Phasecoherent orthogonally polarized optical single sideband modulation with arbitrarily tunable optical carriertosideband ratio


 Dominic McDowell
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Phasecoheret orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad modulatio with arbitrarily tuable optical carriertosidebad ratio We Tig Wag,,2 Jia Guo Liu, * Hai Kuo Mei, ad Nig Hua Zhu State Key Laboratory o Itegrated Optoelectroics, Istitute of Semicoductors, Chiese Academy of Scieces, Beijig, 00083, Chia 2 Ceter for FreeElectro Laser Sciece, Deutsches ElektroeSychrotro, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607, Germay * Abstract: We propose ad experimetally verify a ovel approach to achieve phasecoherece orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad (OSSB) modulatio with a tuable optically carriertosidebad ratio (OCSR). I our scheme, the orthogoally polarized OSSB sigal is achieved usig a dualpolarizatio quadrature phase shift keyig (DP QPSK) modulator without a optical badpass filter (OBPF). Therefore, the proposed method is wavelegth idepedet. The DPQPSK modulator icludes two parallel QPSK modulators locatig o its two arms. The upper QPSK modulator of the DPQPSK modulator is drive by two quadrature siusoidal microwave sigals ad works at the frequecy shiftig coditio whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical. The lower QPSK modulator of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit ad the optical carrier is ot modulated. The OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply adjustig the bias voltages of the lower modulator. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper QPSK modulator ad the optical carrier from the lower QPSK modulator are combied together at the output of the DP QPSK modulator. The optical carrier ad sidebad are polarized orthogoally. The geerated OSSB sigals could be used to shift ad code the phase of the microwave sigal ad geerate ultrawidebad (UWB) microwave pulse. The proposed method is aalyzed ad experimetal demostrated. 206 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: ( ) Radio frequecy photoics; (070.70) Aalog optical sigal processig; ( ) Fiber optics; ( ) Heterodye. Refereces ad liks. E. D. Woote, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Ya, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attaasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrie, ad D. E. Bossi, A review of Lithium Niobate modulators for fiberoptic commuicatios systems, IEEE J. Quatum Electro. 6(), (2000). 2. U. Gliese, S. Norskov, ad T. N. Nielse, Chromatic dispersio i fiberoptic microwave ad millimeterwave liks, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 44(0), (996). 3. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, ad Z. Ahmed, Overcomig chromaticdispersio effects i fiberwireless systems icorporatig exteral modulators, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), (997). 4. M. Xue, S. L. Pa, ad Y. J. Zhao, Optical siglesidebad modulatio based o a dualdrive MZM ad a 20 Hybrid coupler, J. Lightwave Techol. 32(9), (204). 5. J. P. Yao, Microwave photoics, J. Lightwave Techol. 27(3), (2009). 6. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhag, ad J. P. Yao, Optical siglesidebad modulatio usig a fiberbragggratig based optical Hilbert trasformer, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 23(9), (20). 7. S. R. Blais ad J. P. Yao, Optical sigle sidebad modulatio usig a ultraarrow dualtrasmissiobad fiber Bragg gratig, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 8(2), (2006). 8. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawaishi, ad M. Izutsu, Sigle sidebad modulatio performace of a LiNbO3 itegrated modulator cosistig of fourphase modulator waveguides, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 3(4), (200). (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 388
2 9. B. Davies ad J. Coradi, Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier ad harmoic subcarrier optical sigle sidebad, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 0(4), (998). 0. H. Kim, EMLBased optical sigle sidebad trasmitter, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 20(4), (2008).. A. L. Campillo, Orthogoally polarized sigle sidebad modulator, Opt. Lett. 32(2), (2007). 2. U. S. Lee, H. D. Jug, ad S. K. Ha, Optical sigle sidebad sigal geeratio usig phase modulatio of semicoductor optical amplifier, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 6(5), (2004). 3. A. Loayssa, D. Beito, ad M. J. Garde, Siglesidebad suppressedcarrier modulatio usig a sigleelectrode electrooptic modulator, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 3(8), (200). 4. A. A. Sacchekov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liag, V. S. Ilcheko, D. Seidel, ad L. Maleki, Siglesidebad electrooptical modulator ad tuable microwave photoic receiver, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(), (200). 5. Z. Li, C. Yu, Y. Dog, L. Cheg, L. F. K. Lui, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, ad P. K. A. Wai, Liear photoic radio frequecy phase shifter usig a differetialgroupdelay elemet ad a optical phase modulator, Opt. Lett. 35(), (200). 6. Y. Zhag ad S. Pa, Tuable multitap microwave photoic filter with all complex coefficiets, Opt. Lett. 38(5), (203). 7. D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Atoie, J. P. Huigard, D. Philippet, ad P. Grager, Experimetal demostratio of a phasedarray atea optically cotrolled with phase ad time delays, Appl. Opt. 35(26), (996). 8. L. X. Wag, W. Li, H. Wag, J. Y. Zheg, J. G. Liu, ad N. H. Zhu, Photoic geeratio of phase coded microwave pulses usig cascaded polarizatio modulators, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 25(7), (203). 9. Y. M. Zhag, F. Z. Zhag, ad S. L. Pa, Optical sigle sidebad modulatio with tuable optical carriertosidebad ratio, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 26(7), (204). 20. J. Y. Zheg, L. X. Wag, Z. Dog, M. Xu, X. Wag, J. G. Liu, N. H. Zhu, S. Larochelle, ad G. K. Chag, Orthogoal siglesidebad sigal geeratio usig improvig sagacloopbased modulator, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 26(22), (204). 2. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, ad L. X. Wag, Perfectly orthogoal optical Sigle sidebad sigal geeratio based o stimulated Brilloui scatterig, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 24(9), (202). 22. M. Sagues ad A. Loayssa, Orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad modulatio for microwave photoics processig usig stimulated Brilloui scatterig, Opt. Express 8(22), (200). 23. J. Li, T. G. Nig, L. Pei, S. Gao, H. D. You, H. Y. Che, ad N. Jia, Performace aalysis of a optical sigle sidebad modulatio approach with tuable optical carriertosidebad ratio, Opt. Laser Techol. 48, (203). 24. B. Masella ad X. Zhag, Liearized optical sigle sidebad MachZehder electrooptic modulator for radio over fiber systems, Opt. Express 6(2), (2008). 25. C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, ad R. Waterhouse, Aalysis of optical carriertosidebad ratio for improvig trasmissio performace i fiberradio liks, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), (2006). 26. B. Hraimel, X. P. Zhag, Y. Q. Pei, K. Wu, T. J. Liu, T. F. Xu, ad Q. H. Nie, Optical siglesidebad modulatio with tuable optical carrier to sidebad ratio i radio over fiber systems, J. Lightwave Techol. 29(5), (20). 27. J. T. Xiog, R. Wag, T. Pu, L. Lu, T. Fag, Z. H. Wei, G. D. Su, J. L. Zheg, ad P. Xiag, A ovel approach to realizig SSB modulatio with optimum optical carrier to sidebad ratio, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 25(2), 4 7 (203). 28. J. G. Zhao, Z. J. Liu, X. L. Liu, T. Shag, ad P. Yue, Optimisatio of carriertosidebad ratio by triplearm MachZehder modulators i radiooverfiber liks, IET Optoelectro. 4(5), (200). 29. X. Zhag, Z. Li, C. Li, M. Luo, H. Li, C. Li, Q. Yag, ad S. Yu, Trasmissio of 00Gb/s DDO OFDM/OQAM over 320km SSMF with a sigle photodiode, Opt. Express 22(0), (204). 30. Y. Zhag, M. O Sulliva, ad R. Hui, Theoretical ad experimetal ivestigatio of compatible SSB modulatio for sigle chael logdistace optical OFDM trasmissio, Opt. Express 8(6), (200).. Itroductio Optical sigle sidebad (OSSB) modulatio has become a attractive techology for improvig the performace of the fiber optical commuicatio systems [], logdistace radiooverfiber (ROF) system [2, 3], highresolutio optical vector etwork aalyzer (OVNA) system [4], ad microwave photoic systems [5]. Compared with the optical double sidebad (ODB) modulatio, the OSSB modulatio could ehace the spectral efficiecy ad alleviate dispersioiduced optical carrier power suppressio. I the OVNA system, it provides a correspodece or itelliget oetooe mappig betwee the electrical ad optical domai to characterize the trasmissio respose of the optical udertestdevice (ODUT) [4]. Various approaches have bee reported to implemet the OSSB modulatio. Oe commo method is based o the ODB modulatio icorporatig with a optical filter. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 389
