Phase-coherent orthogonally polarized optical single sideband modulation with arbitrarily tunable optical carrier-to-sideband ratio

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1 Phase-coheret orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad modulatio with arbitrarily tuable optical carrier-to-sidebad ratio We Tig Wag,,2 Jia Guo Liu, * Hai Kuo Mei, ad Nig Hua Zhu State Key Laboratory o Itegrated Optoelectroics, Istitute of Semicoductors, Chiese Academy of Scieces, Beijig, 00083, Chia 2 Ceter for Free-Electro Laser Sciece, Deutsches Elektroe-Sychrotro, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607, Germay * Abstract: We propose ad experimetally verify a ovel approach to achieve phase-coherece orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad (OSSB) modulatio with a tuable optically carrier-to-sidebad ratio (OCSR). I our scheme, the orthogoally polarized OSSB sigal is achieved usig a dual-polarizatio quadrature phase shift keyig (DP- QPSK) modulator without a optical bad-pass filter (OBPF). Therefore, the proposed method is wavelegth idepedet. The DP-QPSK modulator icludes two parallel QPSK modulators locatig o its two arms. The upper QPSK modulator of the DP-QPSK modulator is drive by two quadrature siusoidal microwave sigals ad works at the frequecy shiftig coditio whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical. The lower QPSK modulator of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit ad the optical carrier is ot modulated. The OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply adjustig the bias voltages of the lower modulator. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper QPSK modulator ad the optical carrier from the lower QPSK modulator are combied together at the output of the DP- QPSK modulator. The optical carrier ad sidebad are polarized orthogoally. The geerated OSSB sigals could be used to shift ad code the phase of the microwave sigal ad geerate ultra-widebad (UWB) microwave pulse. The proposed method is aalyzed ad experimetal demostrated. 206 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: ( ) Radio frequecy photoics; (070.70) Aalog optical sigal processig; ( ) Fiber optics; ( ) Heterodye. Refereces ad liks. E. D. Woote, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Ya, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attaasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrie, ad D. E. Bossi, A review of Lithium Niobate modulators for fiber-optic commuicatios systems, IEEE J. Quatum Electro. 6(), (2000). 2. U. Gliese, S. Norskov, ad T. N. Nielse, Chromatic dispersio i fiber-optic microwave ad millimeter-wave liks, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 44(0), (996). 3. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, ad Z. Ahmed, Overcomig chromatic-dispersio effects i fiber-wireless systems icorporatig exteral modulators, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), (997). 4. M. Xue, S. L. Pa, ad Y. J. Zhao, Optical sigle-sidebad modulatio based o a dual-drive MZM ad a 20 Hybrid coupler, J. Lightwave Techol. 32(9), (204). 5. J. P. Yao, Microwave photoics, J. Lightwave Techol. 27(3), (2009). 6. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhag, ad J. P. Yao, Optical sigle-sidebad modulatio usig a fiber-bragg-gratig based optical Hilbert trasformer, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 23(9), (20). 7. S. R. Blais ad J. P. Yao, Optical sigle sidebad modulatio usig a ultraarrow dual-trasmissio-bad fiber Bragg gratig, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 8(2), (2006). 8. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawaishi, ad M. Izutsu, Sigle side-bad modulatio performace of a LiNbO3 itegrated modulator cosistig of four-phase modulator waveguides, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 3(4), (200). (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 388

2 9. B. Davies ad J. Coradi, Hybrid modulator structures for subcarrier ad harmoic subcarrier optical sigle sidebad, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 0(4), (998). 0. H. Kim, EML-Based optical sigle sidebad trasmitter, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 20(4), (2008).. A. L. Campillo, Orthogoally polarized sigle sidebad modulator, Opt. Lett. 32(2), (2007). 2. U. S. Lee, H. D. Jug, ad S. K. Ha, Optical sigle sidebad sigal geeratio usig phase modulatio of semicoductor optical amplifier, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 6(5), (2004). 3. A. Loayssa, D. Beito, ad M. J. Garde, Sigle-sidebad suppressed-carrier modulatio usig a sigle-electrode electrooptic modulator, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 3(8), (200). 