# Bayesian Estimation of Tumours in Breasts Using Microwave Imaging

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

2 inverse problems. Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper. II. PHYSICAL MODEL In this Section we develop mathematical model describing the measured signals. The imaging system consists of several antennas which can both serve as transmitting and receiving antennas. These antennas in principle can be distributed over the breast surface thus allowing for a three-dimensional scan whose resolution depends only on number of antennas. Obviously the number of antennas is determined by their size which may be constrained by technical requirements such as antenna-to-antenna noise (interference). Once the microwave is generated it propagates through the volume of the breast according to Maxwell s equations which in this particular case can be reduced to the phasor form since microwave antennas operate in a single-frequency mode. It should be observed that any non-homogeneity in the object can be modelled as a scatterer and thus in the presence of multiple scatterers the resulting electromagnetic field becomes very complex superposition of reflected and refracted waves. Since malignant tissue has significantly larger permittivity than healthy tissue it can also be modelled as a scatterer (see Figure 1). The reflection/refraction from scatterers can then be modelled as described in Figure 2. In the remainder of the paper we will assume that in the absence of cancer the scattering in the breast is due only to small non-homogeneities which will be included as the modelling noise. Of course if a particular patient is submitted to continuous monitoring in a regular intervals the previous images can be used a reference signal and thus healthy scattering can be properly recorded and modelled. In the absence of scatterers the propagation can be described as: 2 E + k 2 E = 0 (1) 2 H + k 2 H = 0 (2) where we implicitly assume that the medium (breast) is source-free, E and H are intensities of electric and magnetic fields respectively, k = ω µε where ω is frequency, µ magnetic permittivity, and ε complex electric permittivity. In this paper we assume that the tumours can be modelled as spheres and therefore are uniquely defined by location vector and radius. In general, arbitrarily shaped tumours can be represented by spatial Fourier transform and corresponding spatial frequency amplitudes and phases. As we stated before, the electromagnetic properties of the malignant tissue is significantly different than breast tissue and thus proper boundary conditions must be considered in order to ensure continuity (see Figure 2): n ( E 1 E 2 ) = 0 (3) n ( H 1 H 2 ) = 0 (4) n (ε 1 E 1 ε 2 E 2 ) = 0 (5) n (µ 1 H 1 µ 2 H 2 ) = 0 (6) Fig. 1. Medium with multiple scatterers Fig. 2. Boundary conditions III. FINITE-ELEMENT MODEL In order to solve the above equations we utilize finiteelement method by developing three-dimensional model using RF module in COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this paper we model the breast as a sphere with radius of 100mm as shown in Figure 3. One antenna which acts as a transmitter is located on one side and nine receiving antennas are distributed on the other side of the sphere. These antennas are modelled as slim cubes which are centred on the surface of the sphere. Three boundary conditions are used to send waves in the medium. Electric field is applied to transmitter antenna. Perfect electric conductor boundary condition is applied to sides of antennas in order to guide wave through them, and scattering boundary condition is applied to the rest of surfaces to let waves propagate freely. Afterward, for different studies one or multiple tumours with arbitrary shapes can be modelled. In this study tumour is considered as a sphere inside the breast with an arbitrary size and in arbitrary position. Three different studies are done using this model: effect of tumour location, tumour size