3 The optical filter could be a fiber Bragg gratig (FBG) [6], steepedge tuable optical badpass filter (OBPF) [7], microrig resoator [4] to remove oe sidebad of the DSB sigals. However, the approach depeds o the wavelegth of the optical carrier. Moreover, if a ODB sigal udergoes through these optical filters, the optical filter iduces the extra phase ad amplitude respose imposed o the residual sidebads ad the optical carrier. The OSSB modulatio ca also be obtaied based o electrooptical modulators combiig with a Hilbert covertor. The key advatage of the approach is the OSSB modulatio is idepedet o the wavelegth of the optical carrier over the whole C wavelegth bad. A dualelectrode MachZehder modulator (DMZM) [4], a dualparallel MZM (DPMZM) [8], a MZM cascaded with a phase modulator (PM) [9], two idividual electroabsorptio modulators [0], or two polarizatio modulators (PolM) [] have bee reported to achieve OSSB modulatio, which are geerally drive by two microwave sigals with 90 phase differece. The OSSB modulatio also could be achieved usig phase modulatio of semicoductor optical amplifier [2], a sigle bidirectioal itesity modulator iside a Sagac iterferometer [3], or a electroabsorptio modulated laser [4].The merit of these techiques lies i the fact that these schemes are ot optical carrier wavelegth depedet. However, the mai limitatio for the most of the previously demostrated methods with or without a optical filter is the optical carrier ad the correspodig first order sidebad is ot polarized orthogoally. Polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio has importat applicatio i microwave photoic sigal processig systems, such as microwave photoic phase shifter [5], complex coefficiet microwave photoic filter [6], atea array beamformig [7], ultrawidebad (UWB) microwave sigal geeratio with backgroudfree [8]. The polarized orthogoally OSSB sigal is usually ijected ito the polarizatio depedet device. I this modulatio format, the state of polarizatio (SOP) of the optical carrier ad the correspodigly modulated sidebad are orthogoal to udergo the polarizatio depedet effect. The orthogoal OSSB modulatio has bee realized usig a differetial group delay module [5], a MZM cascaded with a PolM [9], a PolM icorporatig with a OBPF, a acoustic modulator, improved Sagacloopbased modulator [20]. The key limitatio for the acoustic modulatorbased method is the low workig badwidth. The differetial group delay modulebased scheme works usually at the sigle frequecy case. The PolMbased polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio is a powerful method, but the OBPF have to be required to remove oe of sidebads. For the MZM cascaded with a PolM, the accurate delay matchig betwee the two microwave sigals is strictly eeded to obtai a wide badwidth. The polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio has also bee reported based o the stimulated Brilloui scatterig (SBS) polarizatio pullig effect [2, 22]. However, the system is rather complicated to obtai the required orthogoal properties ad has a poor stability. For some realistic applicatios, it is very desirable that the polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio with a tuable optical carrier to sidebad ratio (OCSR). However, the OCSR of the reported schemes is ot almost chaged. The ROF system ofte suffers from the lower receiver sesitivity at the remote ed to degrade the bit error ratio (BER). The receiver sesitivity could be ehaced by simply optimizig the OCSR to improve the performace of the etire system [23 25]. Up to ow, several approaches have bee verified to achieve the OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR based o a OSSB geerator icorporatig with a arrow bad otch FBG or a polarizatio maitaiig fiber Bragg gratig (PMFBG) [23] or a DPMZM combiig with a 90degree phase shifter [26] or optical ijectiolocked laser [27] or multimode iterferece coupler ad three optical phasemodulator waveguides [28]. However, the workig badwidth for the PMFBGbased method is limited ad the system has a poor logterm stability ad is wavelegth depedet. The SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad is ot orthogoal for the DPMZMbased method. The three arms MZM are a special device ad the scheme is rather complicated. The OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR is also demostrated based o cascaded PolMs [9]. The mai limitatio lies i the fact that the approach does ot work at the wide badwidth. Moreover, i the optical commuicatio system, the BER performace is directly related with the OCSR [29, 30]. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 390
4 I this paper, we propose ad experimetally verify a ovel ad compact approach to achieve phasecoherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio with a optimal OCSR. The proposed method is based o a sigle modulator. I our scheme, the orthogoally polarized OSSB is firstly achieved by DPQPSK modulator without a optical filter. Compared with [6 0], the proposed system is wavelegth idepedet over the etire C wavelegth bad ad has a polarizatio orthogoal property. The upper arm of the DPQPSK modulator is drive by two quadrature siusoidal microwave sigals ad works at the frequecy shiftig coditio whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical carrier. The microwave power ad phase are optimized to achieve frequecy shiftig optical sigals. The lower arm of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit. The optical carrier is ot modulated i this arm ad its power could be adjusted by tuig the bias voltages. Therefore, the OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply adjustig the bias voltages of the lower arm modulator. Compared with the [9, 23, 27, 28], the OCSR of the proposed method has a wider rage, a better stability, ad a smaller footprit. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper modulator ad the optical carrier from the lower modulator are combied together at the output of the DPQPSK modulator with orthogoal SOP. The proposed method is aalyzed ad experimetal demostrated. The OSSB sigal geerator could be widely applied for the microwave photoic sigal processig system. 2. Theory ad priciple The schematic diagram of the proposed phasecoherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR sigal geerator is show i Fig., which cosists of a laser diode (LD), a DPQPSK modulator, two polarizatio cotrollers (PC, PC2), a microwave source (MS), a electrical 90 degree hybrid coupler (HC) ad a optical spectrum aalyzer (OSA). The PC2 coected after the DPQPSK modulator ad a polarizer (Pol) are used to check the orthogoal polarizatio property of the geerated OSSB sigal. A arrow liewidth optical sigal is firstly ijected ito the DPQPSK modulator which is drive by microwave sigals. The DPQPSK modulator is a commercially available itegrated device icludig two QPSK modulators, a polarizatio beam splitter (PBS), a polarizatio beam combier (PBC). The optical carrier is equally divided ito two parts with orthogoal polarizatio after the PBS via the PC. Each arm of the DPQPSK has a QPSK modulator with idetical optical legth. The microwave sigal emitted from the MS is ijected ito the HC ad separated ito two braches with idetical power ad phase differece of 90 degree. The QPSK modulator is structured as two MZMs (MZM ad MZM2) settig i parallel ad formig the third MZM (MZM3). A polarizatio beam combier (PBC) multiplexes of the two outputs optical sigals of the pair of QPSK modulator with orthogoal polarizatios. I our scheme, the two MZMs of the upper QPSK modulator are drive by a cosie ad a sie microwave sigal with the same frequecy. The relative optical phase betwee the two MZMs is set as π/2 by simply adjustig the bias voltages. The MZMs i the two arms of the QPSK modulator work at the miimum trasmissio poit (MITP) by cotrollig the bias voltages of the MZMs. Based o the above settig, the frequecy shiftig optical sigal could be obtaied at the output of the upper QPSK modulator with frequecy spacig of the drive microwave sigal. The lower QPSK modulator of the DPQPSK modulator is ot modulated. With the DPQPSK modulator, we ca flexibly chage the frequecy iterval betwee the optical carrier ad the frequecy shiftig optical sigal by chagig the microwave frequecy. Assumig each MZM with ifiite optical extictio ratio (ER) ad perfect power splittig ratio, the ormalized optical field at the output of the upper QPSK modulator is give by Eupper () t = rl Ei { si( βcos( ωmt) ) + jsi( βsi( ωmt) )} () 2 where E i = exp(jω c t) is the ormalized optical filed of the iput sigal, ad ω c the agular frequecy of the optical carrier. r l deotes isertio loss of each MZM. β is the phase modulatio idices of the MZM ad MZM2 o each arm of the QPSK modulator, which ca (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 39
