Multiband Integrated Antennas for 4G Terminals. David A. Sanchez-Hernandez Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena. Editor.

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1 Multiband Integrated Antennas for 4G Terminals David A. Sanchez-Hernandez Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena Editor f ARTECH HOUSE BOSTON LONDON artechhouse.com

2 Contents Foreword Preface xi xiii CHAPTER 1 Electrically Small Multiband Antennas Introduction The Definition of Electrically Small Fundamental Antenna Properties Definitions Impedance, Efficiency, VSWR, and Gain Bandwidth and Quality Factor (Q) Fundamental Limits of Small Antennas Special Considerations for Integrated Multiband Antennas Fundamental Approaches to Small Integrated Antenna Design The Monopole Antenna The Inverted-L Antenna The Inverted-F and Planar Inverted-F Antennas Finite Ground Plane Effects on Small Antenna Performance 22 References 30 CHAPTER 2 Multiband Multisystem Antennas in Handsets Introduction Frequencies and Systems Typical Specifications Multiband Techniques Radiating and Balanced Mode Theory Analysis of PIFA Slots Analysis of PIFA Shorting Pins Multisystem Techniques 45 References 52 VII

3 VIII Contents CHAPTER 3 Multiband Planar Wire Antennas Introduction Multiband Planar Monopole Antennas Microstrip-Fed Dual-Band Monopole Antenna CPW-Fed Dual-Band Monopole Antenna Meandered CPW-Fed Multiband Monopole Antenna Inverted-L Multiband Antennas Modified Double Inverted-L Antenna for Multiband Operation Inverted-L Antenna with a Parasitic Element for Dual-Band Operation Inverted-F Antennas for Dual-Band Operation Spiraled Inverted-F Antenna for Dual-Band Operation Coupling Dual-Band Inverted-F Antenna Inverted-FL Antennas with a Parasitic Inverted-L Element for Bandwidth Enhancement T-Shaped Antennas for Multiband Operation Single T-Shaped Antenna for Multiband Operation Double T-Shaped Antenna for Dual-Band Operation T-Shaped Antenna with a Parasitic Inverted-L Element for Bandwidth Improvement Meandered Multiband Antennas A Nonuniform Meandered Antenna with a Forked Ground Plane for Multiband Operation A Compact Multiband Meandered Planar Antenna M-Shaped Planar Monopole for Multiband Operation Two-Strip Planar Antennas for Broadband and Multiband Operation Broadband Two-Strip Antenna Broadband/Dual-Frequency Two-Strip Antenna Conclusions 92 References 93 CHAPTER 4 Printed Multiband Fractal Antennas Introduction Brief Background on Fractal Geometry Fractals in Nature Prefractals: Truncating a Fractal to Useable Complexity 99 АЛА How Fractals Can Be Used as Antennas and Why Fractals Are Space-Filling Geometries The Fractal Dimensions of Box Counting, Hausdorff, and Similarity Fractals Defined by Transformations Self-Similar and Self-Affine Sets Iterated Function Schemes: The Language of Fractals Self-Affine Sets 112

4 Contents IX 4.3 Deterministic Fractals as Antennas Fractals as Wire Antenna Elements Fractal Patch Elements Circularly Polarized Microstrip Fractal Antennas Fractal Arrays and Fractal Volume Antennas Multiband Fractal Arrays Conclusions 147 References 147 CHAPTER 5 Miniaturized Integrated Multiband Antennas Design Considerations for Integrated Multiband Handset Antennas Hearing Aid Compatible Handsets Effect of the Terminal on the Antenna Behavior Effect of the Size of the Chassis Effect of the Handset Components Modal Analysis The Theory of Characteristic Modes Practical Applications 172 Acknowledgments 182 References 229 CHAPTER 6 Multiband Handset Antennas for MIMO Systems Introduction Design Considerations for MIMO Systems Diversity Techniques Volume Constraints: The MIMO Cube MIMO Techniques in a Handset Effect of Antenna Efficiency Effect of User Presence Effect of Antenna Correlation Combined Diversity Techniques for Optimum Handset MIMO Performance 223 CHAPTER 7 Communication Performance of Mobile Devices Introduction Antenna Efficiency Radiation Efficiency How to Obtain the Antenna Efficiency Conductive Cable Problem Total Radiated Power and Total Isotropic Sensitivity User Influence 247

5 X Contents Experimental Setup Repeatability Test Variation Due to Different Users Influence of Hand Position Summary Mean Effective Gain Power Distribution Models Single Antenna Multiple Antennas Standard Measurement Setup Using Phantoms Setup for Measurements of Mobile Handset Radiation Patterns Measurement Uncertainty Errors Due to Insufficient Sampling Density of Radiation Pattern Investigation of Phantom Type Influence on Performance Uncertainty Due to Incorrect Handset Positioning on Phantom 288 References 292 List of Acronyms 295 About the Editor 299 About the Authors 301 Index 307

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