Multibeam antennas in a broadband wireless access system


 Cornelia McKinney
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1 Multiem ntenns in rodnd wireless ccess system Ulrik Engström, Mrtin Johnsson, nders Derneryd nd jörn Johnnisson ntenn Reserch Center Ericsson Reserch Ericsson SE4 84 Mölndl Sweden Emil: strct The pper considers highcpcity PointtoMulti Point rodnd wireless ccess system generlly operting ove 0 GHz. It is sed on cellulr rchitecture with fixed links etween multidirectionl rdio hu nd dispersed fixed suscrier terminls. The performed study is n uplink crriertointerference (C/I) performnce evlution of nrrow multiem nd wide sectorem node ntenns in such system. It is shown tht the introduction of threeem ntenns t the rdio node improves uplink C/Irtio with 5 d compred with wideem sector ntenns. The replcement of wideem node ntenns cn e mde on sectorysector sis. Simultions hve shown tht it is possile to get significnt interference improvement in 5 y hu network y replcing s few s 0 % of the wideem rdio node ntenns with multiem ntenns.. Introduction Telecommuniction opertor requirements for ccess systems s well s users incresed demnds for ndwidth re driving forces ehind the development of new rodnd ccess systems. In this context, rodnd wireless ccess is competitive nd complementry ccess technique to copper nd fier ccess. This pper considers highcpcity PointtoMulti Point (PMP) system, operting in the 4 to 8 GHz nd []. The PMP system follows cellulr deployment structure in which multiple squre sectors cover certin geogrphicl re. Within ech sector, there is one rdio node nd more thn 50 fixed ccess points communicting over the ir interfce. The ccess points cn e locted nywhere within the sector coverge re. The system typiclly requires lineofsight communiction in order to void prolems with multipth nd dely spred. Frequencies nd polriztions re reused in normlly regulr pttern, which cuses interference from cochnnel sectors. One qulity mesure in cellulr systems is the crriertointerference rtio (C/I). In the future, demnds for incresed cpcity, etter qulity nd/or higher spectrum efficiency could e met y exploiting higherorder modultion schemes. This requires higher C/I levels, which cn e chieved y using ntenns with multiple nrrow ems t the nodes insted of the commonly used 90 sector em ntenns [].
2 . System description The investigted ccess system exploits squre cellulr deployment strtegy. hu, which contins four rdio nodes covering 60 in zimuth, serves ech cell. Typicl sector digonls re etween nd 6 km. In downlink, from the node ntenn to the ccess point, the node ntenn rdites over the whole sector. In uplink, the node ntenn receives informtion from one ccess point per time slot, exploiting Time Division Multiple ccess (TDM). The ccess point ntenns re highly directive reflector ntenns. The current system is interference limited in uplink. This is due to the fct tht the receiving rdio node hs wideem 90 sector ntenn with three min interfering directions. Uplink trnsmission occurs from one ccess point t time in ech sector. The power control within ech sector is such tht the received power from ech ccess point is the sme regrdless of position within the sector. With frequency reuse of two nd two polriztions, the worst interference occurs when three min cochnnel interferers re locted t the sector orders four sectors wy nd trnsmit simultneously, s illustrted with lck rrows in figure. In downlink, there is continuous rodcst from the rdio node. The receiving ccess point hs highly directive nrrowem ntenn nd there is only one interfering direction, s illustrted y the purple rrow in figure. Figure Exmple of min uplink (lck rrows) nd downlink (purple rrow) cochnnel interferers in 5 y hu network cell pln t frequency reuse of two. Sme upper nd lowercse letter is the sme frequency ut orthogonl polriztions. Rdio node hus re mrked with. t ech hu there re four 90 sectorem node ntenns. Sme colors indicte cochnnel sectors.. Simultions The C/Irtio hs een investigted y vrying the numer of rdio node ntenn ems from one to four in every sector in 5 y hu network. The numer ws incresed nd correspondingly the em widths were reduced to get 90 sector coverge without em overlp. frequency pln of two ws used in the simultions. In the uplink C/Isimultions, one ccess point per sector ws rndomly positioned for ech time slot ssuming uniform distriution over the sector. The glol cumultive distriution function (CDF) is the ccumulted sums of ll C/Ivlues clculted over ll rdio nodes in the cell pln nd over ll time slots. The C/I vlues were ccumulted during 000 time slots unless otherwise stted. Idel lineofsight propgtion ws ssumed. The CDF is plotted in figure with the numer of ems s prmeter. The C/Irtio increses monotoniclly with incresed numer of ems. With the current cell pln, the sideloe level in the ckloe region limits the performnce t higher C/Ivlues. Threeem node ntenns hve potentil increse in C/I with 5 d compred to 90 sector em ntenns t CDF of %. further increse in the numer of ems t the rdio nodes hs negligile effect on the C/I performnce.