5 be expressed as β = πv m /V π. V π is the halfwave voltage of the MZMs. V m ad ω m are the amplitude ad the agular frequecy of the drive microwave sigal, respectively. MS 90 HC LD PC ATT DPQPSK DC bias cotroller PBS PC2 Pol X Pol QPSK OSA PBC Y Pol QPSK2 Fig.. Schematic diagram of the proposed phasecoherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio geerator (LD: laser diode; DPQPSK modulator: dualpolarizatio quadrature phase shift keyig modulator; PC, PC2: polarizatio cotroller; HC: hybrid coupler; MS: microwave source; DC: direct cotroller; Pol: polarizer; ATT: atteuator; OSA: optical spectrum aalyzer. Applyig the JacobiAger Expasio [4], the Eq. () could be rewritte as follow: { } ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) E () t = 2 r E J β cos 2 ω t + jsi 2 ω t upper l i 2 m m = { ω } ( β)( ) ( ) ( ) = 2 re J exp j 2 t l i 2 m = where J ( ) is the Bessel fuctio of the first kid of order. As ca be see from the Eq. (2), it is clearly observed that the QPSK modulator at the output of that has the spectral compoets with the frequecy shifts of ω m, 3ω m, ad 5ω m A series of sidebads are geerated locatig at oe side of the optical carrier due to the oliearity of the QPSK modulator. They will beat with each other as well as with the optical carrier i the PD, geeratig the fudametal frequecy microwave sigal ad the udesired microwave harmoic compoets. The optical field at the output of the lower QPSK modulator could be represeted as: E ( t) = r E cos ϕ + cos ϕ cos ϕ (3) lower l i { ( ) ( 2) } ( 3) 2 Both the optical sigals from the upper ad lower QPSK modulators are combied i the PBC to geerate a polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio optical sigal. The optical field at the output of the DPQPSK modulator alog the X ad Y priciple axes of that could be writte as: Ex Eupper () t = Ey Elower () t { } 2 re l i J exp j 2 mt = = re l i{ cos( ϕ) cos( ϕ2) } + cos( ϕ3) 2 (2) 2 ( β)( ) ( ) ( ) ω (4) where φ = φ 2 is the static phase shift iduced by the direct curret bias of the lower QPSK modulator, which ca be expressed as φ = φ 2 = πv/v πbias. V πbias is the static halfwave (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 392
6 voltage of the MZMs. φ 2 is the static phase shift cotrolled by the bias voltage of the MZM3. As ca be see from Eq. (4), the SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the oddorder sidebads is orthogoal. Figure 2(a) shows the variatios of J (β), J 3 (β) ad J 5 (β) versus β. As ca be see from Fig. 2(a), the amplitude of the frequecy shiftig optical sigal could be tuig by chagig the power of the drive microwave sigal. Geerally, the phase modulatio idex is less tha 2π due to the limited microwave power of the drive microwave sigal. For β =.839 rad, we have J (β) = which is the maximum value ad J 3 (β) J 5 (β) 0. Therefore, the udesired microwave harmoics i the electrical domai could be elimiated. I Fig. 2(b), the ormalized itesity of the first, third, ad fifthorder optical spectral compoets are show, which are calculated by P 2 = [J 2 (β)] 2. It is clearly show that the sidebad suppressio ratio betwee the adjacetly odd sidebads is determied by the phase modulatio idex of the upper modulator. As the phase modulatio idex decreases, the power ratio betwee P ad P 3 icreases. As ca be see from Fig. 2(b), the power of P reaches the maximum value ad the P/P3 = 8.5 db is the miimum value whe β = 2 rad. Therefore, there is a tradeoff betwee the power of the firstorder optical sigal ad the sidebad suppressio ratio for the higherorder compoets. The OCSR of the geerated OSSB modulated sigal could be cotiuously tued by cotrollig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator. We have the OCSR as follow: ( cos( ϕ) + cos( ϕ2) ) cos( ϕ3) J ( β ) 2 OCSR( db) = 0log 0 2 (5) Normalized amplitude (a) J(β) J3(β) J5(β) Phase modulatio idex β (rad) Power (dbm) (b) J (β) J 3 (β) J 5 (β) Phase modulatio idex β (rad) Fig. 2. (a) Variatios of J (β), J 3 (β) ad J 5 (β) versus β; (b) power variatios of P (β), P 3 (β) ad P 5 (β) versus β. It is obviously observed that the OCSR of the geerated OSSB sigal depeds o the phase modulatio idex of the upper QPSK modulator ad the static phase shift of the lower QPSK modulator. Whe the phase modulatio idex is a fixed value, the OCSR is tued by simply chagig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator. Figure 3 shows the simulated OCSR as a fuctio of direct curret bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator whe the phase modulatio idex of the upper QPSK modulator is fixed at.839,.5, 0.5, 3rad. The OCSR could theoretically be cotiuously tued from 9 db to 37 db. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 393
7 Fig. 3. The relatioship betwee the OCSR ad the bias voltage of the QPSK modulator is show while fixig β at.839,.5, 0.5, 3rad of the upper QPSK modulator. I order to obtai the modulated microwave sigal, a PC2 ad a Pol attached after the modulator are used to project the polarized orthogoally optical sigals ito a polarizatio directio. The OSSB modulatio optical sigal are the ijected ito the PD to recover the modulated microwave sigal, the photocurret is give by: * i () t Eout () t Eout () t ( )( ) ( ) r J β cos 2 ω t+ 2θ l 2 m = where E out = cos(θ) E x + si(θ) E y, θ is a agle betwee polarizatio directio of the PC2 ad the Pol. As ca be see from Eq. (6), the photocurret cosists of ac terms with oddorder frequecy compoets. For some applicatios, the higher order sidebads may lead to some extra errors, such as i OVNA systems ad i microwave photoic phase shiftig system. To obtai the phase shift microwave sigal, the microwave sigal higher tha the firstorder oes are suppressed by cotrollig the power of the microwave sigal, oly leavig the fudametal frequecy microwave sigal. I this case, Eq. (6) ca by simplified as l ( β ) [ ω θ] i () t rj cos t+ 2 (7) It is clearly idicated that the phase of the recovered microwave sigal could be cotiuously chaged whe agle θ varies over the rage from 0 to π. The proposed orthogoally polarized OSSB sigal geerator could be explored for the phase codig microwave sigal geeratio, widebad phase shiftig microwave sigal, optically cotrolled phased array atea, multitap microwave photoic filter with complex coefficiet ad so o. 3. Experimet ad simulatio The proposed scheme was experimetally demostrated based o the setup show i Fig.. A arrow liewidth LD (Koheras AdjustiK E5) with liewidth of less tha 0. khz is employed to provide the optical carrier with the wavelegth ad the power of ~550.6 m ad 3.49 dbm, respectively. The optical sigal is the ijected ito the DPQPSK modulator (LAAM000), which has a optical badwidth of 23 GHz ad drive voltage at RF port of 3.5 V ad at DC ports of 6 V ad a DC extictio ratio for sub MZM of more tha 20 db. The optical power is equally divided alog the Xaxes ad the Yaxes. I our experimet, the lightwave at Xaxes is frequecy shifted while that at Yaxis is ot modulated. A PC (Thorlabs Ic.) is iserted betwee the LD ad the modulator to reduce the polarizatio depedece loss ad split the optical power ito two idetical parts. The siusoidal microwave sigal emitted from the MS drive to the upper arm of the DPQPSK modulator was preamplified by a electrical amplifier (EA) which has a 3dB badwidth from 40 khz to 38 GHz, a gai of 26 db, ad a maximum output power of 22 dbm. The amplified microwave sigal is divided ito two paths by a broadbad electrical 90 degree HC with a operatioal badwidth of 8 GHz. The electrical legth differece of the two paths should be cotrolled less tha 0.3 mm ad the power of them should be adjusted by a atteuator m (6) (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 394
8 (ATT) to obtai the idetical power. The obtaied two microwave sigals are explored ito the two RF ports of the upper QPSK modulator, respectively. By tuig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator, the OCSR of the orthogoally polarized OSSB modulated sigal could be tued over 40 db rage. The, aother PC ad a Pol are coected after the DP QPSK modulator to verify the polarizatio orthogoal property. The optical spectrum at the output of the DPQPSK modulator ad the Pol was observed by a OSA (Advatest Q8384) with a resolutio badwidth of 0.0 m. First of all, we tued the bias voltages of the ested MZM ad child MZM of the upper QPSK modulator to elimiate the optical carrier. We defie the bias voltages as X, X2, X3, Y, Y2, ad Y3, respectively, which subscript, 2 ad 3 deote the MZM, MZM2, ad paret MZM of the upper ad lower QPSK modulator. We set the DC bias voltages of the DPQPSK modulator as X = 9.0 V, X2 = 2.37 V, X3 = 4.67 V, Y = 3.7 V, Y2 = 2.0 V, ad Y3 = 0 V to suppress the optical carrier. These bias voltages could be cotrolled usig a optoelectroic feedback cotrol system by moitorig the optical power variatio to avoid bias drift. Figure 4 shows the optical spectra at the output of the DPQPSK modulator. Figure 4(a) shows the optical carrier could be elimiated more tha 48 db by adjustig these bias voltages. The secod step was to tue the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator to let the optical carrier go through. Moreover, the microwave sigal was fed ito the upper QPSK modulator operatig at the frequecy shifted case. Therefore, the OSSB modulated sigal was achieved. Figure 