4. A. A. Sacchekov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liag, V. S. Ilcheko, D. Seidel, ad L. Maleki, Sigle-sidebad electrooptical modulator ad tuable microwave photoic receiver, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(), (200). 5. Z. Li, C. Yu, Y. Dog, L. Cheg, L. F. K. Lui, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H. Y. Tam, ad P. K. A. Wai, Liear photoic radio frequecy phase shifter usig a differetial-group-delay elemet ad a optical phase modulator, Opt. Lett. 35(), (200). 6. Y. Zhag ad S. Pa, Tuable multitap microwave photoic filter with all complex coefficiets, Opt. Lett. 38(5), (203). 7. D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Atoie, J. P. Huigard, D. Philippet, ad P. Grager, Experimetal demostratio of a phased-array atea optically cotrolled with phase ad time delays, Appl. Opt. 35(26), (996). 8. L. X. Wag, W. Li, H. Wag, J. Y. Zheg, J. G. Liu, ad N. H. Zhu, Photoic geeratio of phase coded microwave pulses usig cascaded polarizatio modulators, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 25(7), (203). 9. Y. M. Zhag, F. Z. Zhag, ad S. L. Pa, Optical sigle sidebad modulatio with tuable optical carrier-tosidebad ratio, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 26(7), (204). 20. J. Y. Zheg, L. X. Wag, Z. Dog, M. Xu, X. Wag, J. G. Liu, N. H. Zhu, S. Larochelle, ad G. K. Chag, Orthogoal sigle-sidebad sigal geeratio usig improvig sagac-loop-based modulator, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 26(22), (204). 2. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, ad L. X. Wag, Perfectly orthogoal optical Sigle sidebad sigal geeratio based o stimulated Brilloui scatterig, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 24(9), (202). 22. M. Sagues ad A. Loayssa, Orthogoally polarized optical sigle sidebad modulatio for microwave photoics processig usig stimulated Brilloui scatterig, Opt. Express 8(22), (200). 23. J. Li, T. G. Nig, L. Pei, S. Gao, H. D. You, H. Y. Che, ad N. Jia, Performace aalysis of a optical sigle sidebad modulatio approach with tuable optical carrier-to-sidebad ratio, Opt. Laser Techol. 48, (203). 24. B. Masella ad X. Zhag, Liearized optical sigle sidebad Mach-Zehder electro-optic modulator for radio over fiber systems, Opt. Express 6(2), (2008). 25. C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, ad R. Waterhouse, Aalysis of optical carrier-to-sidebad ratio for improvig trasmissio performace i fiber-radio liks, IEEE Tras. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(5), (2006). 26. B. Hraimel, X. P. Zhag, Y. Q. Pei, K. Wu, T. J. Liu, T. F. Xu, ad Q. H. Nie, Optical sigle-sidebad modulatio with tuable optical carrier to sidebad ratio i radio over fiber systems, J. Lightwave Techol. 29(5), (20). 27. J. T. Xiog, R. Wag, T. Pu, L. Lu, T. Fag, Z. H. Wei, G. D. Su, J. L. Zheg, ad P. Xiag, A ovel approach to realizig SSB modulatio with optimum optical carrier to sidebad ratio, IEEE Photoics Techol. Lett. 25(2), 4 7 (203). 28. J. G. Zhao, Z. J. Liu, X. L. Liu, T. Shag, ad P. Yue, Optimisatio of carrier-to-sidebad ratio by triple-arm Mach-Zehder modulators i radio-over-fiber liks, IET Optoelectro. 4(5), (200). 29. X. Zhag, Z. Li, C. Li, M. Luo, H. Li, C. Li, Q. Yag, ad S. Yu, Trasmissio of 00-Gb/s DDO- OFDM/OQAM over 320-km SSMF with a sigle photodiode, Opt. Express 22(0), (204). 30. Y. Zhag, M. O Sulliva, ad R. Hui, Theoretical ad experimetal ivestigatio of compatible SSB modulatio for sigle chael log-distace optical OFDM trasmissio, Opt. Express 8(6), (200).. Itroductio Optical sigle sidebad (OSSB) modulatio has become a attractive techology for improvig the performace of the fiber optical commuicatio systems [], log-distace radio-over-fiber (ROF) system [2, 3], high-resolutio optical vector etwork aalyzer (OVNA) system [4], ad microwave photoic systems [5]. Compared with the optical double sidebad (ODB) modulatio, the OSSB modulatio could ehace the spectral efficiecy ad alleviate dispersio-iduced optical carrier power suppressio. I the OVNA system, it provides a correspodece or itelliget oe-to-oe mappig betwee the electrical ad optical domai to characterize the trasmissio respose of the optical uder-test-device (ODUT) [4]. Various approaches have bee reported to implemet the OSSB modulatio. Oe commo method is based o the ODB modulatio icorporatig with a optical filter. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 389