3 and tumour permittivity. As an example of wave propagation in simulation, in Figure 4 shows the distribution of nine receiving antennas with their indices. tumour (scatterer) in order to simplify the computational cost but can be extended to account for multiple scatterers at the expense of computational time. We assume that the conductivity and permittivity are given by Gaussian random variables with σ = 4S/m and ε r = 50 means respectively and standard deviations of 10% of their nominal values [4]. The corresponding probability density function of the measured signal in the absence of tumours is multivariate Gaussian with mean y 0 and covariance matrix σe 2 I where we assumed that the measurement noise is uncorrelated in space and time. Note that the multiple measurements can be obtained in order to remove the measurement noise in statistically optimal way. In presence of scattering the probability density function is given by Fig. 3. Geometry of the breast p σ (σ) p εr (ε r ) p( y σ,ε r, R) (9) Note that for a particular patient conductivity and permittivity can be treated as deterministic variables. In this paper we assume that sufficient set of previously measured properties is available and hence certain a priori knowledge on physiological values is available. The parameters can then be obtained by minimizing the cost function c( R t,r,σ r,ε r ) = log [ p σr (σ r ) p εr (ε r ) p( y µ r,ε r, R) ] (10) which is commonly know as maximum a posteriori estimate of unknown parameters. Note that because of nonlinear dependence of measured signals on physical parameters the above estimations hast to be performed using numerical optimization methods and Monte-Carlo simulations (in order to obtain posterior distribution). Fig. 4. Antenna positions IV. STATISTICAL MODEL We assume that the measured signal is given by average power and normalized to the transmitting antenna power. The measured signal when the tumour is absent y is then given by y = f 0 + e (7) where f 0 is model predicted vector of measurements (power) calculated using finite-element model and e is the measurement/modelling noise. In the presence of tumour the measured signal becomes y = f (R t, R,σ,ε r ) + e (8) where R t is the radius of tumour, R is the position of tumour, σ and ε r are conductivity and electric permittivities respectively. Note that in the above model we assumed a single V. NUMERICAL RESULTS In order to evaluate the performance of our inverse model we simulate the measurement data using COMSOL and then add Gaussian noise in order to simulate measurement noise. In this preliminary approach we ignore several issues such as: skin reflection, calibration problems, antenna-to-antenna crosstalk, etc. Although these issues are important our preliminary goal in this paper is to demonstrate ability of the model to accurately estimate tumour parameters using simulated data. The results of this analysis can then be useful in properly designing antennas for realistic measurements. We simulate measurement data for 100 patients for which the conductivity and permittivity are generated using aforementioned Gaussian distributions. For each of the patients we then generate posterior distribution p( y σ,ε r, R,R t ) in order to calculate the parameter estimates. In Figures 5 and 6 we illustrate posterior distribution for arbitrarily chosen antenna for two different tumour sizes. In Figure 7 we show the y component of the electric field in the presence of scatterer. As we can see the presence of tumour causes irregular patterns in the electric field which can be used for inverse modelling and consequently detection and estimation. In Figure 8 we show the mean-square error

4 Fig Posterior distribution for tumour in center size 1cm Fig. 7. Electric field MSEE Fig. 6. Posterior distribution for tumour in center size 2cm Fig Radius MSE of radius estimate as a function of tumour size (MSE) for tumour size estimate as a function of tumour size. However, note that in reality the larger tumours have irregular (star-like patterns) and the effect of that was not included in this work. Consequently the actual estimation error may not decrease as rapidly as in our simulation results. In Figures 9 and 10 we illustrate mean-square-error (MSE) estimates of tumour size and location as a function of signalto-noise ratio (SNR). VI. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS In this paper we proposed frequency domain parametric three-dimensional model of microwave propagation in breasts. The results presented in this paper suggest that it may be possible to obtain accurate estimates of tumour position and size using parametric model. Of course certain issues (e.g. skin reflection) have been disregarded and will be addressed in future work. Furthermore these results can be useful when designing antennas since these models can be used to determine the necessary power of the transmitted signal that is necessary in order to achieve certain estimation accuracy. [2]. Gemignani, M. L., Breast Cancer Screening: Why, When, and How Many?, Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 54, No. 1, (2011) [3] Tice, J., and Kerlikowske, K, Screening and Prevention of Breast Cancer in Primary Care, Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, Vol. 36, No. 3, (2009) [4] Fear, E.C., Enhancing Breast Tumor Detection with Near-Field Imaging, IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 4856 (2002) [5]. Cheng, D.K., Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1983) [6] Semenov, S., et al., Microwave-Tomographic Imaging of the High Dielectric-Contrast Objects Using Different Image Reconstruction Approaches, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 53, No. 7, , (2005) [7] Pastorino, M., Stochastic Optimization Methods Applied to Microwave Imaging: A Review, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 3, , (2007) REFERENCES [1] Canadian Cancer Society,

5 0.4 5 MSEE SNR Fig. 9. MSE of radius estimate Fig. 10. MSE of location estimate

### A modified Bow-Tie Antenna for Microwave Imaging Applications

Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, Vol. 7, No. 2, December 2008 115 A modified Bow-Tie Antenna for Microwave Imaging Applications Elizabeth Rufus, Zachariah C Alex,

### Research Article Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging

Hindawi Publishing Corporation e Scientific World Journal Volume, Article ID, pages http://dx.doi.org/.// Research Article Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging Zhao Wang, Eng Gee Lim, Yujun Tang,