4(b) shows the obtaied OSSB modulated sigal whe the drive microwave sigal worked at 5 GHz. As ca see from Fig. 4(b), it is clearly show that the OCSR (the power ratio betwee the optical carrier ad the + order sidebad) is more tha 26 db. Moreover, the amplitude of the udesired st order sidebad is suppressed more tha 48 db as compared with that of the optical carrier. Sice the modulatio coditio is a small sigal modulatio, the amplitude of the higher order sidebads could be eglected. It is also worth otig that whe the microwave sigal was set ito the modulator, the optical carrier kept costat. Therefore, the DC bias voltages of the modulator are ot affected by the microwave sigal. Sice frequecy depedet compoets are ot used, the OSSB modulatio could work over a wide optical wavelegth rage. The proposed method overcomes the key limitatios of the [6, 7]. Fig. 4. Measured optical spectrum at the output of the DPQPSK modulator (a) the optical carrier suppressio; (b) the OSSB modulatio whe the frequecy of the microwave sigal drive to the upper QPSK modulator is 5 GHz. For some applicatios, it is desirable that the OSSB geerator could work at widely operatioal badwidth. To do so, a siusoidal microwave sigal at a frequecy from 8 to 5 GHz was applied to the upper modulator of the DPQPSK modulator. The microwave power was maually adjusted to be ~2 dbm, which will vary with the frequecy of the microwave sigal due to the drawback of the MS. The measured optical spectra at the output of the DP QPSK modulator are show i Fig. 5. A series of sidebads at the differet frequecy are geerated aroud the optical carrier. The OSSB modulated sigals are successfully obtaied show i Fig. 5(a). Figure 5(b) exhibits the correspodig suppressio ratio betwee the + st order sidebad ad the st order sidebad. As ca be see from Fig. 5(b), the suppressio ratios are ot costat which are attributed to the ueve output power of the MS ad the (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 395
9 ueve phase respose of the HC. It is also worth otig that the OSSB modulatio also could be obtaied over the drive microwave frequecy rage from  to 7 GHz. The lowest observed badwidth of the OSSB geerator is ot oly limited by the workig badwidth of the HC but also restricted by the resolutio of the OSA. Therefore, the proposed method could operate i a wide electrically frequecy rage ad effectively avoid the drawback of [6, 7, 5, 2, 22]. Moreover, we measured the magitude ad phase respose of the HC over 8 GHz show i Fig. 6(a). As ca be see from Fig. 6(a), we could observe that its two output sigals have almost idetical magitudes ad a 90 degree phase differece. Fig. 5. (a) Measured optical spectra at the output of the DPQPSK modulator over wide frequecy rage; (b) the correspodig OSSB suppressio ratio. As described i Sectio 2, the OCSR of the OSSB modulatio could be cotiuously tued by simply cotrollig the bias voltages (Y, Y2, Y3) of the lower QPSK modulator while the bias voltages of the upper QPSK modulator are uchaged. It is worth otig that the optical carrier at the Xaxes polarizatio is suppressed. However, the suppressed optical carrier caot be directly observed i the experimet because the optical carrier at the Yaxes polarizatio overlaps with the suppressed optical carrier at the Xaxes polarizatio of the DP QPSK modulator. Figure 6(b) shows the optical spectra of the OSSB modulatio with cotiuously tuable OCSR whe the frequecy of the drive microwave sigal is 5 GHz. It is clearly shows that the power of the optical carrier could be cotiuously tued over rage of 40 db while the power of the desired sidebad keeps uchaged. I [9, 27], the power of the sidebads varies with the power of the optical carrier which is udesirable i some applicatios. The correspodig OCSR could be tued over rage from 5 db to 25 db. Fig. 6. Measured (a) magitude ad phase respose of the HC; (b) optical spectra at the output of the DPQPSK modulator with tuable OCSR. I order to demostrate the orthogoally polarized property of the OSSB geerator, the PC2 ad Pol are used to coect after the DPQPSK modulator. I our experimet, a idepedet PBS (New Port Ic.) with a extictio ratio of more tha 30 db takes the place of the Pol. The optical spectra were recorded show i Fig. 7 whe the polarizatio agle betwee the polarizatio directio of optical carrier ad that of the Xaxes of PBS was chaged from 0 to 90 degree. Figure 7(a) idicates the polarizatio directio of optical carrier is perfectly aliged Xaxes of PBS. It ca be see from Fig. 7(a) that the desired sidebad could be suppressed more tha 20 db whe polarizatio agle is 0 degree. Meawhile, the power of the optical carrier is atteuated about 4 db which is attributed to the isertio loss of the PC2 ad PBS. Figure 7(a)(b) illustrate that there is a absolute orthogoality betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 396
10 Fig. 7. (a) Measured optical spectra whe the polarizatio directio of the optical carrier is i accordace with the Xaxes of PBS; (b) measured optical spectra whe the polarizatio directio is orthogoal. I additio, i order to further cofirm the orthogoal property of that, a polarizatio aalyzer (PA, PAX5700) was used to measure the state of polarizatio (SOP) of the optical sigal at the output of the DPQPSK modulator. The SOPs of the OSSB modulated sigals o the equatorial plae of the Poicare sphere. Two poits i the Poicare sphere mark the SOP of the optical carrier or the optical sidebad. I the measuremet, the PC2 ad PBS are also required. I geeral, the correspodig Stokes parameters ad the degree of polarizatio are also measured. The Stokes parameters ad the degree of polarizatio (DOP) of the optical carrier are [ , 0.023, 0.038] ad 99.02%, respectively. The Stokes parameters ad the DOP of the modulated sidebad are [0.9997, , ] ad %, respectively. A 90 degree detued SOP betwee the optical carrier ad sidebad is obtaied which is correspoded to 80 degree o the Poicare sphere. It is evidet that a perfectly orthogoal OSSB modulatio is achieved. The optical sigal at the output of the DPQPSK modulator was directly set to the PD. The electrical spectrum captured by a electrical spectrum aalyzer (ESA) is show i Fig. 8(a) whe the orthogoal polarized optical sigal is fed ito the PD. A pure microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz is recovered due to the frequecy beatig betwee the optical carrier ad the sidebad with the help of a Pol. Whe the Pol is removed, the correspodig microwave sigal also disappears. The orthogoal performace is agai demostrated because the electrical power is suppressed more tha 36 db. Furthermore, to clearly show the improvemet of the receiver sesitivity, the microwave power at the differet OCSR is recorded by the ESA (Advatest Ic.). It has bee proved that the optimum OCSR i the ROF system is 0 db for improvig the trasmissio performace [25]. The fudametal reaso is the PD usually has a saturated iput optical power. Uder keepig the average optical power costat, the microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz was measured with the assistace of a erbiumdoped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with tuable output optical power. The geerated microwave sigal was measured show i Fig. 8(b). It is obviously observed that whe the OCSR is tued, the power of the recovered microwave sigal is chaged. By chagig the OCSR we foud the maximum microwave output power. The power reaches the maximum value whe the OCSR = 0 db. The mai advatage of the proposed method lies i the fact that there are o wavelegth depedet devices ad a larger tuig rage, which implies that a additioal device attached after the modulator usually required i other approaches [6, 7] is o loger eeded i our case. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 397
11 Fig. 8. (a) Electrical spectra of the microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz whe the SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad is parallel (i blue lie) or orthogoal (i red lie); (b) the electrical spectra of the microwave sigal whe the OCSR is tued. I the followig part, we will show the scheme is capable of shiftig the phase of the drive microwave sigal. First, the system was recofigured to measure the phase of the microwave sigal after the microwave photoic processig system. I this case, a electrical vector etwork aalyzer (EVNA) was itroduced ito the system. The microwave sigal emitted from the EVNA (Agilet 8722 ET) at frequecy of 5 GHz was applied to the electrical port of the DPQPSK modulator. As discussed i Sectio 2, the udesired sidebads will be geerated whe the power of the microwave sigal was too large. However, the beatig betwee the higher badwidth will ot recogized sice the EVNA oly detect the fudametal frequecy sigal. Figure 9 shows the phase shift of the microwave sigal at the frequecy of 5 GHz by adjustig the PC2 over sweepig time from 0 to 20 s. It is clearly show that o evidet phase variatio is foud for differet phase shifts which imply a excellet stability of the proposed system. Fig. 9. The phase shift of the microwave sigal at the frequecy of 5 GHz over sweepig time of 20s. 4. Coclusio We have theoretically aalyzed ad experimetally demostrated a photoic approach to geerate phasecoherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio sigal with a tuable OCSR usig a covetioal DPQPSK modulator without a optical filter. Compared with the other methods, the proposed method is wavelegth idepedet, more flexible, wider badwidth, larger dyamic rage for OCSR, ad more stable. The upper arm of the DPQPSK modulator works at the frequecy shiftig coditio, the lower arm of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit ad the optical carrier is ot modulated. The OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply cotrollig the bias voltages of the lower modulator. Compared with the [9, 23, 27, 28], the OCSR of the proposed method has a wider rage, a better stability. The footprit of the proposed OSSB sigal geerator is much smaller tha alterative techiques. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper arm ad the (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 398