3 The optical filter could be a fiber Bragg gratig (FBG) [6], steep-edge tuable optical badpass filter (OBPF) [7], micro-rig resoator [4] to remove oe sidebad of the DSB sigals. However, the approach depeds o the wavelegth of the optical carrier. Moreover, if a ODB sigal udergoes through these optical filters, the optical filter iduces the extra phase ad amplitude respose imposed o the residual sidebads ad the optical carrier. The OSSB modulatio ca also be obtaied based o electro-optical modulators combiig with a Hilbert covertor. The key advatage of the approach is the OSSB modulatio is idepedet o the wavelegth of the optical carrier over the whole C wavelegth bad. A dual-electrode Mach-Zehder modulator (DMZM) [4], a dual-parallel MZM (DPMZM) [8], a MZM cascaded with a phase modulator (PM) [9], two idividual electro-absorptio modulators [0], or two polarizatio modulators (PolM) [] have bee reported to achieve OSSB modulatio, which are geerally drive by two microwave sigals with 90 phase differece. The OSSB modulatio also could be achieved usig phase modulatio of semicoductor optical amplifier [2], a sigle bidirectioal itesity modulator iside a Sagac iterferometer [3], or a electro-absorptio modulated laser [4].The merit of these techiques lies i the fact that these schemes are ot optical carrier wavelegth depedet. However, the mai limitatio for the most of the previously demostrated methods with or without a optical filter is the optical carrier ad the correspodig first order sidebad is ot polarized orthogoally. Polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio has importat applicatio i microwave photoic sigal processig systems, such as microwave photoic phase shifter [5], complex coefficiet microwave photoic filter [6], atea array beam-formig [7], ultra-widebad (UWB) microwave sigal geeratio with backgroud-free [8]. The polarized orthogoally OSSB sigal is usually ijected ito the polarizatio depedet device. I this modulatio format, the state of polarizatio (SOP) of the optical carrier ad the correspodigly modulated sidebad are orthogoal to udergo the polarizatio depedet effect. The orthogoal OSSB modulatio has bee realized usig a differetial group delay module [5], a MZM cascaded with a PolM [9], a PolM icorporatig with a OBPF, a acoustic modulator, improved Sagac-loop-based modulator [20]. The key limitatio for the acoustic modulator-based method is the low workig badwidth. The differetial group delay modulebased scheme works usually at the sigle frequecy case. The PolM-based polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio is a powerful method, but the OBPF have to be required to remove oe of sidebads. For the MZM cascaded with a PolM, the accurate delay matchig betwee the two microwave sigals is strictly eeded to obtai a wide badwidth. The polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio has also bee reported based o the stimulated Brilloui scatterig (SBS) polarizatio pullig effect [2, 22]. However, the system is rather complicated to obtai the required orthogoal properties ad has a poor stability. For some realistic applicatios, it is very desirable that the polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio with a tuable optical carrier to sidebad ratio (OCSR). However, the OCSR of the reported schemes is ot almost chaged. The ROF system ofte suffers from the lower receiver sesitivity at the remote ed to degrade the bit error ratio (BER). The receiver sesitivity could be ehaced by simply optimizig the OCSR to improve the performace of the etire system [23 25]. Up to ow, several approaches have bee verified to achieve the OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR based o a OSSB geerator icorporatig with a arrow bad otch FBG or a polarizatio maitaiig fiber Bragg gratig (PM-FBG) [23] or a DPMZM combiig with a 90-degree phase shifter [26] or optical ijectio-locked laser [27] or multimode iterferece coupler ad three optical phase-modulator waveguides [28]. However, the workig badwidth for the PM-FBG-based method is limited ad the system has a poor log-term stability ad is wavelegth depedet. The SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad is ot orthogoal for the DPMZM-based method. The three arms MZM are a special device ad the scheme is rather complicated. The OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR is also demostrated based o cascaded PolMs [9]. The mai limitatio lies i the fact that the approach does ot work at the wide badwidth. Moreover, i the optical commuicatio system, the BER performace is directly related with the OCSR [29, 30]. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 390