### Simulation Measurement for Detection of the Breast Tumors by Using Ultra-Wideband Radar-Based Microwave Technique

Simulation Measurement for Detection of the Breast Tumors by Using Ultra-Wideband Radar-Based Microwave Technique Ali Recai Celik 1 1Doctor, Dicle University Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department,

### SMART UWB ANTENNA FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER DETECTION

SMART UWB ANTENNA FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER DETECTION Nirmine Hammouch and Hassan Ammor Smart Communications Research Team, Engineering for Smart and Sustainable Systems Research Center, EMI, Mohammed V

### DESIGN OF SLOTTED RECTANGULAR PATCH ARRAY ANTENNA FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

DESIGN OF SLOTTED RECTANGULAR PATCH ARRAY ANTENNA FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS P.Hamsagayathri 1, P.Sampath 2, M.Gunavathi 3, D.Kavitha 4 1, 3, 4 P.G Student, Department of Electronics and Communication

### Antennas and Propagation. Chapter 6b: Path Models Rayleigh, Rician Fading, MIMO

Antennas and Propagation b: Path Models Rayleigh, Rician Fading, MIMO Introduction From last lecture How do we model H p? Discrete path model (physical, plane waves) Random matrix models (forget H p and

### A Study On Preprocessing A Mammogram Image Using Adaptive Median Filter

A Study On Preprocessing A Mammogram Image Using Adaptive Median Filter Dr.K.Meenakshi Sundaram 1, D.Sasikala 2, P.Aarthi Rani 3 Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Erode Arts and Science

### Propagation Channels. Chapter Path Loss

Chapter 9 Propagation Channels The transmit and receive antennas in the systems we have analyzed in earlier chapters have been in free space with no other objects present. In a practical communication

### SCATTERING POLARIMETRY PART 1. Dr. A. Bhattacharya (Slide courtesy Prof. E. Pottier and Prof. L. Ferro-Famil)

SCATTERING POLARIMETRY PART 1 Dr. A. Bhattacharya (Slide courtesy Prof. E. Pottier and Prof. L. Ferro-Famil) 2 That s how it looks! Wave Polarisation An electromagnetic (EM) plane wave has time-varying

### Interaction of an EM wave with the breast tissue in a microwave imaging technique using an ultra-wideband antenna.

Biomedical Research 2017; 28 (3): 1025-1030 ISSN 0970-938X www.biomedres.info Interaction of an EM wave with the breast tissue in a microwave imaging technique using an ultra-wideband antenna. Vanaja Selvaraj

### Amplitude and Phase Distortions in MIMO and Diversity Systems

Amplitude and Phase Distortions in MIMO and Diversity Systems Christiane Kuhnert, Gerd Saala, Christian Waldschmidt, Werner Wiesbeck Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik (IHE) Universität

### Investigation of Classification Algorithms for a Prototype Microwave Breast Cancer Monitor

Investigation of Classification Algorithms for a Prototype Microwave Breast Cancer Monitor Adam Santorelli, Yunpeng Li, Emily Porter, Milica Popović, Mark Coates Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill

### Split waveguide and a waveguide acting as an antenna

2013-10-01 Department of Physics Olexii Iukhymenko oleksii.iukhymenko@physics.umu.se Computerlab 4 Split waveguide and a waveguide acting as an antenna Introduction: Split waveguide: Picture 1 This is

### Neural Blind Separation for Electromagnetic Source Localization and Assessment

Neural Blind Separation for Electromagnetic Source Localization and Assessment L. Albini, P. Burrascano, E. Cardelli, A. Faba, S. Fiori Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia Via G.

### THE PROBLEM of electromagnetic interference between

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 50, NO. 2, MAY 2008 399 Estimation of Current Distribution on Multilayer Printed Circuit Board by Near-Field Measurement Qiang Chen, Member, IEEE,

### Microwave Cancer Therapy

Page 1 of 9 RF and Microwave Models : Microwave Cancer Therapy Microwave Cancer Therapy Electromagnetic heating appears in a wide range of engineering problems and is ideally suited for modeling in COMSOL

### Chalmers Publication Library

Chalmers Publication Library Nonlinear 3-D microwave imaging for breast-cancer screening: Log, phase and logphase formulation This document has been downloaded from Chalmers Publication Library (CPL).

