# ARE THE STATIC POWER CONVERTERS ENERGY EFFICIENT?

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2 DEZVOLTAREA DRABILĂ FAVORABILĂ INCLZINII Also, the operating mode of static converters is practical associated to strong nonlinear loads that conduce to strong non-sinusoidal current drawn by them. The highlighting of the theoretical aspects of distorted modes for the periodic regimes is currently made by means of the decomposition in Fourier series of the distorted signals, with a superposition of the sinusoidal waves of different frequencies, called harmonics, over a fundamental curve for ideal woring conditions. For example, for a controlled rectifier with pulses, whose pulses variation is shown in figure 1, supplied by the voltage, it be obtained the Fourier series expansion of the rectified voltage, as follows: Fig. 1. Voltage pulses variation for a controlled rectifier. The rectified voltage d is: Ū d = cos xdx cos (1) A = cos x cosxdx 1 cos 1 cos( 1) 1 1 () B = cos xsin xdx 1 sin 1 1 sin 1 1 () n d (t) = Ū d + A cos t B sin t 1 and the coefficients have the expressions: n Ū d + sin t 1 (4) u d = A B 1 1 cos (5) 1cos 1 1cos 1 1sin 1 1sin 1 A arctg arctg () B 78 Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 / 015

3 More recently, the practice has shown that in the electric drives with variable speed motors that uses static power converters, occur the non-sinusoidal current and voltage signals, which include sine wave with different frequencies of a multiple of the fundamental, nown in the technique literature inter-harmonics. Whatever they are harmonic or inter-harmonics, their presence in the spectrum of voltage, respectively of current, for the source - consumer relationship is a "necessary inconvenient" with unwanted effects about energy efficiency.. STATIC POWER CONVERTERS AND REACTIVE ENERGY Whatever the structure of static converters AC/DC, DC/AC or AC/AC, the most used in the conversion of electrical energy, the effects regarding the circulating of the components of active and/or reactive energy in sinusoidal mode and, in addition, the deformation in non-sinusoidal regimes, are the same. u(t) ~ = u(t) d Fig.. Schema of controlled rectifier with pulses. For example, in figure, in the case of one controlled rectifier with pulses, the expressions of voltages are: t u Û cost cost (7) d (t) = ( t ) 0( t d d ) cos (8) where: Û = maximum value of input voltage amplitude; ω = input voltage pulsation; dα (t) = output voltage depending on burning-angle of valves d0 = output average voltage in which case the valves are diodes; α = burning-angle of valves. Analysing the relationship (8), and the physical phenomenon representing the operation of a converter AC /DC of controlled rectifier type, we conclude energetically that circulated energy at his entry has all the nown components: active, reactive and distorted. Above all, the active energy is converted into mechanical wor in the case of one electric motor drive, the other categories being necessary to achieve the conversion or the conversion result. In conclusion, is the reactive energy required by conversion processes beneficial or not for his efficiency? It is a question whose answer we will find below. 4. CASE STDY ON THE BALANCE OF THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERSION FOR AN APPLICATION IN THE POWER INDSTRY For qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the operation influence of one static converter about the power supply, we present in figure an application where the load converter is a lifting power of about 850 W. Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 /

4 DEZVOLTAREA DRABILĂ FAVORABILĂ INCLZINII T A X ~ = M = TR Fig.. The explicative electric schema for the winch entrainment: T = three-phases transformer 000 VA, x 0/0,9 V; = AC/DC converter of 1000 VA, 750 VDC; M = DC motor, 850 W, 750 VDC; TR = winch of 400 tf. The measurements on the power supply T, in load conditions such as the winch TR, can be found in figure 4 (Harmonic spectrum) and in figure 5 (Power spectrum). As can be seen in the figure, in the measuring point A, by means of a three-phases networ analyzer Chauvin-Arnoux, they were measured the following values: the output voltage of the transformer T: x 00 V, 50 Hz; the average apparent power: 10 VA; the average active power: W; the average reactive power: 10 VAr; the average power factor: 0, Also, the harmonic spectrum is conforming to the table from the figure 4 above. THDI Med. Min. Max. M Ah1 Line 1 100,00 100,00 100,00 % Ah1 Line 100,00 100,00 100,00 % Ah1 Line 100,00 100,00 100,00 % Ah11 Line 1,5 0,00 19,0 % Ah11 Line,9 0,00 10,50 % Ah11 Line,04 0,00 10,0 % Ah1 Line 1,4 0,00 10,0 % Ah1 Line,0 0,00 7,40 % Ah1 Line,4 0,00 1,10 % Ah15 Line 1 0,17 0,00 1,00 % Ah15 Line 0,18 0,00 1,10 % Ah15 Line 0, 0,00 1,70 % Ah Line 1,80 0,00 40,40 % Ah Line,4 0,00 1,90 % Ah Line 5,0 0,00 41,00 % Ah5 Line 1 1,85 0,00,0 % Ah5 Line 1,05 0,00,70 % Ah5 Line,89 0,00 5,0 % Ah7 Line 1 1,85 0,00 48,80 % Ah7 Line 1,85 0,00 4,70 % Ah7 Line 15,1 0,00 45,40 % Ah9 Line 1 1,19 0,00,80 % Ah9 Line 0,50 0,00,0 % Ah9 Line 1,71 0,00 10,10 % 80 Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 / 015