4 I this paper, we propose ad experimetally verify a ovel ad compact approach to achieve phase-coherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio with a optimal OCSR. The proposed method is based o a sigle modulator. I our scheme, the orthogoally polarized OSSB is firstly achieved by DP-QPSK modulator without a optical filter. Compared with [6 0], the proposed system is wavelegth idepedet over the etire C wavelegth bad ad has a polarizatio orthogoal property. The upper arm of the DP-QPSK modulator is drive by two quadrature siusoidal microwave sigals ad works at the frequecy shiftig coditio whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical carrier. The microwave power ad phase are optimized to achieve frequecy shiftig optical sigals. The lower arm of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit. The optical carrier is ot modulated i this arm ad its power could be adjusted by tuig the bias voltages. Therefore, the OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply adjustig the bias voltages of the lower arm modulator. Compared with the [9, 23, 27, 28], the OCSR of the proposed method has a wider rage, a better stability, ad a smaller footprit. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper modulator ad the optical carrier from the lower modulator are combied together at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator with orthogoal SOP. The proposed method is aalyzed ad experimetal demostrated. The OSSB sigal geerator could be widely applied for the microwave photoic sigal processig system. 2. Theory ad priciple The schematic diagram of the proposed phase-coherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio with tuable OCSR sigal geerator is show i Fig., which cosists of a laser diode (LD), a DP-QPSK modulator, two polarizatio cotrollers (PC, PC2), a microwave source (MS), a electrical 90 degree hybrid coupler (HC) ad a optical spectrum aalyzer (OSA). The PC2 coected after the DP-QPSK modulator ad a polarizer (Pol) are used to check the orthogoal polarizatio property of the geerated OSSB sigal. A arrow lie-width optical sigal is firstly ijected ito the DP-QPSK modulator which is drive by microwave sigals. The DP-QPSK modulator is a commercially available itegrated device icludig two QPSK modulators, a polarizatio beam splitter (PBS), a polarizatio beam combier (PBC). The optical carrier is equally divided ito two parts with orthogoal polarizatio after the PBS via the PC. Each arm of the DP-QPSK has a QPSK modulator with idetical optical legth. The microwave sigal emitted from the MS is ijected ito the HC ad separated ito two braches with idetical power ad phase differece of 90 degree. The QPSK modulator is structured as two MZMs (MZM ad MZM2) settig i parallel ad formig the third MZM (MZM3). A polarizatio beam combier (PBC) multiplexes of the two outputs optical sigals of the pair of QPSK modulator with orthogoal polarizatios. I our scheme, the two MZMs of the upper QPSK modulator are drive by a cosie ad a sie microwave sigal with the same frequecy. The relative optical phase betwee the two MZMs is set as π/2 by simply adjustig the bias voltages. The MZMs i the two arms of the QPSK modulator work at the miimum trasmissio poit (MITP) by cotrollig the bias voltages of the MZMs. Based o the above settig, the frequecy shiftig optical sigal could be obtaied at the output of the upper QPSK modulator with frequecy spacig of the drive microwave sigal. The lower QPSK modulator of the DP-QPSK modulator is ot modulated. With the DP-QPSK modulator, we ca flexibly chage the frequecy iterval betwee the optical carrier ad the frequecy shiftig optical sigal by chagig the microwave frequecy. Assumig each MZM with ifiite optical extictio ratio (ER) ad perfect power splittig ratio, the ormalized optical field at the output of the upper QPSK modulator is give by Eupper () t = rl Ei { si( βcos( ωmt) ) + jsi( βsi( ωmt) )} () 2 where E i = exp(jω c t) is the ormalized optical filed of the iput sigal, ad ω c the agular frequecy of the optical carrier. r l deotes isertio loss of each MZM. β is the phase modulatio idices of the MZM ad MZM2 o each arm of the QPSK modulator, which ca (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 39

5 be expressed as β = πv m /V π. V π is the half-wave voltage of the MZMs. V m ad ω m are the amplitude ad the agular frequecy of the drive microwave sigal, respectively. MS 90 HC LD PC ATT DP-QPSK DC bias cotroller PBS PC2 Pol X Pol QPSK OSA PBC Y Pol QPSK2 Fig.. Schematic diagram of the proposed phase-coherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio geerator (LD: laser diode; DP-QPSK modulator: dual-polarizatio quadrature phase shift keyig modulator; PC, PC2: polarizatio cotroller; HC: hybrid coupler; MS: microwave source; DC: direct cotroller; Pol: polarizer; ATT: atteuator; OSA: optical spectrum aalyzer. Applyig the Jacobi-Ager Expasio [4], the Eq. () could be rewritte as follow: { } ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) E () t = 2 r E J β cos 2 ω t + jsi 2 ω t upper l i 2 m m = { ω } ( β)( ) ( ) ( ) = 2 re J exp j 2 t l i 2 m = where J ( ) is the Bessel fuctio of the first kid of order. As ca be see from the Eq. (2), it is clearly observed that the QPSK modulator at the output of that has the spectral compoets with the frequecy shifts of ω m, 3ω m, ad 5ω m A series of sidebads are geerated locatig at oe side of the optical carrier due to the oliearity of the QPSK