### Conformal Microwave Tomography using a Broadband Non-Contacting Monopole Antenna Array

Conformal Microwave Tomography using a Broadband Non-Contacting Monopole Antenna Array Epstein NR, Golnabi AG, Meaney PM, Paulsen KD Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College Hanover NH, USA neil.r.epstein@dartmouth.edu

### Orthogonal Radiation Field Construction for Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging

Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 7, 39 9, 7 Orthogonal Radiation Field Construction for Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging Bo Liu * and Dongjin Wang Abstract Microwave staring correlated

### MICROWAVE IMAGING TECHNIQUE USING UWB SIGNAL FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION

MICROWAVE IMAGING TECHNIQUE USING UWB SIGNAL FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION Siti Hasmah binti Mohd Salleh, Mohd Azlishah Othman, Nadhirah Ali, Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman, Mohamad Harris Misran and Mohamad Zoinol

### TRANSMIT diversity has emerged in the last decade as an

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 3, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1369 Performance of Alamouti Transmit Diversity Over Time-Varying Rayleigh-Fading Channels Antony Vielmon, Ye (Geoffrey) Li,

### Non Invasive Electromagnetic Quality Control System

ECNDT 2006 - Tu.4.6.2 Non Invasive Electromagnetic Quality Control System Jérôme DREAN, Luc DUCHESNE, SATIMO, Courtaboeuf, France Per NOREN, SATIMO, Gothenburg (Sweden) Abstract. The quality control of

### Summary of Research Activities on Microwave Discharge Phenomena involving Chalmers (Sweden), Institute of Applied Physics (Russia) and CNES (France)

Summary of Research Activities on Microwave Discharge Phenomena involving Chalmers (Sweden), Institute of Applied Physics (Russia) and CNES (France) J. Puech (1), D. Anderson (2), M.Lisak (2), E.I. Rakova

### Parameter Estimation Techniques for Ultrasound Phase Reconstruction. Fatemeh Vakhshiteh Sept. 16, 2010

Parameter Estimation Techniques for Ultrasound Phase Reconstruction Fatemeh Vakhshiteh Sept. 16, 2010 Presentation Outline Motivation Thesis Objectives Background Simulation Quadrature Phase Measurement

### VOL. 3, NO.11 Nov, 2012 ISSN Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences CIS Journal. All rights reserved.

Effect of Fading Correlation on the Performance of Spatial Multiplexed MIMO systems with circular antennas M. A. Mangoud Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Bahrain P. O.

### Microwavave Tomography for Breast Cancer Detection. Master s thesis in Master s of Biomedical Engineering. Maryam Naseri

Microwavave Tomography for Breast Cancer Detection Master s thesis in Master s of Biomedical Engineering Maryam Naseri Department of Signals and Systems CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gothenburg, Sweden

### Wideband Loaded Wire Bow-tie Antenna for Near Field Imaging Using Genetic Algorithms

PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 4, NO. 5, 2008 591 Wideband Loaded Wire Bow-tie Antenna for Near Field Imaging Using Genetic Algorithms S. W. J. Chung, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, C. H. See, and P. S. Excell Mobile and Satellite

### Microwave Medical Imaging

Microwave Medical Imaging Raquel Conceição (raquelcruzconceicao@gmail.com) Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering (IBEB), Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal Fundação para a

### Electromagnetic Wave Analysis of Waveguide and Shielded Microstripline 1 Srishti Singh 2 Anupma Marwaha

Electromagnetic Wave Analysis of Waveguide and Shielded Microstripline 1 Srishti Singh 2 Anupma Marwaha M.Tech Research Scholar 1, Associate Professor 2 ECE Deptt. SLIET Longowal, Punjab-148106, India

### Antennas and Propagation. Chapter 5c: Array Signal Processing and Parametric Estimation Techniques

Antennas and Propagation : Array Signal Processing and Parametric Estimation Techniques Introduction Time-domain Signal Processing Fourier spectral analysis Identify important frequency-content of signal

### SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves Bilinear Transformations Figure 1 Graphical depiction of the bilinear transformation and derived material parameters. (a) The transformation

### Harmful Effects of Mobile Phone Tower Radiations on Muscle and Bone Tissues of Human Body at Frequencies 800, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz

American Journal of Physics and Applications 2015; 3(6): 226-237 Published online January 8, 2016 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajpa) doi: 10.11648/j.ajpa.20150306.17 ISSN: 2330-4286 (Print);

### Machine Learning of Noise for LHD Thomson Scattering System. Keisuke Fujii, Kyoto univ.

Machine Learning of Noise for LHD Thomson Scattering System Keisuke Fujii, Kyoto univ. LHD Thomson scattering data Large helical device plasma (a) LHD-Thomson scattering system plasma r ( laser fiber array