12 optical carrier from the lower arm are combied together at the output of the DPQPSK modulator with orthogoal SOP. I additio, the polarizatio orthogoal property is verified based o cascadig PC ad Pol. Therefore, the optical carrier ad sidebad are polarized orthogoally. The proposed method could be used to maximize the output RF power by cotrollig OCSR uder keepig average optical power costat. The geerated OSSB sigals were used to shift the phase of the recovered microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz. The OSSB sigal geerator could be widely applied for the microwave photoic sigal processig system. Ackowledgmets This work was supported by the Natioal Natural Sciece Foudatio of Chia uder , , , ad (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 399
Phase modulation parallel optical delay detector for microwave angleofarrival measurement with accuracy monitored
Phase modulatio parallel optical delay detector for microwave agleofarrival measuremet with accuracy moitored Z. Cao,,* Q. Wag, R. Lu,, H.P.A. va de Boom, E. Tagdiogga, ad A.M.J. Kooe COBRA Istitute,
More informationActive Phased Array Techniques for HighField MRI
Active Phased Array Techiques for HighField MRI Pedram Yazdabakhsh 1, Klaus Solbach Uiversity DuisburgEsse, Hochfrequeztechik, Bismarckstr.81, D4784, Duisburg, Germay 1 pedram.yazdabakhsh@uidue.de
More informationA WideBeam Broadcasting Antenna Using a Curved Dipole on Reflector Plane
1th WSEAS Iteratioal Coferece o COMMUNICATIONS, Heraklio, Greece, July 35, 8 A WideBeam Broadcastig Atea Usig a Curved Dipole o Reflector Plae RANGSAN WONGSAN School of Telecommuicatio Egieerig, Istitute
More information(2) The MOSFET. Review of. Learning Outcome. (MetalOxideSemiconductor Field Effect Transistor) 2.0) Field Effect Transistor (FET)
EEEB73 Electroics Aalysis & esig II () Review of The MOSFET (MetalOxideSemicoductor Field Effect Trasistor) Referece: Neame, Chapter 3 ad Chapter 4 Learig Outcome Able to describe ad use the followig:
More informationDIGITALLY TUNED SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATOR USING MULTIPLE OUTPUT CURRENT OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FOR APPLICATIONS IN HIGH STABLE ACOUSTICAL GENERATORS
Molecular ad Quatum Acoustics vol. 7, (6) 95 DGTALL TUNED SNUSODAL OSCLLATOR USNG MULTPLE OUTPUT CURRENT OPERATONAL AMPLFER FOR APPLCATONS N HGH STABLE ACOUSTCAL GENERATORS Lesław TOPÓRKAMŃSK Faculty
More informationEvaluation of Distributed Feedback (DFB) Laser Operating Parameters for Direct Modulation Schemes in IMDD RoF Links.
Evaluatio of Distributed Feedback (DFB) Laser Operatig Parameters for Direct Modulatio Schemes i IMDD RoF Liks. S. Mikroulis, A. Chipouras, S. H. Karabetsos ad A. A. assiopoulos RDTL Laboratory, Departmet
More informationSEVENLEVEL THREE PHASE CASCADED HBRIDGE INVERTER WITH A SINGLE DC SOURCE
SEVENLEVEL THREE PHASE CASCADED HBRIDGE INVERTER WITH A SINGLE DC SOURCE T. Porselvi 1 ad Ragaath Muthu 1 Sri Sairam Egieerig College, Cheai, Idia SSN College of Egieerig, Cheai, Idia EMail: tporselvi@yahoo.com
More informationLETTER A Novel Adaptive Channel Estimation Scheme for DSCDMA
1274 LETTER A Novel Adaptive Chael Estimatio Scheme for DSCDMA Che HE a), Member ad Xiaoxiag LI, Nomember SUMMARY This paper proposes a adaptive chael estimatio scheme, which uses differet movig average
More informationLinearizationofPowerAmplifierusingtheModifiedFeedForwardMethod. Linearization of Power Amplifier using the Modified Feed Forward Method
lobal Joural of Researches i Egieerig: Idustrial Egieerig Volume 17 Issue 1 Versio1.0 Year 017 Type: Double Blid Peer Reviewed Iteratioal Research Joural Publisher: lobal Jourals Ic. (USA) Olie ISSN: 494596
More informationCHAPTER 5 A NEARLOSSLESS RUNLENGTH CODER
95 CHAPTER 5 A NEARLOSSLESS RUNLENGTH CODER 5.1 GENERAL Rulegth codig is a lossless image compressio techique, which produces modest compressio ratios. Oe way of icreasig the compressio ratio of a rulegth
More informationChapter 1 The Design of Passive Intermodulation Test System Applied in LTE 2600
Chapter The Desig of Passive Itermodulatio Test System Applied i LTE 600 Gogli, Wag Cheghua, You Wejue 3, Wa Yuqiag 4 Abstract. For the purpose of measurig the passive itermodulatio (PIM) products caused
More informationLAB 7: Refractive index, geodesic lenses and leaky wave antennas
EI400 Applied Atea Theory LAB7: Refractive idex ad leaky wave ateas LAB 7: Refractive idex, geodesic leses ad leaky wave ateas. Purpose: The mai goal of this laboratory how to characterize the effective
More informationLaboratory Exercise 3: Dynamic System Response Laboratory Handout AME 250: Fundamentals of Measurements and Data Analysis
Laboratory Exercise 3: Dyamic System Respose Laboratory Hadout AME 50: Fudametals of Measuremets ad Data Aalysis Prepared by: Matthew Beigto Date exercises to be performed: Deliverables: Part I 1) Usig
More informationA DualBand ThroughtheWall Imaging Radar Receiver Using a Reconfigurable HighPass Filter
JOURNAL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, VOL. 16, NO. 3, 164~168, JUL. 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/jkiees.2016.16.3.164 ISSN 22348395 (Olie) ISSN 22348409 (Prit) A DualBad ThroughtheWall
More informationPROJECT #2 GENERIC ROBOT SIMULATOR
Uiversity of MissouriColumbia Departmet of Electrical ad Computer Egieerig ECE 7330 Itroductio to Mechatroics ad Robotic Visio Fall, 2010 PROJECT #2 GENERIC ROBOT SIMULATOR Luis Alberto Rivera Estrada
More informationEECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler
EECE 3 Sigals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler Note Set #6 DT Systems: DTFT Aalysis of DT Systems Readig Assigmet: Sectios 5.5 & 5.6 of Kame ad Heck / Course Flow Diagram The arrows here show coceptual flow
More informationBeam Pattern Scanning (BPS) versus SpaceTime Block Coding (STBC) and SpaceTime Trellis Coding (STTC)
It. J. Commuicatios, Network ad System Scieces, 2009, 6, 469479 doi:10.4236/ijcs.2009.26051 Published Olie September 2009 (http://www.scirp.org/joural/ijcs/). 469 Beam Patter Scaig (BPS) versus SpaceTime
More informationA Bipolar CockcroftWalton Voltage Multiplier for Gas Lasers
America Joural of Applied cieces 4 (10): 79799, 007 N 154699 007 ciece Publicatios orrespodig Author: A Bipolar ockcroftwalto Voltage Multiplier for Gas Lasers hahid qbal ad Rosli Besar Faculty of Egieerig
More informationA NOVEL SCHEME FOR OPTICAL MILLIMETER WAVE GENERATION USING MZM
A NOVEL SCHEME FOR OPTICAL MILLIMETER WAVE GENERATION USING MZM Poomari S. and Arvind Chakrapani Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil
More informationAnalysis and Optimization Design of Snubber Cricuit for Isolated DCDC Converters in DC Power Grid
Aalysis ad Optimizatio Desig of Subber Cricuit for Isolated DCDC Coverters i DC Power Grid Koji Orikawa Nagaoka Uiversity of Techology Nagaoka, Japa orikawa@st.agaokaut.ac.jp Juichi Itoh Nagaoka Uiversity
More informationA GHz Constant KVCO Low Phase Noise LCVCO and an Optimized Automatic Frequency Calibrator Applied in PLL Frequency Synthesizer
A 4.65.6 GHz Costat KVCO Low Phase Noise LCVCO ad a Optimized Automatic Frequecy Calibrator Applied i PLL Frequecy Sythesizer Hogguag Zhag, Pa Xue, Zhiliag Hog State Key Laboratory of ASIC & System Fuda
More informationAll Optical SignalProcessing Techniques Utilizing Four Wave Mixing
Photoics 2015, 2, 200213; doi:10.3390/photoics2010200 Review OPEN ACCESS photoics ISSN 23046732 www.mdpi.com/joural/photoics All Optical SigalProcessig Techiques Utilizig Four Wave Mixig Refat Kibria
More informationSSB Noise Figure Measurements of Frequency Translating Devices
975 SSB oise Figure Measuremets of Frequecy Traslatig Devices. Otegi,. Garmedia, J.M. Collates, M. Sayed Electricity ad Electroics Departmet, Uiversity of the Basque Coutry, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spai
More informationLecture 28: MOSFET as an Amplifier. SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Models.