modulator. They will beat with each other as well as with the optical carrier i the PD, geeratig the fudametal frequecy microwave sigal ad the udesired microwave harmoic compoets. The optical field at the output of the lower QPSK modulator could be represeted as: E ( t) = r E cos ϕ + cos ϕ cos ϕ (3) lower l i { ( ) ( 2) } ( 3) 2 Both the optical sigals from the upper ad lower QPSK modulators are combied i the PBC to geerate a polarized orthogoally OSSB modulatio optical sigal. The optical field at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator alog the X ad Y priciple axes of that could be writte as: Ex Eupper () t = Ey Elower () t { } 2 re l i J exp j 2 mt = = re l i{ cos( ϕ) cos( ϕ2) } + cos( ϕ3) 2 (2) 2 ( β)( ) ( ) ( ) ω (4) where φ = φ 2 is the static phase shift iduced by the direct curret bias of the lower QPSK modulator, which ca be expressed as φ = φ 2 = πv/v π-bias. V π-bias is the static half-wave (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 392

6 voltage of the MZMs. φ 2 is the static phase shift cotrolled by the bias voltage of the MZM3. As ca be see from Eq. (4), the SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the odd-order sidebads is orthogoal. Figure 2(a) shows the variatios of J (β), J 3 (β) ad J 5 (β) versus β. As ca be see from Fig. 2(a), the amplitude of the frequecy shiftig optical sigal could be tuig by chagig the power of the drive microwave sigal. Geerally, the phase modulatio idex is less tha 2π due to the limited microwave power of the drive microwave sigal. For β =.839 rad, we have J (β) = which is the maximum value ad J 3 (β) J 5 (β) 0. Therefore, the udesired microwave harmoics i the electrical domai could be elimiated. I Fig. 2(b), the ormalized itesity of the first-, third-, ad fifth-order optical spectral compoets are show, which are calculated by P 2- = [J 2- (β)] 2. It is clearly show that the sidebad suppressio ratio betwee the adjacetly odd sidebads is determied by the phase modulatio idex of the upper modulator. As the phase modulatio idex decreases, the power ratio betwee P ad P 3 icreases. As ca be see from Fig. 2(b), the power of P reaches the maximum value ad the P/P3 = 8.5 db is the miimum value whe β = 2 rad. Therefore, there is a tradeoff betwee the power of the first-order optical sigal ad the sidebad suppressio ratio for the higher-order compoets. The OCSR of the geerated OSSB modulated sigal could be cotiuously tued by cotrollig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator. We have the OCSR as follow: ( cos( ϕ) + cos( ϕ2) ) cos( ϕ3) J ( β ) 2 OCSR( db) = 0log 0 2 (5) Normalized amplitude (a) J(β) J3(β) J5(β) Phase modulatio idex β (rad) Power (dbm) (b) J (β) J 3 (β) J 5 (β) Phase modulatio idex β (rad) Fig. 2. (a) Variatios of J (β), J 3 (β) ad J 5 (β) versus β; (b) power variatios of P (β), P 3 (β) ad P 5 (β) versus β. It is obviously observed that the OCSR of the geerated OSSB sigal depeds o the phase modulatio idex of the upper QPSK modulator ad the static phase shift of the lower QPSK modulator. Whe the phase modulatio idex is a fixed value, the OCSR is tued by simply chagig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator. Figure 3 shows the simulated OCSR as a fuctio of direct curret bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator whe the phase modulatio idex of the upper QPSK modulator is fixed at.839-,.5-, 0.5-, 3-rad. The OCSR could theoretically be cotiuously tued from 9 db to 37 db. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 393

7 Fig. 3. The relatioship betwee the OCSR ad the bias voltage of the QPSK modulator is show while fixig β at.839-,.5-, 0.5-, 3-rad of the upper QPSK modulator. I order to obtai the modulated microwave sigal, a PC2 ad a Pol attached after the modulator are used to project the polarized orthogoally optical sigals ito a polarizatio directio. The OSSB modulatio optical sigal are the ijected ito the PD to recover the modulated microwave sigal, the photocurret is give by: * i () t Eout () t Eout () t ( )( ) ( ) r J β cos 2 ω t+ 2θ l 2 m = where E out = cos(θ) E x + si(θ) E y, θ is a agle betwee polarizatio directio of the PC2 ad the Pol. As ca be see from Eq. (6), the photocurret cosists of ac terms with odd-order frequecy compoets. For some applicatios, the higher order sidebads may lead to some extra errors, such as i OVNA systems ad i microwave photoic phase shiftig system. To obtai the phase shift microwave sigal, the microwave sigal higher tha the first-order oes are suppressed by cotrollig the power of the microwave sigal, oly leavig the fudametal frequecy microwave sigal. I this case, Eq. (6) ca by simplified as l ( β ) [ ω θ] i () t rj cos t+ 2 (7) It is clearly idicated that the phase of the recovered microwave sigal could be cotiuously chaged whe agle θ varies over the rage