector and thus to failure. An example of PTC thermistor over-current protection devices part selection for overload protection of power transformer. An transformer has primary voltage 220V, secondary voltage 16V, secondary current 1.5A, primary current 330mA in abnormal condition, it shall enter into protective state within 10 minutes. Operating ambient temperature: -10C--+40C, temperature may rise C in normal operating

11 state. PTC Thermistor will be installed near transformer. Please select an appropriate PTC thermistor part for primary protection. 1) Determine maximum operating voltage Operating voltage 220V, considering power fluctuation, maximum operating voltage should be 220V x (1+20% ) =264V Maximum operating voltage shall be 265V. 2) Determine non-trip current According to calculation and actual measurement, primary current is 125mA in transformer normal operation. In consideration the ambient temperature in installation position may reach to 60, Non-trip current in 60 should be mA. 3) Determine trip current As the ambient temperature in PTC thermistor protector installation position may reach -10, non trip current in -10 should be mA, tripping time within 5 minutes. 4) Determine rated zero power resistance at 25 centigrade. R25 PTC thermistor is in series in the primary circuit, the voltage decreasing should be possibly small, the heating power of PTC Thermistor itself also maintain possibly small. Generally, the voltage decreasing should be less than total power voltage 1%. We can get R25 through calculation 220V X 1% 125mA=17.6Ω 5) Determine maximum current Trough practical measurement, primary current can reach 500mA in transformer secondary circuit in short circuit state. If considering that larger current may pass through PTC thermistor in the state of primary coil partial short circuit. The maximum current should be more than 1A. 6) Determine reference temperature and dimension of PTC thermistor over-current protection device Maximum ambient temperature in PTC thermistor protector installation position may reach 60, reference temperature should be 40 higher than that, then the reference temperature can be 100. In considering cutting down cost, also PTC thermistor is not installed in the transformer windings coil, higher surface temperature won't have unfavorable effect to transformer, therefore reference temperature can also be 120, and then the diameter of PTC Thermistor can be smaller. 7) Determine PTC thermistor over-current protection device part number. Based on the above technical requirement, in reference of our technical data, AMZ11-10P15RH265 shall be more appropriate. Maximum operating voltage 265V, rated zero power resistance at 25C (R25) 15 Ω±20%, non-trip

12 current 140mA, trip current 350 ma, maximum current 1.5A, reference temperature 120, diameter 11mm.

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