hites, EE 320 ecture 28 Page 1 of 7 ecture 28: MOSFET as a Amplifier. SmallSigal Equivalet Circuit Models. As with the BJT, we ca use MOSFETs as AC smallsigal amplifiers. A example is the socalled coceptual
More informationMultisensor transducer based on a parallel fiber optic digitaltoanalog converter
V Iteratioal Forum for Youg cietists "pace Egieerig" Multisesor trasducer based o a parallel fiber optic digitaltoaalog coverter Vladimir Grechishikov 1, Olga Teryaeva 1,*, ad Vyacheslav Aiev 1 1 amara
More informationOptical fibres A thi flexible ad trasparet wire prepared for light propagatio is called optical fibre. The optical fibre has bee costructed for the followig reasos: The light wave caot traverse log distace
More informationAn Adaptive Image Denoising Method based on Thresholding
A Adaptive Image Deoisig Method based o Thresholdig HARI OM AND MANTOSH BISWAS Departmet of Computer Sciece & Egieerig Idia School of Mies, Dhabad Jharkad86004 INDIA {hariom4idia, matoshb}@gmail.com Abstract
More informationSimulation and Analysis on Signal Acquisition of BDS Receiver with The Aid of INS
Modelig Simulatio ad Optimizatio Techologies ad Applicatios (MSOTA 2016 Simulatio ad Aalysis o Sigal Acquisitio of DS Receiver with The Aid of INS Shulei Che Xiaqig Tag Xuwei Cheg Juqiag Gao ad Zepeg Su
More informationThe Firing Dispersion of Bullet Test Sample Analysis
Iteratioal Joural of Materials, Mechaics ad Maufacturig, Vol., No., Ma 5 The Firig Dispersio of Bullet Test Sample Aalsis Youliag Xu, Jubi Zhag, Li Ma, ad Yoghai Sha Udisputed, this approach does reduce
More informationTransfer Functions For The Reference Clock Jitter In A Serial Link: Theory And Applications in PCI Express
DesigCo 25 Leadig Edge Commuicatio Desig Coferece Trasfer Fuctios For The Referece Clock Jitter I A Serial Lik: Theory Ad Applicatios i PCI Express Mike Li, PhD Wavecrest Corporatio 1735 Techology Drive,
More informationSummary of Random Variable Concepts April 19, 2000
Summary of Radom Variable Cocepts April 9, 2000 his is a list of importat cocepts we have covered, rather tha a review that derives or explais them. he first ad primary viewpoit: A radom process is a idexed
More informationMultipath and Doppler Effects and Models
Multipath ad Doppler Effects ad Models There are two parts i this lecture. I Part I, we will first itroduce the mutipath propagatio effects ad Doppler frequecy shift/spread effects. I Part II, we will
More informationChapter 2: Sample Questions, Problems and Solutions Bölüm 2: Örnek Sorular, Problemler ve Çözümleri
Chapter : Sample Questios, Problems ad Solutios Bölüm : Örek Sorular, Problemler ve Çözümleri Örek Sorular (Sample Questios): Fourier series What is a badwidth? What is a voicegrade? Nyquist theorem Shao
More informationPrevious R&D of vibrating wire alignment technique for HEPS
Previous R&D of vibratig wire aligmet techique for HEPS WU Lei( 吴蕾 ) 1, WANG Xiaolog( 王小龙 ) 1,3 LI Chuhua( 李春华 ) 1 QU Huami( 屈化民 ) 1,3 1 Istitute of High Eergy Physics, Chiese Academy of Scieces, Beijig
More informationExperimental Noise Analysis of Reed Switch Sensor Signal under Environmental Vibration
Computer Techology ad Applicatio 7 (16) 961 doi: 1.1765/1934733/16..4 D DAVID PUBLISHING Experimetal Noise Aalysis of Reed Switch Sesor Sigal uder Evirometal Vibratio Odgerel Ayurzaa 1 ad Hiesik Kim
More informationObjectives. Some Basic Terms. Analog and Digital Signals. Analogtodigital conversion. Parameters of ADC process: Related terms
Objectives. A brief review of some basic, related terms 2. Aalog to digital coversio 3. Amplitude resolutio 4. Temporal resolutio 5. Measuremet error Some Basic Terms Error differece betwee a computed
More informationSymbol Error Rate Evaluation for OFDM Systems with MPSK Modulation
Symbol Error Rate Evaluatio for OFDM Systems with MPS Modulatio Yuhog Wag ad XiaoPig Zhag Departmet of Electrical ad Computer Egieerig, Ryerso Uiversity 35 Victoria Street, Toroto, Otario, Caada, M5B
More informationAUDIO QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN COMUNICATION SYSTEMS
AUDIO QUALITY MEASUREMETS I COMUICATIO SYSTEMS Ivo Matelja Faculty of electrical egieerig, Uiversity of Split R. Bosovica bb, 000 Split, Croatia (ivo.matelja@fesb.hr) Abstract: ITU gives Pclass recommedatios
More informationFrequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of GridTied SinglePhase PV Inverters Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
Aalborg Uiversitet Frequecy Adaptive Repetitive Cotrol of GridTied SiglePhase PV Iverters Zhou, Keliag; Yag, Yogheg; Blaabjerg, Frede Published i: Proceedigs of the 205 IEEE Eergy Coversio Cogress ad
More informationChapter 12 Sound Waves. We study the properties and detection of a particular type of wave sound waves.
Chapter 2 Soud Waves We study the properties ad detectio o a particular type o wave soud waves. A speaker geerates soud. The desity o the air chages as the wave propagates. Notice that the displacemet
More informationA WDM passive optical network enabling multicasting with colorfree ONUs
A WDM passive optical network enabling multicasting with colorfree ONUs Yue Tian, Qingjiang Chang, and Yikai Su * State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department
More informationThe Fast Haar Wavelet Transform for Signal & Image Processing
Vol. 7, No., The Fast Haar Wavelet Trasform for Sigal & Image Processig V.Ashok T.Balakumara C.Gowrishakar epartmet of BE, epartmet of ECE epartmet of EEE Velalar College of Egg.&Tech. Velalar College
More informationThe Potential of Dynamic Power and Subcarrier Assignments in MultiUser OFDMFDMA Cells
The Potetial of Dyamic Power ad Subcarrier Assigmets i MultiUser OFDMFDMA Cells Mathias Bohge, James Gross, Adam Wolisz TU Berli Eisteiufer 5, 1587 Berli, Germay {bohge gross wolisz}@tk.tuberli.de
More informationOptical ASK and FSK Modulation By Using Quantum Well Transistor Lasers
Iteratioal Joural of Optics ad Photoics (IJOP) Vol. 6, No., SummerFall 01 Optical ASK ad FSK Modulatio y Usig Quatum ell Trasistor Lasers A. Horri a ad R. Faez b a Youg Researchersa ad Elite Club, Arak
More informationECC Recommendation (14)02
ECC Recommedatio (14)02 Protectio of fixed moitorig statios agaist iterferece from earby or strog trasmitters Approved 07 February 2014 ECC/REC/(14)02 Page 2 INTRODUCTION The icreasig use of broadbad moitorig
More informationRMS WIDTH OF PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN ARBITRARY DISPERSIVE MEDIUM
RMS WIDTH OF PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN ARBITRARY DISPERSIVE MEDIUM P. A. Bélaer, A. Gajadharsih COPL, Départemet de Physique, Uiversité Laval. ad C. Paré Istitut Natioal d Optique INO, Québec. Abstract
More informationOptical millimeter wave generated by octupling the frequency of the local oscillator
Vol. 7, No. 10 / October 2008 / JOURNAL OF OPTICAL NETWORKING 837 Optical millimeter wave generated by octupling the frequency of the local oscillator Jianxin Ma, 1, * Xiangjun Xin, 1 J. Yu, 2 Chongxiu
More information, the error signal, (3), can be expressed as (4). U U e U e U e (2) (3) (4) Assuming
Sychroizatio i highly distorted threephase grids usig selective otch filters Cristia Blaco, David Reigosa, Ferado Briz ad Jua M. Guerrero Uiversity of Oviedo. Dept. of Elect., Computer & System Egieerig.