### Analysis of Crack Detection in Metallic and Non-metallic Surfaces Using FDTD Method

ECNDT 26 - We.4.3.2 Analysis of Crack Detection in Metallic and Non-metallic Surfaces Using FDTD Method Faezeh Sh.A.GHASEMI 1,2, M. S. ABRISHAMIAN 1, A. MOVAFEGHI 2 1 K. N. Toosi University of Technology,

### University of Bristol - Explore Bristol Research. Link to published version (if available): /LAWP

Klemm, M., Leendertz, J. A., Gibbins, D. R., Craddock, I. J., Preece, A. W., & Benjamin, R. (2009). Microwave radar-based breast cancer detection: imaging in inhomogeneous breast phantoms. IEEE Antennas

### A compressive sensing approach for enhancing breast cancer detection using a hybrid DBT / NRI configuration

1 A compressive sensing approach for enhancing breast cancer detection using a hybrid DBT / NRI configuration Richard Obermeier and Jose Angel Martinez-Lorenzo arxiv:1603.06151v1 [math.oc] 19 Mar 2016

### Projects in microwave theory 2017

Electrical and information technology Projects in microwave theory 2017 Write a short report on the project that includes a short abstract, an introduction, a theory section, a section on the results and

### Comparative Analysis of Intel Pentium 4 and IEEE/EMC TC-9/ACEM CPU Heat Sinks

Comparative Analysis of Intel Pentium 4 and IEEE/EMC TC-9/ACEM CPU Heat Sinks Author Lu, Junwei, Duan, Xiao Published 2007 Conference Title 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility

### Adaptive Wireless. Communications. gl CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. MIMO Channels and Networks SIDDHARTAN GOVJNDASAMY DANIEL W.

Adaptive Wireless Communications MIMO Channels and Networks DANIEL W. BLISS Arizona State University SIDDHARTAN GOVJNDASAMY Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, Massachusetts gl CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

### USE OF MICROWAVES FOR THE DETECTION OF CORROSION UNDER INSULATION

USE OF MICROWAVES FOR THE DETECTION OF CORROSION UNDER INSULATION R. E. JONES, F. SIMONETTI, M. J. S. LOWE, IMPERIAL COLLEGE, London, UK I. P. BRADLEY, BP Exploration and Production Company, Sunbury on

### PLANNAR MICROWAVE IMAGING SYSTEM. A THESIS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Master of Science in Electrical Engineering

PLANNAR MICROWAVE IMAGING SYSTEM A THESIS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Presented to the faculty of the American University of Sharjah College of Engineering in

### SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS

SHIELDING Electronic devices are commonly packaged in a conducting enclosure (shield) in order to (1) prevent the electronic devices inside the shield from radiating emissions efficiently and/or (2) prevent

### UWB SHORT RANGE IMAGING

ICONIC 2007 St. Louis, MO, USA June 27-29, 2007 UWB SHORT RANGE IMAGING A. Papió, J.M. Jornet, P. Ceballos, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, A. Cardama, L. Jofre Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC)

### CHAPTER 2 WIRELESS CHANNEL

CHAPTER 2 WIRELESS CHANNEL 2.1 INTRODUCTION In mobile radio channel there is certain fundamental limitation on the performance of wireless communication system. There are many obstructions between transmitter

### Interference Scenarios and Capacity Performances for Femtocell Networks

Interference Scenarios and Capacity Performances for Femtocell Networks Esra Aycan, Berna Özbek Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department zmir Institute of Technology, zmir, Turkey esraaycan@iyte.edu.tr,

### Determination of the correlation distance for spaced antennas on multipath HF links and implications for design of SIMO and MIMO systems.

Determination of the correlation distance for spaced antennas on multipath HF links and implications for design of SIMO and MIMO systems. Hal J. Strangeways, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering,

### SAR Distribution in Microwave Breast Screening: Results with TWTLTLA Wideband Antenna

SAR Distribution in Microwave Breast Screening: Results with TWTLTLA Wideband Antenna Adam Santorelli, Milica Popović Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University Montreal, Canada

### Optimization of Coded MIMO-Transmission with Antenna Selection

Optimization of Coded MIMO-Transmission with Antenna Selection Biljana Badic, Paul Fuxjäger, Hans Weinrichter Institute of Communications and Radio Frequency Engineering Vienna University of Technology