from 0 to π. The proposed orthogoally polarized OSSB sigal geerator could be explored for the phase codig microwave sigal geeratio, widebad phase shiftig microwave sigal, optically cotrolled phased array atea, multitap microwave photoic filter with complex coefficiet ad so o. 3. Experimet ad simulatio The proposed scheme was experimetally demostrated based o the setup show i Fig.. A arrow liewidth LD (Koheras AdjustiK E5) with liewidth of less tha 0. khz is employed to provide the optical carrier with the wavelegth ad the power of ~550.6 m ad 3.49 dbm, respectively. The optical sigal is the ijected ito the DP-QPSK modulator (LAAM000), which has a optical badwidth of 23 GHz ad drive voltage at RF port of 3.5 V ad at DC ports of 6 V ad a DC extictio ratio for sub MZM of more tha 20 db. The optical power is equally divided alog the X-axes ad the Y-axes. I our experimet, the light-wave at X-axes is frequecy shifted while that at Y-axis is ot modulated. A PC (Thorlabs Ic.) is iserted betwee the LD ad the modulator to reduce the polarizatio depedece loss ad split the optical power ito two idetical parts. The siusoidal microwave sigal emitted from the MS drive to the upper arm of the DP-QPSK modulator was pre-amplified by a electrical amplifier (EA) which has a 3-dB badwidth from 40 khz to 38 GHz, a gai of 26 db, ad a maximum output power of 22 dbm. The amplified microwave sigal is divided ito two paths by a broadbad electrical 90 degree HC with a operatioal badwidth of -8 GHz. The electrical legth differece of the two paths should be cotrolled less tha 0.3 mm ad the power of them should be adjusted by a atteuator m (6) (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 394

8 (ATT) to obtai the idetical power. The obtaied two microwave sigals are explored ito the two RF ports of the upper QPSK modulator, respectively. By tuig the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator, the OCSR of the orthogoally polarized OSSB modulated sigal could be tued over 40 db rage. The, aother PC ad a Pol are coected after the DP- QPSK modulator to verify the polarizatio orthogoal property. The optical spectrum at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator ad the Pol was observed by a OSA (Advatest Q8384) with a resolutio badwidth of 0.0 m. First of all, we tued the bias voltages of the ested MZM ad child MZM of the upper QPSK modulator to elimiate the optical carrier. We defie the bias voltages as X, X2, X3, Y, Y2, ad Y3, respectively, which subscript, 2 ad 3 deote the MZM, MZM2, ad paret MZM of the upper ad lower QPSK modulator. We set the DC bias voltages of the DP-QPSK modulator as X = 9.0 V, X2 = 2.37 V, X3 = 4.67 V, Y = 3.7 V, Y2 = 2.0 V, ad Y3 = 0 V to suppress the optical carrier. These bias voltages could be cotrolled usig a optoelectroic feedback cotrol system by moitorig the optical power variatio to avoid bias drift. Figure 4 shows the optical spectra at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator. Figure 4(a) shows the optical carrier could be elimiated more tha 48 db by adjustig these bias voltages. The secod step was to tue the bias voltages of the lower QPSK modulator to let the optical carrier go through. Moreover, the microwave sigal was fed ito the upper QPSK modulator operatig at the frequecy shifted case. Therefore, the OSSB modulated sigal was achieved. Figure 4(b) shows the obtaied OSSB modulated sigal whe the drive microwave sigal worked at 5 GHz. As ca see from Fig. 4(b), it is clearly show that the OCSR (the power ratio betwee the optical carrier ad the + order sidebad) is more tha 26 db. Moreover, the amplitude of the udesired -st order sidebad is suppressed more tha 48 db as compared with that of the optical carrier. Sice the modulatio coditio is a small sigal modulatio, the amplitude of the higher order sidebads could be eglected. It is also worth otig that whe the microwave sigal was set ito the modulator, the optical carrier kept costat. Therefore, the DC bias voltages of the modulator are ot affected by the microwave sigal. Sice frequecy depedet compoets are ot used, the OSSB modulatio could work over a wide optical wavelegth rage. The proposed method overcomes the key limitatios of the [6, 7]. Fig. 4. Measured optical spectrum at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator (a) the optical carrier suppressio; (b) the OSSB modulatio whe the frequecy of the microwave sigal drive to the upper QPSK modulator is 5 GHz. For some applicatios, it is desirable that the OSSB geerator could work at widely operatioal badwidth. To do so, a siusoidal microwave sigal at a frequecy from 8- to 5- GHz was applied to the upper modulator of the DP-QPSK modulator. The microwave power was maually adjusted to be ~-2 dbm, which will vary with the frequecy of the microwave sigal due to the drawback of the MS. The measured optical spectra at the output of the DP- QPSK modulator are show i Fig. 5. A series of sidebads at the differet frequecy are geerated aroud the optical carrier. The OSSB modulated sigals are successfully obtaied show i Fig. 5(a). Figure 5(b) exhibits the correspodig suppressio ratio betwee the + st order sidebad ad the st order sidebad. As ca be see from Fig. 5(b), the suppressio ratios are ot costat which are attributed to the ueve output power of the MS ad the (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 395