More informationSelfCancellation of Sample Frequency Offset in OFDM Systems in the Presence of Carrier Frequency Offset
SelfCacellatio of Sample Frequecy Offset i OFDM Systems i the Presece of Carrier Frequecy Offset Zhe GAO, 2, Mary A Igram 2 School of Electroic ad Iformatio Egieerig, Tiaji Uiversity, Chia 372 2 School
More informationIEEE P Wireless Personal Area Networks
November 6 IEEE P8.5639833c IEEE P8.5 Wireless Persoal Area Networks Project Title IEEE P8.5 Workig Group for Wireless Persoal Area Networks (WPANs) Statistical 6 GHz Idoor Chael Model Usig Circular
More informationPulseecho Ultrasonic NDE of Adhesive Bonds in Automotive Assembly
ECNDT 6  Poster 7 Pulseecho Ultrasoic NDE of Adhesive Bods i Automotive Assembly Roma Gr. MAEV, Sergey TITOV, Uiversity of Widsor, Widsor, Caada Abstract. Recetly, adhesive bodig techology has begu to
More informationCAEN Tools for Discovery
Applicatio Note AN2506 Digital Gamma Neutro discrimiatio with Liquid Scitillators Viareggio 19 November 2012 Itroductio I recet years CAEN has developed a complete family of digitizers that cosists of
More informationCrossLayer Performance of a Distributed RealTime MAC Protocol Supporting Variable Bit Rate Multiclass Services in WPANs
CrossLayer Performace of a Distributed RealTime MAC Protocol Supportig Variable Bit Rate Multiclass Services i WPANs David Tug Chog Wog, Jo W. Ma, ad ee Chaig Chua 3 Istitute for Ifocomm Research, Heg
More informationThe Potential of Dynamic Power and Subcarrier Assignments in MultiUser OFDMFDMA Cells
The Potetial of Dyamic Power ad Subcarrier Assigmets i MultiUser OFDMFDMA Cells Mathias Bohge, James Gross, Adam Wolisz Telecommuicatio Networks Group, TU Berli Eisteiufer 5, 1587 Berli, Germay {bohge
More informationDynamical properties of hybrid power filter with single tuned passive filter
Dawid BUŁA, Maria PASKO Silesia Uiversity of Techology, stitute of Electrical Egieerig ad Computer Sciece Dyamical properties of hybrid power filter with sigle tued passive filter Abstract. The paper has
More informationSimulation of Frequency, Timing Acquisition, and Cell Search Algorithms for OFDMA Based Mobile WiMAX
2011 Iteratioal Coferece o Commuicatio Egieerig ad Networks IPCSIT vol.19 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Sigapore Simulatio of Frequecy, Timig Acquisitio, ad Cell Search Algorithms for OFDMA Based Mobile
More informationLecture 29: Diode connected devices, mirrors, cascode connections. Context
Lecture 9: Diode coected devices, mirrors, cascode coectios Prof J. S. Smith Cotext Today we will be lookig at more sigle trasistor active circuits ad example problems, ad the startig multistage amplifiers
More informationInternational Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS)
teratioal Associatio of Scietific ovatio ad Research (ASR) (A Associatio Uifyig the Scieces, Egieerig, ad Applied Research) teratioal Joural of Emergig Techologies i Computatioal ad Applied Scieces (JETCAS)
More informationCircular waveguides. Introduction. Table of Contents
Itroductio Circular waveguides Waveguides ca be simply described as metal pipes. Depedig o their cross sectio there are rectagular waveguides (described i separate tutorial) ad circular waveguides, which
More informationLecture 3. OUTLINE PN Junction Diodes (cont d) Electrostatics (cont d) IV characteristics Reverse breakdown Smallsignal model
Lecture 3 AOUCEMETS HW2 is osted, due Tu 9/11 TAs will hold their office hours i 197 Cory Prof. Liu s office hours are chaged to TuTh 121PM i 212/567 Cory EE15 accouts ca access EECS Widows Remote eskto
More informationMICROWAVE photonics is an interdisciplinary area
314 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2009 Microwave Photonics Jianping Yao, Senior Member, IEEE, Member, OSA (Invited Tutorial) Abstract Broadband and low loss capability of
More informationA 1.2V High BandWidth Analog Multiplier in 0.18µm CMOS Technology
Iteratioal Review of Electrical Egieerig (I.R.E.E.), Vol. 5, N. Marchpril 00.V High BadWidth alog Multiplier i 0.8µm CMOS Techology mir Ebrahimi, Hossei Miar Naimi bstract alog multiplier is a importat
More informationResearch Article Modeling and Analysis of Cascade Multilevel DCDC Boost Converter Topologies Based on Hbridge Switched Inductor
Research Joural of Applied Scieces, Egieerig ad Techology 9(3): 4557, 205 DOI:0.9026/rjaset.9.389 ISSN: 20407459; eissn: 20407467 205 Maxwell Scietific Publicatio Corp. Submitted: September 25, 204
More informationTechnical Explanation for Counters
Techical Explaatio for ers CSM_er_TG_E Itroductio What Is a er? A er is a device that couts the umber of objects or the umber of operatios. It is called a er because it couts the umber of ON/OFF sigals
More information1 Gbit/s MIMOOFDM Transmission Experiments
1 Gbit/s MIMOOFDM Trasmissio Experimets V. Jugickel, A. Forck, T. Haustei, S.Schiffermüller, C. vo Helmolt Frauhofer Ist. for Telecommuicatios HeiichHertz Istitute 10587 Berli, Eisteiufer 37, Germay
More informationSubcarrier Grouping with Environmental Sensing for MIMOOFDM Systems over Correlated Doubleselective Fading Channels
1 Subcarrier Groupig with Evirometal Sesig for MIMOOFDM Systems over Correlated Doubleselective Fadig Chaels arxiv:1511.00378v2 [cs.it] 19 Ju 2017 Jiaxu Lu, Zhegchua Che, Pigyi Fa, Khaled B. Letaief
More informationLINEARPHASE FIR FILTERS: THE WINDOWING METHOD
LINEARPHASE FIR FILTERS: THE WINDOWING ETHOD Prof. Siripog Potisuk FIR Filter Characteristics Completely specified by iputoutput relatio: y[ ] b k0 x[ k] b k = filter coefficiets ad +1 = filter legth
More informationGeneralization of Selective Harmonic Control/Elimination
Geeralizatio of Selective Harmoic Cotrol/Elimiatio J.R. Wells, P.L. Chapma, P.T. rei Graiger Ceter for Electric Machiery ad Electromechaics Departmet of Electrical ad Computer Egieerig Uiversity of Illiois
More informationPhotonicsBased Wideband Microwave Phase Shifter
PhotonicsBased Wideband Microwave Phase Shifter Volume 9, Number 3, June 2017 Open Access Xudong Wang Tong Niu Erwin Hoi Wing Chan Xinhuan Feng Baiou Guan Jianping Yao DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2017.2697207
More informationFocus grid generation by inline holography
Focus grid geeratio by ilie holography Jigag Wu, 1,* Lap Ma Lee, 2 ad Chaghuei Yag 1,2 1 Departmet of Electrical Egieerig, Califoria Istitute of Techology, 1200 E Califoria Blvd., Pasadea, CA 91125, USA
More informationFLEXIBLE ADC: A DITHER AND OVERSAMPLING BASED SOLUTION TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF ADC SYSTEMS
FLEXIBLE : A DITHER AND OVERSAMPLING BASED SOLUTION TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS J.M. Dias Pereira (1), A. Cruz Serra () ad P. Girão () (1) DSI, Escola Superior de Tecologia, Istituto Politécico
More informationhirel and space product screening MicroWave Technology
hirel ad space product screeig A MicroWave Techology IXYS Compay HighReliability ad SpaceReliability Screeig Optios Space Qualified Low Noise Amplifiers Model Pkg Freq Liear Gai New (GHz) Gai Fitess
More informationDesign and Construction of a Threephase Digital Energy Meter
Desig ad Costructio of a Threephase Digital Eergy Meter D.P.Chadima, V.G.R.G. Jayawardae, E.A.E.H. Hemachadra, I.N.Jayasekera, H.V.L.Hasaraga, D.C. Hapuarachchi (chadima@elect.mrt.ac.lk, geethagaj@gmail.com,era.hem@gmail.com,ishaivaka@gmail.com,lahiru_hasaraga@yahoo.com,diya_elect.uom@gmail.com)
More informationAdaptive MMSE RakeEqualizer Receiver Design with Channel Estimation for DSUWB System
Adaptive MMSE RakeEqualizer Receiver Desig with Chael Estimatio for DSUWB System Departmet of Electric Egieerig, Diwa Uiversity No.871, Nashi Li, Madou Tow, Taia Couty 7153, Taiwa, R.O.C. cyj@dwu.edu.tw