### An overview of our lab and our activities. Giuseppe Vecchi March 2015

An overview of our lab and our activities Giuseppe Vecchi March 2015 ISMB Research Areas Navigation Technologies Pervasive Technologies Multi-Layer Wireless Solutions LACE @ ISMB ISMB is organized in Research

### Human Brain Microwave Imaging Signal Processing: Frequency Domain (S-parameters) to Time Domain Conversion

Engineering,, 5, -6 doi:.46/eng..55b7 Published Online May (http://www.scirp.org/journal/eng) Human Brain Microwave Imaging Signal Processing: Frequency Domain (S-parameters) to Time Domain Conversion

### Exact Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique Algorithm-An Effective Tool In Biomedical Imaging

Exact Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique Algorithm-An Effective Tool In Biomedical Imaging Kalyan Adhikary 1, Poulomi Sinha 2, Priyam Nandy 3, Prantika Mondal 4 Assistant Professor, Dept of

### Reconstruction of Current Distribution and Termination Impedances of PCB-Traces by Magnetic Near-Field Data and Transmission-Line Theory

Reconstruction of Current Distribution and Termination Impedances of PCB-Traces by Magnetic Near-Field Data and Transmission-Line Theory Robert Nowak, Stephan Frei TU Dortmund University Dortmund, Germany

### Far-Field Effects with Human Head Evaluation of EM Emission

Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Applied Electromagnetics, Wireless and Optical Communications, Corfu, Greece, August 3, 5 (pp471) Far-Field Effects with Human Head Evaluation of Emission SHENG-YI

### Evaluation of the Mono-static Microwave Radar Algorithms for Breast Imaging

Evaluation of the Mono-static Microwave Radar Algorithms for Breast Imaging Evgeny Kirshin, Guangran K. Zhu, Milica Popovich, Mark Coates Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering McGill University,

### ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS Wireless Communication Systems Winter Lecture 6: Fading

ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS 513 - Wireless Communication Systems Winter 2005 Lecture 6: Fading Last lecture: Large scale propagation properties of wireless systems - slowly varying properties that depend primarily

### Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography Peter E. Andersen Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø National Laboratory E-mail peter.andersen@risoe.dk Outline Part I: Introduction to optical coherence tomography

Ground Penetrating Radar Begin a new section: Electromagnetics First EM survey: GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) Physical Property: Dielectric constant Electrical Permittivity EOSC 350 06 Slide Di-electric

### A New Analysis of the DS-CDMA Cellular Uplink Under Spatial Constraints

A New Analysis of the DS-CDMA Cellular Uplink Under Spatial Constraints D. Torrieri M. C. Valenti S. Talarico U.S. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD West Virginia University Morgantown, WV June, 3 the

### A Terrestrial Multiple-Receiver Radio Link Experiment at 10.7 GHz - Comparisons of Results with Parabolic Equation Calculations

RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 19, NO. 1, APRIL 2010 117 A Terrestrial Multiple-Receiver Radio Link Experiment at 10.7 GHz - Comparisons of Results with Parabolic Equation Calculations Pavel VALTR 1, Pavel PECHAC

### Chapter 2 Channel Equalization

Chapter 2 Channel Equalization 2.1 Introduction In wireless communication systems signal experiences distortion due to fading [17]. As signal propagates, it follows multiple paths between transmitter and

### Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Array Antennas. Optimization of Array Antennas for High Performance. Self-introduction

Short Course @ISAP2010 in MACAO Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Array Antennas Optimization of Array Antennas for High Performance Nobuyoshi Kikuma Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan 1 Self-introduction

### Monoconical RF Antenna

Page 1 of 8 RF and Microwave Models : Monoconical RF Antenna Monoconical RF Antenna Introduction Conical antennas are useful for many applications due to their broadband characteristics and relative simplicity.