3 00 0 em ems ems 4 ems C/I rtio (d) Figure Glol uplink CDF versus the C/Irtio for different numer of ems of rdio node ntenns in 5 y hu cell pln. 4. Migrtion strtegy In moile cellulr systems, multiem ntenns in the most distured sectors re considered in order to oost the cpcity nd/or lnce the network cpcity []. This pproch is most relevnt lso in fixed cellulr networks. In the previous C/Isimultions, ll node ntenns hve een of the sme type, either wideem or multiem ntenns. The verge interference level (I/C) in uplink for ech sector in homogeneous wideem sector node ntenn cell pln is shown in figure. The twelve sectors experiencing the highest interference levels re esily identified (red color). Normlized Distnce Men Interference Level (d) Normlized Distnce 5 Figure verge uplink interference with respect to I/C of 5 y hu cell pln using 90 sectorem ntenns in ll sectors.
4 In the next step, threeem node ntenns replced ll wideem node ntenns in the network. The interference level in the network is reduced compred to the cse in figure. In the twelve identified sectors, it is reduced etween 4 nd 5 d. This suggests tht sectors with the highest interference levels should e identified. The next step is to reduce the min interference directions y the introduction of multiem node ntenns on sectorysector sis. s n exmple, the twelve worst sectors (the red ones in figure ) with respect to C/I performnce hve een replced with threeem node ntenns. This corresponds to 0 % of the network s ntenns in 5 y hu network. The verge interference (I/C) of the heterogeneous cell pln is shown in figure 4. It is seen tht the verge interference level is reduced in the sustituted sectors, nd tht the sectors re now more equl with respect to interference levels. Normlized Distnce Men Interference Level (d) Normlized Distnce 5 Figure 4 verge uplink interference with respect to I/C in 5 y hu cell pln with 0 % of the sectorem ntenns sustituted to threeem node ntenns. The uplink CDF per sector for the cse with only wideem sector node ntenns in the whole network is presented in figure 5. It is clerly seen tht there re clusters with sectors tht experience similr interference environment. The twelve worst sectors re the ones previously identified in figure (red color). The CDF presented is truncted t 0.0 %, which is the reciprocl of the ccumulted numer of time slots (0 000) in the simultion. 00 Sector em, ll sectors 00 Three em, worst sectors C/I rtio (d) C/I rtio (d) ) ) Figure 5 Uplink CDF versus C/Irtio per sector in 5 y hu network; ) wideem rdio node ntenns in ll sectors, ) the twelve worst sectors with wideems ntenns replced y threeem rdio node ntenns. 4
5 The CDF per sector for the twelve sectors where threeem ntenns hve replced the wideem ntenns is shown in figure 5. The improvement in C/Irtio is out d t the % frction level. Simultions hve shown tht significnt improvement in interference level cn e chieved in network y replcing few wideem ntenns with multiem ntenns. This suggests tht the uplink interference sitution should e nlyzed in deployed network nd the interference sources nd directions identified. Simultions will then tell which wideem rdio node ntenns should e replced y multiem ntenns to chieve n cceptle interference level in ech sector. 5. Conclusions The potentil increse in C/Irtio in uplink in fixed rodnd ccess system is on the order of 5 d y utilizing threeem rdio node ntenns insted of commonly used wideem sector ntenns. The improvement in C/I cn e used to implement higher modultion schemes nd therey higher it rte or etter communiction qulity. Incresing the numer of ems of the rdio node ntenns further reduces the interference level mrginlly. Significnt improvements cn e chieved in uplink y identifying sectors with highest interference level nd replcing wideem sector ntenns with multiem ntenns in these sectors. In 5 y hu network study, only 0 % of the rdio node ntenns hd to e replced to improve the C/Iperformnce considerly. 6. References [] K. C. Chu, K. V. Rvi,. ensou nd T. C. Pek, Wireless rodnd communictions: Some reserch ctivities in Singpore, IEEE Communictions Mgzine, pp , vol. 7, Nov [] S. ndersson et. l., dptive ntenns for GSM nd TDM systems, IEEE Personl Communictions, pp , June 999. [] F. Kronestedt nd S. ndersson, Migrtion of dptive ntenns into existing networks, Proc. VTC 98, pp , My
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