More informationA New Peak Detection Method for Single or ThreePhase Unbalanced Sinusoidal Signals
A New Peak Detectio Metod for Sigle or TreePase Ubalaced Siusoidal Sigals Jusog Rim 1,3, Colyog Ri 1, Hogcol Ji 2, Colji Or 3, Colju Rim 3, Hyewo Ri 2 1. Departmet of Pysics, KimIlSug Uiversity, Pyogyag,
More informationAssessment of Soil Parameter Estimation Errors for Fusion of Multichannel Radar Measurements
Assessmet of Soil Parameter Estimatio Errors for Fusio of Multichael Radar Measuremets A. urei, D. Marshall, D. Radford,. Lever Cardiff Uiversity 5 The Parade, Roath, CF4 0YF, Cardiff, U A.urei@cs.cf.ac.u
More informationGigabit Transmission in 60GHzBand Using Optical Frequency UpConversion by Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Photodiode Configuration
22 Gigabit Transmission in 60GHzBand Using Optical Frequency UpConversion by Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Photodiode Configuration JunHyuk Seo, and WooYoung Choi Department of Electrical and
More informationGROWING bandwidth needs are motivating the replacement
JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 32, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2014 505 Wavelegth Lockig ad Thermally Stabilizig Microrig Resoators Usig Ditherig Sigals Kishore Padmaraju, Studet Member, IEEE, Dyla F. Loga,
More informationERX 3003 / RX 3003 HF Exciter / VLFHF Receiver
ERX 3003 / RX 3003 HF Exciter / VLFHF Receiver ERX 3003 / RX 3003 Pushig the Limits 24 khz* widebad capability Software Deﬁed HF Exciter/VLFHF Receiver FEATURES Frequecy rage: 1.5 MHz  30 MHz trasmit
More informationCarrier Phase Estimation in DispersionUnmanaged Optical Transmission Systems
Carrier Phase Estimatio i DispersioUmaaged Optical rasmissio ystems iahua Xu, Polia Bayvel Dept. Electroic & Electrical Egieerig Uiversity College Lodo (UCL) Lodo, UK email: tiahua.xu@ucl.ac.uk Guar
More informationFramework for optical millimetrewave generation based on tandem single sideband modulation
Framework for optical millimetrewave generation based on tandem single sideband modulation Maryam Niknamfar, Mehdi Shadaram Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San
More informationDirect Link Networks  Encoding
Direct Lik Networks  Ecodig Readig: Peterso ad Davie, Chapter 2 Sprig 2018 CS 438 Staff, Uiversity of Illiois 1 Where are we? Applicatio Layers BitTorret (P2P) HTTP (Web) Skype (VOIP) IPTV (streamig media)
More informationInternational Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 12, December2016 ISSN
Iteratioal Joural of Scietific & Egieerig Research, Volume 7, Issue, December06 ISS 9558 56 Ehacemet of SDR through FBMC Commuicatio THIAKARA Dr D Kumar Dea ao ad Prof, Dept of ECE, Periyar Maiammai
More informationA NEW DISCRETE HARTLEY TRANSFORM PRECODING BASED INTERLEAVEDOFDMA UPLINK SYSTEM WITH REDUCED PAPR FOR 4G CELLULAR NETWORKS
Joural of Egieerig Sciece ad Techology Vol. 6, No. 6 (211) 685694 School of Egieerig, Taylor s Uiversity A NEW DISCRETE HARTLEY TRANSFORM PRECODING BASED INTERLEAVEDOFDMA UPLINK SYSTEM WITH REDUCED PAPR
More informationAntenna Diversity Techniques for a Single Carrier System with Frequency Domain Equalization An Overview
Atea Diversity Techiques for a Sigle Carrier System with Frequecy Domai Equalizatio A Overview. Witschig, G. Strasser,. Weigel, A. Spriger Istitute for Commuicatios ad Istitute for Techical Electroics
More informationTwoDimensional Carrier Profiling by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Its Application to Advanced Device Development
TwoDimesioal Carrier Profilig by Scaig Tuelig Microscopy ad Its Applicatio to Advaced Device Developmet Hideobu Fukutome (Mauscript received December 28, 2009) A highresolutio twodimesioal (2D) carrier
More informationNonlinear Inverse Synthesis for Optical Links with Distributed Raman Amplification
1 Noliear Iverse Sythesis for Optical Liks with Distributed Rama Amplificatio So Thai Le, Jaroslaw E. Prilepsky, Paweł Rosa, Jua D. AiaCastañó ad Sergei K. Turitsy Abstract Noliear Fourier trasform ()
More informationJoint Power Allocation and Beamforming for Cooperative Networks
It. J. Commuicatios, etwork ad System Scieces,, 4, 44745 doi:.436/ijcs..4753 Published Olie July (http://www.scirp.org/joural/ijcs) Joit Power Allocatio ad Beamformig for Cooperative etworks Sodes Maadi,,
More informationWavelength Band Switching in Multigranular Optical WDM Networks
Wavelegth Bad Switchig i Multigraular Optical WDM Networks Vishal Aad Collaborators X. Cao,, Dr. Y. Xiog ad Dr. C. Qiao LANDER, CSE Departmet, SUNY at Buffalo ~1~ Vishal Aad Outlie λ The Problem with preset
More informationCHAPTER 6 IMPLEMENTATION OF DIGITAL FIR FILTER
CHAPTER 6 IMPLEMENTATION OF DIGITAL FIR FILTER 6.1 INTRODUCTION The digital FIR filters are commo compoets i may digital sigal processig (DSP) systems. There are various applicatios like high speed/low
More informationDesign and Measurements of a Quasiisotropic UWB Planar Antenna
Desig ad Measuremets of a Quasiisotropic UWB Plaar Atea Atoie Diet, Nicolas RibièreTharaud To cite this versio: Atoie Diet, Nicolas RibièreTharaud. Desig ad Measuremets of a Quasiisotropic UWB Plaar
More informationModulation Analysis for Wireless Infrared Communications
Modulatio Aalysis for Wireless Ifrared Commuicatios Hyucheol Park ad Joh R. Barry School of Electrical ad Computer Egieerig Georgia Istitute of Techology Atlata, Georgia, 3033050 ABSTRACT The chael model
More informationGENERALIZED WAVELETBASED SYMBOL RATE ESTIMATION FOR LINEAR SINGLE CARRIER MODULATION IN BLIND ENVIRONMENT
GENERALIZED WAVELETBASED SYMBOL RATE ESTIMATION FOR LINEAR SINGLE CARRIER MODULATION IN BLIND ENVIRONMENT Rima Hatoum LIP6/UPMC Uiversity of Paris VI; 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, Frace Alaa Ghaith EDST/Lebaese
More informationVoice Command Recognition System Based on MFCC and VQ Algorithms
Voice Commad Recogitio System Based o MFCC ad VQ Algorithms Mahdi Shaeh, ad Azizollah Taheri Abstract The goal of this project is to desig a system to recogitio voice commads. Most of voice recogitio systems
More informationCapacity Analysis for OFDM Systems with Transceiver I/Q Imbalance
Capacity Aalysis for OFDM Systems with Trasceiver I/Q Imbalace Stefa Kroe ad Gerhard Fettweis Vodafoe Chair Mobile Commuicatios Systems Techische Uiversität Dresde, 6 Dresde, Germay Email: {stefa.kroe,
More informationEfficiency Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission for Portable Electronics
MATEC Web of Cofereces, 008 ( 05) DOI: 0.05/ mateccof/ 05008 C Owed by the authors, published by EDP Scieces, 05 Efficiecy Aalysis of Wireless Power Trasmissio for Portable Electroics Xigpig Xu, Chuaxiag
More informationNuclear Power Instrumentation Sensors Featuring the Radiation Hardened Approvals Necessary for Nuclear Power Environments
IMI Sesors  A PCB Piezotroics Divisio Nuclear Power Istrumetatio Sesors Featurig the Radiatio Hardeed Approvals Necessary for Nuclear Power Eviromets visit us at www.imisesors.com Tollfree i the USA
More informationEvaluation of turbulent parameters based on angleofarrival fluctuation Yang LI 1,Chao GAO 2, YiMing LI 2, Gang YANG 2 & XiaoFeng LI 2
Iteratioal Coferece o Iformatio Techology ad Maagemet Iovatio (ICITMI 15) Evaluatio of turbulet parameters based o agleofarrival fluctuatio Yag LI 1,Chao GAO, YiMig LI, Gag YANG & XiaoFeg LI 1 Accoutig
More informationUltra Wideband Wireless Propagation Channel Characterizations for Biomedical Implants
Ultra Widebad Wireless Propagatio Chael Characterizatios for Biomedical Implats BaoLi Wei, Chu Xiog, HogWei Yue, XueMig Wei, WeiLi Xu, Qia Zhou, ad JiHai Dua Abstract I order to ispect the feasibility
More information