### Microwave Imaging of Biological Tissues: the current status in the research area

Microwave Imaging of Biological Tissues: the current status in the research area Tommy Gunnarsson December 18, 2006 Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Mälardalen University Abstract Microwave

### Real Time Deconvolution of In-Vivo Ultrasound Images

Paper presented at the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, 3: Real Time Deconvolution of In-Vivo Ultrasound Images Jørgen Arendt Jensen Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging,

### High-speed Noise Cancellation with Microphone Array

Noise Cancellation a Posteriori Probability, Maximum Criteria Independent Component Analysis High-speed Noise Cancellation with Microphone Array We propose the use of a microphone array based on independent

### Electromagnetic Analysis of Propagation and Scattering Fields in Dielectric Elliptic Cylinder on Planar Ground

PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 684 Electromagnetic Analysis of Propagation and Scattering Fields in Dielectric Elliptic Cylinder on Planar Ground Yasumitsu Miyazaki 1, Tadahiro Hashimoto 2, and Koichi

### ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS Wireless Communication Systems Winter Lecture 6: Fading

ECE 476/ECE 501C/CS 513 - Wireless Communication Systems Winter 2004 Lecture 6: Fading Last lecture: Large scale propagation properties of wireless systems - slowly varying properties that depend primarily

### Cooperative Sensing for Target Estimation and Target Localization

Preliminary Exam May 09, 2011 Cooperative Sensing for Target Estimation and Target Localization Wenshu Zhang Advisor: Dr. Liuqing Yang Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Colorado State University

### IMPROVED QR AIDED DETECTION UNDER CHANNEL ESTIMATION ERROR CONDITION

IMPROVED QR AIDED DETECTION UNDER CHANNEL ESTIMATION ERROR CONDITION Jigyasha Shrivastava, Sanjay Khadagade, and Sumit Gupta Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Oriental College of

### A COMPREHENSIVE MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM FOR SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING (STAP)

AFRL-SN-RS-TN-2005-2 Final Technical Report March 2005 A COMPREHENSIVE MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM FOR SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING (STAP) Syracuse University APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION

### Numerical Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate in the Human Body Caused by NFC Devices

Second International Workshop on Near Field Communication Numerical Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate in the Human Body Caused by NFC Devices S. Cecil, G. Schmid, K. Lamedschwandner EMC&Optics Seibersdorf

### MICROWAVE SUB-SURFACE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR DAMAGE DETECTION

MICROWAVE SUB-SURFACE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY FOR DAMAGE DETECTION By Yoo Jin Kim 1, Associate Member, ASCE, Luis Jofre 2, Franco De Flaviis 3, and Maria Q. Feng 4, Associate Member, ASCE Abstract: This paper

### SOON AFTER the publication of Claude Shannon s fundamental

3188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 56, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2008 On Electromagnetics and Information Theory Marco Donald Migliore, Member, IEEE Abstract Some connections are described

### Technical Report

Primus AR Analysis Rev. E Page 1 of 10 Letter Revisions Date Approval A Original 13-11-008 BP B Correct doc. Number on pages through 9 0-11-008 BP C Updated references to FCC regulations 1-01-010 BP D

### Propagation Modelling White Paper

Propagation Modelling White Paper Propagation Modelling White Paper Abstract: One of the key determinants of a radio link s received signal strength, whether wanted or interfering, is how the radio waves

### Consideration of Sectors for Direction of Arrival Estimation with Circular Arrays

2010 International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA 2010) Consideration of Sectors for Direction of Arrival Estimation with Circular Arrays Holger Degenhardt, Dirk Czepluch, Franz Demmel and Anja Klein

### Session2 Antennas and Propagation

Wireless Communication Presented by Dr. Mahmoud Daneshvar Session2 Antennas and Propagation 1. Introduction Types of Anttenas Free space Propagation 2. Propagation modes 3. Transmission Problems 4. Fading

### Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions

Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions M. R. Iqbal-Faruque* 1, N. Aisyah-Husni 2, Md. Ikbal-Hossain 1, M. Tariqul-Islam 2 and N. Misran 2 1

### Performance Evaluation of Nonlinear Equalizer based on Multilayer Perceptron for OFDM Power- Line Communication

International Journal of Electrical Engineering. ISSN 974-2158 Volume 4, Number 8 (211), pp. 929-938 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Performance Evaluation of Nonlinear

### ADAPTIVE ANTENNAS. TYPES OF BEAMFORMING

ADAPTIVE ANTENNAS TYPES OF BEAMFORMING 1 1- Outlines This chapter will introduce : Essential terminologies for beamforming; BF Demonstrating the function of the complex weights and how the phase and amplitude

### H. Arab 1, C. Akyel 2

angle VIRTUAL TRANSMISSION LINE OF CONICAL TYPE COAXIALOPEN-ENDED PROBE FOR DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENT H. Arab 1, C. Akyel 2 ABSTRACT 1,2 Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Canada An improved virtually conical

### Bias Correction in Localization Problem. Yiming (Alex) Ji Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering The Australian National University