9 ueve phase respose of the HC. It is also worth otig that the OSSB modulatio also could be obtaied over the drive microwave frequecy rage from - to 7- GHz. The lowest observed badwidth of the OSSB geerator is ot oly limited by the workig badwidth of the HC but also restricted by the resolutio of the OSA. Therefore, the proposed method could operate i a wide electrically frequecy rage ad effectively avoid the drawback of [6, 7, 5, 2, 22]. Moreover, we measured the magitude ad phase respose of the HC over -8 GHz show i Fig. 6(a). As ca be see from Fig. 6(a), we could observe that its two output sigals have almost idetical magitudes ad a 90 degree phase differece. Fig. 5. (a) Measured optical spectra at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator over wide frequecy rage; (b) the correspodig OSSB suppressio ratio. As described i Sectio 2, the OCSR of the OSSB modulatio could be cotiuously tued by simply cotrollig the bias voltages (Y, Y2, Y3) of the lower QPSK modulator while the bias voltages of the upper QPSK modulator are uchaged. It is worth otig that the optical carrier at the X-axes polarizatio is suppressed. However, the suppressed optical carrier caot be directly observed i the experimet because the optical carrier at the Y-axes polarizatio overlaps with the suppressed optical carrier at the X-axes polarizatio of the DP- QPSK modulator. Figure 6(b) shows the optical spectra of the OSSB modulatio with cotiuously tuable OCSR whe the frequecy of the drive microwave sigal is 5 GHz. It is clearly shows that the power of the optical carrier could be cotiuously tued over rage of 40 db while the power of the desired sidebad keeps uchaged. I [9, 27], the power of the sidebads varies with the power of the optical carrier which is udesirable i some applicatios. The correspodig OCSR could be tued over rage from 5 db to 25 db. Fig. 6. Measured (a) magitude ad phase respose of the HC; (b) optical spectra at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator with tuable OCSR. I order to demostrate the orthogoally polarized property of the OSSB geerator, the PC2 ad Pol are used to coect after the DP-QPSK modulator. I our experimet, a idepedet PBS (New Port Ic.) with a extictio ratio of more tha 30 db takes the place of the Pol. The optical spectra were recorded show i Fig. 7 whe the polarizatio agle betwee the polarizatio directio of optical carrier ad that of the X-axes of PBS was chaged from 0- to 90 degree. Figure 7(a) idicates the polarizatio directio of optical carrier is perfectly aliged X-axes of PBS. It ca be see from Fig. 7(a) that the desired sidebad could be suppressed more tha 20 db whe polarizatio agle is 0 degree. Meawhile, the power of the optical carrier is atteuated about 4 db which is attributed to the isertio loss of the PC2 ad PBS. Figure 7(a)-(b) illustrate that there is a absolute orthogoality betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 396

10 Fig. 7. (a) Measured optical spectra whe the polarizatio directio of the optical carrier is i accordace with the X-axes of PBS; (b) measured optical spectra whe the polarizatio directio is orthogoal. I additio, i order to further cofirm the orthogoal property of that, a polarizatio aalyzer (PA, PAX5700) was used to measure the state of polarizatio (SOP) of the optical sigal at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator. The SOPs of the OSSB modulated sigals o the equatorial plae of the Poicare sphere. Two poits i the Poicare sphere mark the SOP of the optical carrier or the optical sidebad. I the measuremet, the PC2 ad PBS are also required. I geeral, the correspodig Stokes parameters ad the degree of polarizatio are also measured. The Stokes parameters ad the degree of polarizatio (DOP) of the optical carrier are [ , 0.023, 0.038] ad 99.02%, respectively. The Stokes parameters ad the DOP of the modulated sidebad are [0.9997, , ] ad %, respectively. A 90 degree detued SOP betwee the optical carrier ad sidebad is obtaied which is correspoded to 80 degree o the Poicare sphere. It is evidet that a perfectly orthogoal OSSB modulatio is achieved. The optical sigal at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator was directly set to the PD. The electrical spectrum captured by a