5 Fig. 4. Harmonics spectrum. Measured value Med. Min. Max. M.. VA Sum of Phases VA VAR Sum of Phases VAR W Sum of Phases 15 W Fig. 5. Power spectrum. Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 /

6 DEZVOLTAREA DRABILĂ FAVORABILĂ INCLZINII 5. BALANCE OF ENERGY TRANSFER FROM POWER SPPLY SORCE TO CONSMER To assess the balance of the energy transfer from the power supply source to the consumer were taen into account: - the assessment of additional losses due to harmonics was made neglecting the losses higher than the order 11; - the equivalent resistance of the current paths of the secondary of transformer T, r T, equal to,7 mω according to its data sheet; - the line resistance of the current paths from the transformer to the AC/DC converter for an average length of 50 m with a phase conductor section of 90 mm of 0,9 mω, calculated and measured value; - the equivalent internal resistance of static converter obtained from its data sheet, equal to, mω. The result was a total resistance equivalent R te of current paths crossed by the harmonics, active and reactive components of the current from the source of about 14, mω. The table of figure 4 shows the average share in relative units of the fundamental harmonics. Additional losses due to harmonics are given by: 11 P h RteI ST Ahi (9) i' Based on the presented data, it results: P h = 485 W The supplementary losses due to the reactive component of I TS are: where Q PQ Rte (10) Q = average reactive power; = line voltage in the transformer secondary T. With the above data, results: P Q = 19 W The total supplementary losses are: P S = P h + P Q (11) It results from the calculation, P s = 5004 W The total supplementary losses divided at the transformed effective power (active) are: p s Ps 100 (1) P P P P S, P being the average active power. It results from the calculation and measurement p s = 18,5%, a value that balance the advantage of the static power converter.. CONCLSIONS The use of static power converters is one of the modern means of energy efficiency increasing for the technologic processes where there are used. This is because their load, the electric motors, increases their efficiency through their usage with variable speed. However, beyond these advantages, the static converters have a negative contribution related to processes efficiency. Removing these 8 Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 / 015

7 shortcomings has been in the attention of experts. That is why we suggest in this paper the essence of the future solutions. The specialists in the field of static power converters try to highlight their economic effects. If the drawn current from the source to the converters is sinusoidal and in phase with the power supply voltage, then these additional losses P s will become void. The equipment role to meet these requirements is ensured by passive and active filters with one required condition as objective: they themselves do not determine the decrease of total efficiency of the conversion source-consumer, namely to be ideal. How this is hard to reached, the natural question remains about the energy efficiency of static power converters, whose response is qualitatively and quantitatively that it has a value between ambition and reality. REFERENCES [1] Albert, H., ş.a., Calitatea energiei electrice, Contribuţii. Rezultate. Perspective, Editura AGIR, Bucureşti, 01 [] Popescu, M., Motoare de c.c. alimentate de la variatoare statice de tensiune, Editura ELECTRA, Bucureşti, 00 [] Ionescu, F., ş.a., Convertisseurs statiques de puissance, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti,1995 [4] Alexa, D., ş.a., Aplicaţii ale convertoarelor statice de putere, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti, 1989 [5] Ionescu, F., ş.a., Composants semi-conducteurs de puissance, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti, 1994 SNT EFICIENTE ENERGETIC CONVERTOARELE STATICE DE PTERE? Ion POTÂRNICHE 1,, Mina GHEAMALINGA, Cornelia POPESC 1 Membru corespondent al Academiei de Ştiințe Tehnice din România, ICPE ACTEL S.A. Rezumat: În lucrare sunt prezentate aspectele teoretice şi practice privind funcţionarea convertoarelor statice de putere în aplicaţii industriale, prin prisma eficienţei energetice a soluţiilor în care sunt utilizate. Sunt evidenţiate avantajele utilizării convertoarelor statice de putere, prin cuantificarea creşterii randamentelor aplicaţiilor în care sunt utilizate, dar şi dezavantajele folosirii lor în aceleaşi aplicaţii, tot prin influenţa negativă asupra randamentelor aceloraşi aplicaţii. Lucrarea îşi propune să facă o prezentare a stadiului actual privind utilizarea convertoarelor statice în industrie, să reliefeze regimurile de lucru ale acestora, prin care să se demonstreze utilitatea lor şi să materializeze un bilanţ energetic real pentru aceste regimuri. De asemenea, în lucrare se va prezenta un calcul analitic al unui exemplu practic, esenţial pentru utilizarea convertoarelor statice de putere, se vor prezenta măsurători reale din această aplicaţie în care se vor evidenţia şi aspectele analitice, rezultatele finale şi concluziile la care au ajuns autorii privind utilitatea folosirii convertoarelor statice de putere. In final, autorii vor prezenta şi propuneri de soluţii de înlăturare a dezavantajelor, respectiv neajunsurilor folosirii convertoarelor statice de putere în aplicaţii industriale, în aşa fel încât aspectele pozitive privind utilizarea lor să rămână preponderente în relaţia cu aspectele negative prezentate în lucrare. Buletinul AGIR Supliment 1 / 015 8

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