Bias Correction in Localization Problem Yiming (Alex) Ji Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering The Australian National University 1 Collaborators Dr. Changbin (Brad) Yu Professor Brian

### Microwave Near-field Imaging of Human Tissue: Hopes, Challenges, Outlook

Microwave Near-field Imaging of Human Tissue: Hopes, Challenges, Outlook Natalia K. Nikolova nikolova@ieee.org McMaster University, 128 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, CANADA Department of Electrical

### International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development

Scientific Journal of Impact Factor (SJIF) : 3.134 ISSN (Print) : 2348-6406 ISSN (Online): 2348-4470 International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE

### Image Denoising Using Statistical and Non Statistical Method

Image Denoising Using Statistical and Non Statistical Method Ms. Shefali A. Uplenchwar 1, Mrs. P. J. Suryawanshi 2, Ms. S. G. Mungale 3 1MTech, Dept. of Electronics Engineering, PCE, Maharashtra, India

### COMPUTER PHANTOMS FOR SIMULATING ULTRASOUND B-MODE AND CFM IMAGES

Paper presented at the 23rd Acoustical Imaging Symposium, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 13-16, 1997: COMPUTER PHANTOMS FOR SIMULATING ULTRASOUND B-MODE AND CFM IMAGES Jørgen Arendt Jensen and Peter

### 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR NON- ASYMMETRY STRUCTURE ANTENNA FOR MICROWAVE ABLATION THERAPY

2011 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology IPCBEE vol.11 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR NON- ASYMMETRY STRUCTURE ANTENNA FOR MICROWAVE ABLATION

### UWB IMAGING FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION USING NEURAL NETWORK

Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 7, 79 93, 2009 UWB IMAGING FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION USING NEURAL NETWORK S. A. AlShehri and S. Khatun Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering

### Mainlobe jamming can pose problems

Design Feature DIANFEI PAN Doctoral Student NAIPING CHENG Professor YANSHAN BIAN Doctoral Student Department of Optical and Electrical Equipment, Academy of Equipment, Beijing, 111, China Method Eases

### BROADBAND AND HIGH-GAIN PLANAR VIVALDI AN- TENNAS BASED ON INHOMOGENEOUS ANISOTROPIC ZERO-INDEX METAMATERIALS

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 120, 235 247, 2011 BROADBAND AND HIGH-GAIN PLANAR VIVALDI AN- TENNAS BASED ON INHOMOGENEOUS ANISOTROPIC ZERO-INDEX METAMATERIALS B. Zhou, H. Li, X. Y. Zou, and

### Nonlinear Companding Transform Algorithm for Suppression of PAPR in OFDM Systems

Nonlinear Companding Transform Algorithm for Suppression of PAPR in OFDM Systems P. Guru Vamsikrishna Reddy 1, Dr. C. Subhas 2 1 Student, Department of ECE, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Andhra

### Development of a Wireless Communications Planning Tool for Optimizing Indoor Coverage Areas

Development of a Wireless Communications Planning Tool for Optimizing Indoor Coverage Areas A. Dimitriou, T. Vasiliadis, G. Sergiadis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Engineering, Dept.

### MATHEMATICAL MODELS Vol. I - Measurements in Mathematical Modeling and Data Processing - William Moran and Barbara La Scala

MEASUREMENTS IN MATEMATICAL MODELING AND DATA PROCESSING William Moran and University of Melbourne, Australia Keywords detection theory, estimation theory, signal processing, hypothesis testing Contents.

### Projects in microwave theory 2009

Electrical and information technology Projects in microwave theory 2009 Write a short report on the project that includes a short abstract, an introduction, a theory section, a section on the results and

### Terahertz Subsurface Imaging System

Terahertz Subsurface Imaging System E. Nova, J. Abril, M. Guardiola, S. Capdevila, A. Broquetas, J. Romeu, L. Jofre, AntennaLab, Signal Theory and Communications Dpt. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

### MIMO Channel Capacity in Co-Channel Interference

MIMO Channel Capacity in Co-Channel Interference Yi Song and Steven D. Blostein Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Queen s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6 E-mail: {songy, sdb}@ee.queensu.ca

### Enhancement of Speech Signal Based on Improved Minima Controlled Recursive Averaging and Independent Component Analysis

Enhancement of Speech Signal Based on Improved Minima Controlled Recursive Averaging and Independent Component Analysis Mohini Avatade & S.L. Sahare Electronics & Telecommunication Department, Cummins