electrical spectrum aalyzer (ESA) is show i Fig. 8(a) whe the orthogoal polarized optical sigal is fed ito the PD. A pure microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz is recovered due to the frequecy beatig betwee the optical carrier ad the sidebad with the help of a Pol. Whe the Pol is removed, the correspodig microwave sigal also disappears. The orthogoal performace is agai demostrated because the electrical power is suppressed more tha 36 db. Furthermore, to clearly show the improvemet of the receiver sesitivity, the microwave power at the differet OCSR is recorded by the ESA (Advatest Ic.). It has bee proved that the optimum OCSR i the ROF system is 0 db for improvig the trasmissio performace [25]. The fudametal reaso is the PD usually has a saturated iput optical power. Uder keepig the average optical power costat, the microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz was measured with the assistace of a erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with tuable output optical power. The geerated microwave sigal was measured show i Fig. 8(b). It is obviously observed that whe the OCSR is tued, the power of the recovered microwave sigal is chaged. By chagig the OCSR we foud the maximum microwave output power. The power reaches the maximum value whe the OCSR = 0 db. The mai advatage of the proposed method lies i the fact that there are o wavelegth depedet devices ad a larger tuig rage, which implies that a additioal device attached after the modulator usually required i other approaches [6, 7] is o loger eeded i our case. (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 397

11 Fig. 8. (a) Electrical spectra of the microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz whe the SOP betwee the optical carrier ad the correspodig sidebad is parallel (i blue lie) or orthogoal (i red lie); (b) the electrical spectra of the microwave sigal whe the OCSR is tued. I the followig part, we will show the scheme is capable of shiftig the phase of the drive microwave sigal. First, the system was recofigured to measure the phase of the microwave sigal after the microwave photoic processig system. I this case, a electrical vector etwork aalyzer (EVNA) was itroduced ito the system. The microwave sigal emitted from the EVNA (Agilet 8722 ET) at frequecy of 5 GHz was applied to the electrical port of the DP-QPSK modulator. As discussed i Sectio 2, the udesired sidebads will be geerated whe the power of the microwave sigal was too large. However, the beatig betwee the higher badwidth will ot recogized sice the EVNA oly detect the fudametal frequecy sigal. Figure 9 shows the phase shift of the microwave sigal at the frequecy of 5 GHz by adjustig the PC2 over sweepig time from 0 to 20 s. It is clearly show that o evidet phase variatio is foud for differet phase shifts which imply a excellet stability of the proposed system. Fig. 9. The phase shift of the microwave sigal at the frequecy of 5 GHz over sweepig time of 20s. 4. Coclusio We have theoretically aalyzed ad experimetally demostrated a photoic approach to geerate phase-coherece orthogoally polarized OSSB modulatio sigal with a tuable OCSR usig a covetioal DP-QPSK modulator without a optical filter. Compared with the other methods, the proposed method is wavelegth idepedet, more flexible, wider badwidth, larger dyamic rage for OCSR, ad more stable. The upper arm of the DP-QPSK modulator works at the frequecy shiftig coditio, the lower arm of that works at the maximum trasmissio poit ad the optical carrier is ot modulated. The OCSR is cotiuously tuable by simply cotrollig the bias voltages of the lower modulator. Compared with the [9, 23, 27, 28], the OCSR of the proposed method has a wider rage, a better stability. The footprit of the proposed OSSB sigal geerator is much smaller tha alterative techiques. The frequecy shiftig optical sigal from the upper arm ad the (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 398

12 optical carrier from the lower arm are combied together at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator with orthogoal SOP. I additio, the polarizatio orthogoal property is verified based o cascadig PC ad Pol. Therefore, the optical carrier ad sidebad are polarized orthogoally. The proposed method could be used to maximize the output RF power by cotrollig OCSR uder keepig average optical power costat. The geerated OSSB sigals were used to shift the phase of the recovered microwave sigal at frequecy of 5 GHz. The OSSB sigal geerator could be widely applied for the microwave photoic sigal processig system. Ackowledgmets This work was supported by the Natioal Natural Sciece Foudatio of Chia uder , , , ad (C) 206 OSA Ja 206 Vol. 24, No. DOI:0.364/OE OPTICS EXPRESS 399

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